Adam Clarke Commentary
The chief priests and scribes plot our Lord‘s destruction, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:2. Judas, at the instigation of the devil, betrays him, Luke 22:3-6. He eats his last supper with his disciples, Luke 22:7-18. Institutes the eucharist, Luke 22:19, Luke 22:20. Announces one of his disciples as the traitor, Luke 22:21-23: The contention which should be greatest, Luke 22:24-30. Warns Peter against Satan‘s devices, Luke 22:31, Luke 22:32. Peter‘s resolution, Luke 22:33. His denial foretold, Luke 22:34. Tells his disciples to make prudent provision for their own support, Luke 22:35-37. The two swords, Luke 22:38. He goes to the Mount of Olives, and has his agony in the garden, Luke 22:39-46. Judas comes with a mob, Luke 22:47, Luke 22:48. Peter cuts off the ear of the high priest‘s servant, which Christ heals by a touch, Luke 22:49-51. He addresses the chief priests and captains of the temple, Luke 22:52, Luke 22:53. They lead him to the high priest‘s house, and Peter follows and denies his Master, Luke 22:54-60. Christ looks upon him, he is stung with remorse, and weeps bitterly, Luke 22:61, Luke 22:62. Jesus is mocked, and variously insulted, Luke 22:63-65. The next morning he is questioned before the council, Luke 22:66, Luke 22:67. He acknowledges himself to be the Son of God, Luke 22:68-70. They condemn him, Luke 22:71.
The feast of unleavened bread, etc. - See this largely explained, Exodus 23:14 (note); Leviticus 23:2-40 (note), and on Matthew 26:2 (note).
They feared the people - The great mass of the people seem to have been convinced that Christ was at least a prophet sent from God; and it is likely they kept steady in their attachment to him. The multitude, who are represented as clamouring for his blood at the crucifixion, appear to have been a mere mob, formed out of the creatures of the chief priests and Pharisees.
Then entered Satan into Judas - The devil filled the heart of Judas with avarice; and that infamous passion led him to commit the crime here specified. This at once accounts for the whole of this most unprincipled and unnatural transaction. None but a devil, or he who is possessed by one, could have been guilty of it: - let the living lay this to heart. A minister of the Gospel, who is a lover of money, is constantly betraying the interests of Christ. He cannot serve two masters; and while his heart is possessed with the love of self, the love of God and zeal for perishing souls cannot dwell in him. What Satan could not do by the envy and malice of the high priests and Pharisees, he effects by Judas, a false and fallen minister of the Gospel of God. None are so dangerous to the interests of Christianity as persons of this stamp.
And captains - Among the priests who were in waiting at the temple, some were appointed φυλακες , for a guard to the temple; and over these were Ϛρατηγοι commanding officers: both sorts are mentioned by Josephus, War, b. vi. c. 5. s. 3. Bp. Pearce, See another sense of captains, in the note on Matthew 27:65 (note). Dr. Lightfoot supposes these to have been the captains over the watches; for in three places the priests kept watch and ward in the temple, viz. in Beth Abtenes, in Beth Nitsots, and in Beth Mokad. The Levites also in twenty-one places more, Middoth, chap. i. Though these watches consisted of several persons in each, there was one set over them, as the captain or head of that watch. He thinks that Matthew, Matthew 27:65, refers to one of these: Ye have a watch of your own; let some of them be sent to guard the sepulchre. The captain of the temple, he supposes to have been the chief or head of all these watches; and thus he was captain of the captains. In the same Talmudical tract it is said, The ruler of the mountain of the temple (i.e. captain of the temple) takes his walks through every watch with torches lighted before him: if he found any upon the watch, that was not standing on his feet, he said, Peace be with thee: but if he found him sleeping, he struck him with a stick, and he might also burn his clothes. And when it was said by others, What noise is that in the court? the answer was, It is the noise of a Levite under correction, whose garments they are burning, because he slept upon his watch. This custom casts light on Revelation 16:15: Behold, I come as a thief: blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. It is easy to distinguish this captain of the mountain of the temple from the ruler of the temple, or (sagan): the former presided over the guards; the latter over the whole service of the temple. We have them both distinguished, Acts 4:1: there is the captain of the temple; and Annas, who was the (sagan). See Lightfoot.
They - covenanted to give him money - Matthew says thirty pieces, or staters, of silver, about 4£. 10s. English, the common price of the meanest slave. See the note on Matthew 26:15.
And he promised - That is, to do it - εξωμολογησε : or, He accepted the proposal. See Wakefield.
The passover - Πασχα , Luke 22:1, is the name of the festival; το πασχα here is supposed to be the name of that on which they feasted, viz. the sacrificed paschal lamb. But see the notes on Matthew 26 (note), and especially the observations at the end of that chapter, (Matthew 26:75 (note)).
He sent Peter and John, etc. - See the subject of these verses largely explained on Matthew 26:17-19 (note), and Mark 14:13, Mark 14:15 (note).
And when the hour was come - That is, the evening. See Matthew 26:20, and Mark 14:17.
With desire I have desired - A Hebraism for, I have desired most earnestly. Our Lord‘s meaning seems to be, that, having purposed to redeem a lost world by his blood, he ardently longed for the time in which he was to offer himself up. Such love did the holy Jesus bear to the human race. This eucharistic passover was celebrated once, by way of anticipation, before the bloody sacrifice of the victim of salvation, and before the deliverance it was appointed to commemorate; as the figurative passover had been likewise once celebrated before the going out of Egypt, and the deliverance of God‘s chosen people. Quesnel.
Until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God - That is, until that of which the passover is a type is fulfilled in my death, through which the kingdom of God, or of heaven, (See Matthew 3:2), shall be established among men.
He took the cup - This was not the sacramental cup, for that was taken after supper, Luke 22:20, but was the cup which was ordinarily taken before supper.
Divide it among yourselves - Pass the cup from one to another; thus the cup which Christ gave to the first person on his right hand continued to be handed from one to another, till it came to the last person on his left.
I will not drink of the fruit of the vine - That is, before the time of another passover, the Holy Ghost shall descend, the Gospel of the kingdom be established, and the sacramental supper shall take place of the paschal lamb; for in a few hours his crucifixion was to take place. See on Matthew 26:29 (note).
Took bread - See the nature and design of the Lord‘s Supper explained in the notes on Matthew 26:26-29 (note).
This do in remembrance of me - That the Jews, in eating the passover, did it to represent the sufferings of the Messiah, as evident from the tract Pesachim, fol. 119, quoted by Schoettgen.
1.The exodus from Egypt.
2.The dividing of the Red Sea.
5.The sufferings of the Messiah.
The first is referred to, Psalm 114:1, When Israel went out of Egypt, etc.
The second in Psalm 114:3, The sea saw it and fled.
The fifth in Psalm 115:1, Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory; for thy mercy and thy truth‘s sake. See the note on Matthew 26:30.
This cup is the new testament in my blood - Perhaps it might be better to paraphrase the passage thus: This cup which is poured out for you, signifies the blood of the new covenant, which is shortly to be ratified in (or by) the shedding of my blood. Or, This cup is the new covenant, poured out for you with my blood: - that is, the paschal sacrifice and my sacrifice happen together. But see Kypke.
The hand of him that betrayeth me, etc. - What can be desired more, says Dr. Lightfoot, as a demonstration that Judas was present at the eucharist? And, whereas the contrary is endeavored to be proved out of John 13, nothing is made out of nothing; for there is not one syllable throughout that whole chapter of the paschal supper, but of a supper before the feast of the passover.
The Son of man goeth - That is, he is about to die, Απερχεσθαι, οιχεσθαι , abire, going, going away, and departing, are used, by the best Greek and Latin writers, for death and dying. See Rosenmuller.
They began to inquire among themselves - See the notes on Matthew 26:23, Matthew 26:24.
There was also a strife among them - There are two different instances of this sort of contention or strife mentioned by the evangelists, each of which was accompanied with very different circumstances; one by Matthew, in Matthew 18:1, etc., by Mark, Mark 9:33, etc.; and by Luke, in Luke 9:46, etc. That contention cannot have been the same with this which is mentioned here. The other, related in Matthew 20:20, etc., and Mark 10:35, etc., must be what Luke intended here to record; and this strife or contention was occasioned by the request which Zebedee‘s wife made to our Lord in favor of her sons, James and John; but, then, Luke has mentioned this very much out of the order of time, it having happened while our Lord and his disciples were on their way to Jerusalem: Matthew 20:17; Mark 10:32. See Bp. Pearce.
Are called benefactors - The very Greek word used by the evangelist, ευεργεται , was the surname of some of the Ptolemies of Egypt; Ptolemy Euergetes, i.e. the Benefactor. It was a custom among the ancient Romans to distribute part of the lands which they had conquered on the frontiers of the empire to their soldiers; those who enjoyed such lands were called beneficiarii, beneficed persons; and the lands themselves were termed beneficia, benefices, as being held on the beneficence of the sovereign; and it is no wonder that such sovereigns, however tyrannical or oppressive they might have been in other respects, were termed benefactors by those who were thus dependent on their bounty.
Let him be as the younger - Dr. Lightfoot justly conjectures that Peter was the eldest of all the disciples; and he supposes that the strife was kindled between him and the sons of Zebedee, James and John. These three disciples were those whom Christ had distinguished by peculiar marks of his favor; and therefore it is natural to conclude that the strife lay between these three, the two brothers and Peter. Shall we or Peter be at the head? Neither, says our Lord. Let him, Peter, who is chief ( ὁ μειζων , the eldest) among you, be as, John, ὁ νεωτερος , the younger. The younger part of the disciples do not appear to have taken any part in this contention; and our Lord shows Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, that they must be as unambitious as the younger in order to be acknowledged as his disciples. Dr. Lightfoot thinks that Peter was the mover of this strife, and therefore our Lord rebukes him by name.
I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me - The Codex Alexandrinus, with some other MSS., the later Syriac, and Origen, read in the first clause, διαθηκην , a covenant. I appoint unto you a Covenant, as my Father hath appointed unto me a kingdom: - Ye shall be ministers of the new covenant, as I am king in that spiritual kingdom to which it relates. This is a curious reading: but our Lord is probably to be understood as promising that they should get a kingdom - a state of blessedness, as he should get it - they must go through much tribulation in order to enter into the kingdom of God. So the Son of man suffered that he might enter into his glory: for the joy that was set before him, he endured the cross, and despised the shame, and is set down on the right hand of God.
Sit on thrones - See on Matthew 19:28 (note). Marcion left the whole of this verse out, according to Epiphanius: probably because he did not understand it.
Simon, Simon - When a name is thus repeated in the sacred writings, it appears to be always intended as an expression of love, manifested by a warning voice. As if he had said, While thou and the others are contending for supremacy, Satan is endeavoring to destroy you all: but I have prayed for thee, as being in most danger.
Satan hath desired - you - That is, all the apostles, but particularly the three contenders: the plural pronoun, ὑμας , sufficiently proves that these words were not addressed to Peter alone. Satan had already got one, Judas; he had nearly got another, Peter; and he wished to have all. But we see by this that the devil cannot even tempt a man unless he receive permission. He desires to do all evil; he is permitted only to do some.
I have prayed for thee - From the natural forwardness and impetuosity of thy own spirit, thou wilt be brought into the most imminent danger; but I have supplicated for thee, that thy faith may not utterly fail - εκλειπῃ , from εκ , out, and λειπω , I fail, to fall utterly or entirely off. Peter‘s faith did fail, but not utterly: he did fall, but he did not fall off, apostatize, or forsake his Master and his cause finally, as Judas did. Every body sees, from Peter‘s denial of his Lord, that his faith did fail, and his great courage too; and yet they read, in the common translation, that Christ prayed that it might not fail: can they then conceive that our Lord‘s prayer was heard? The translation which I have given above removes this embarrassment and apparent contradiction. It was certainly Peter‘s advantage that our Lord did pray for him; but it was not so much for his honor that he should stand in need of such a prayer, beyond all others. Lightfoot.
When thou art converted - Restored to a sense of thy folly and sin, and to me and my cause - establish these thy brethren. All the disciples forsook Jesus and fled, merely through fear of losing their lives; Peter, who continued for a while near him, denied his Master with oaths, and repeated this thrice: our Lord seems to intimate that, after this fall, Peter would become more cautious and circumspect than ever; and that he should become uncommonly strong in the faith, which was the case; and that, notwithstanding the baseness of his past conduct, he should be a proper instrument for strengthening the feeble minded, and supporting the weak. His two epistles to the persecuted Christians show how well he was qualified for this important work.
The cock shall not crow this day - Matthew 26:34, and Mark 14:30, say, this night; both expressions are right, because the Jewish day, of twenty-four hours, began with the evening, and ended at the evening of the following day. On Peter‘s denial, see the notes on Matthew 26:31-35 (note).
When I sent you without purse - See the notes on Matthew 10:9, Matthew 10:10.
He that hath no sword - Bishop Pearce supposes that the word μαχαιραν , sword, has been inserted here from what is said in Luke 22:38, as it is evident our Lord never intended to make any resistance, or to suffer a sword to be used on the occasion; see Matthew 26:52. The word stands rather oddly in the passage: the verse, translated in the order in which it stands, is as follows: And he who hath none, let him sell his garment and buy - a sword. Now it is plain that the verb πωλησατω , let him buy, may be referred to πηραν a scrip, in the former part of the verse: therefore if, according to the bishop‘s opinion, the word sword be omitted, the passage may be understood thus: “When I sent you out before, Luke 10:1, etc., I intended you to continue itinerants only for a few days, and to preach the Gospel only to your country-men; therefore you had but little need of a staff, purse, or scrip, as your journey was neither long, nor expensive; but now I am about to send you into all the world, to preach the Gospel to every creature; and, as ye shall be generally hated and persecuted for my sake, ye shall have need to make every prudent provision for your journey; and so necessary will it be for you to provide yourselves victuals, etc., for your passage through your inhospitable country, that, if any of you have no scrip or wallet, he should sell even his upper garment to provide one.” Others, who are for retaining the word sword, think that it was a proverbial expression, intimating a time of great difficulty and danger, and that now the disciples had need to look to themselves, for his murderers were at hand. The reader will observe that these words were spoken to the disciples just before he went to the garden of Gethsemane, and that the danger was now so very near that there could be no time for any of them to go and sell his garment in order to purchase a sword to defend himself and his Master from the attack of the Jewish mob.
Must yet be accomplished - Probably meaning that, though this prophecy did refer to some particular matter in the time of the prophet, yet it farther ( ετι ) related to Christ, and could not have its complete accomplishment but in his crucifixion as a criminal.
For the things concerning me have an end - As if he had said, My work is now almost done; yours is only beginning; I am now about to be crucified and numbered with the transgressors; think what will be done to you, and what ought to be done by you; and then think if this be a time for you to be contending with each other. Lightfoot.
Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough - These words cannot be well understood as being an answer to the supposed command of Christ, for every one who had no sword to go and sell his garment and buy one; for, in this case, they were not enough, or sufficient, as nine of the disciples must be without any instrument of defense; but they may be understood as pointing out the readiness and determination of Peter, and perhaps some others, to defend our Lord: Thou shalt not be treated as a transgressor; here are two swords, and we will fight for thee. In Luke 22:33, Peter had said, he was ready to go with Christ either to prison or death; which showed his strong resolution to stand by and defend his Master, even at the expense of his life. But, alas, he depended too much on himself!
When he was at the place - Viz. Gethsemane. On this agony of our Lord see the notes on Matthew 26:36-46 (note).
There appeared an angel - from heaven - It was as necessary that the fullest evidence should be given, not only of our Lord‘s Divinity, but also of his humanity: his miracles sufficiently attested the former; his hunger, weariness, and agony in the garden, as well as his death and burial, were proofs of the latter. As man, he needs the assistance of an angel to support his body, worn down by fatigue and suffering. See at the end of Luke 22:44 (note).
Prayed more earnestly - With greater emphasis and earnestness than usual, with strong crying and tears, Hebrews 5:7; the reason given for which is, that he was in an agony. Kypke well observes, Vox αγωνια summum animi angorem et dolorem indicat; et idem est, quod αδημονειν , Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:34. “The word αγωνια (agony) points out the utmost anguish and grief of soul, and is of the same import with αδημονειν in Matthew and Mark.” See the note on Matthew 26:37.
Drops of blood - See the note on Matthew 26:38. Some have thought that the meaning of the words is, that the sweat was so profuse that every drop was as large as a drop of blood, not that the sweat was blood itself: but this does not appear likely. There have been cases in which persons in a debilitated state of body, or through horror of soul, have had their sweat tinged with blood. Dr. Mead from Galen observes, Contingere interdum, poros ex multo aut fervido spiritu adeo dilatari, ut etiam exeat sanguis per eos, fiatque sudor sanguineus. “Cases sometimes happen in which, through mental pressure, the pores may be so dilated that the blood may issue from them; so that there may be a bloody sweat.” And Bishop Pearce gives an instance from Thuanus (De Thou) of an Italian gentleman being so distressed with the fear of death that his body was covered with a bloody sweat. But it is fully evident that the fear of death could have no place in the mind of our blessed Lord. He was in the bloom of life, in perfect health, and had never suffered any thing from disease of any kind; this sweat was most assuredly produced by a preternatural cause. See at the end of the chapter.
Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? - Dost thou attempt to kiss me as a friend, while thou art delivering me up into the hands of my enemies? We need not wonder at all this, as Satan himself had entered into the heart of this traitor, see Luke 22:3; consequently we can expect nothing from him but what is fell, deceitful, and cruel.
Cut off his right ear - See the note on Matthew 26:51.
Suffer ye thus far - Or, Suffer me to go thus far. As they had now a firm hold of Christ, Matthew 26:50, he wished them to permit him to go as far as Malchus, whose ear was cut off, that he might heal it. See the objections brought against this interpretation answered by Kypke; and see the examples he produces. However, the words may be understood as an address to his disciples: Let them proceed; make no resistance; for in this way only are the Scriptures to be fulfilled.
I was daily with you in the temple - Alluding to the four preceding days, during the whole of which he taught in the temple, see Luke 21:37, and Matthew 21:17.
This is your hour, and the power of darkness - That is, the time in which you are permitted to unrein your malice; which ye could not do before, because God did not permit you; and so perfectly are ye under his control that neither you nor the prince of darkness can proceed a hair‘s breadth against me but through this permission: see at the end of the chapter. What a comfortable thought is it to the followers of Christ, that neither men nor demons can act against them but by the permission of their heavenly Father, and that he will not suffer any of those who trust in him to be tried above what they are able to bear, and will make the trial issue in their greater salvation, and in his glory!
A certain maid beheld him - Or, Attentively beholding him, ατενισασα . And this she did by the help of the light of the fire at which Peter sat.
And he denied him - See the notes on Matthew 26:58, Matthew 26:69, etc.
The Lord turned, and looked upon Peter - See the note on Matthew 26:75, where this delicate reproof is particularly noted.
And Peter went out - The word Peter is omitted by BDKLM, and many other good MSS., with some of the ancient versions. Griesbach leaves it out of the text.
Mocked him, and smote him - This and the following verses are placed by Matthew and Mark before the relation of Peter‘s denial. For their explanation, see on Matthew 26:67, Matthew 26:68 (note).
And if I also ask you - Concerning the Christ, in case ye cannot give me such an answer as may prove I am not the Christ, ye will not let me go; for I know ye are determined to put me to death.
Hereafter - From this very time, απο του νυν . The kingdom of God is now going to be set up. See the note on Matthew 16:27, Matthew 16:28.
Art thou then the Son of God? - They all insisted on an answer to this question, and the high priest particularly put it to him, Matthew 26:63.
We ourselves have heard - We have heard him profess himself the Son of God; he is therefore guilty of blasphemy, and, as an impious pretender to a Divine mission, we must proceed against and condemn him to death. See the note on Matthew 26:66. Thus they proceeded as far as they could; he must now be brought before Pilate, as the Jews had no power to put him to death. His trial before Pilate is related in the subsequent chapter.
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