Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
1 Peter 3
In like manner (ομοιως homoiōs). Adverb closely connected with υποτασσομενοι hupotassomenoi for which see note on 1 Peter 2:18.Ye wives (γυναικες gunaikes). Without article. About wives see note on Colossians 3:18; and note on Ephesians 5:22; and note on Titus 2:4. To your own husbands (τοις ιδιοις ανδρασιν tois idiois andrasin). Ιδιοις Idiois occurs also in Ephesians and Titus, but not in Colossians. It strengthens the idea of possession in the article τοις tois Wives are not enjoined to be in subjection to the husbands of other women, as some think it fine to be (affinities!) Even if any obey not the word (και ει τινες απειτουσιν τωι λογωι kai ei tines apeithousin tōi logōi). Condition of first class and dative case of λογος logos (1 Peter 1:23, 1 Peter 1:25; 1 Peter 2:8), that is, remain heathen. That they be gained (ινα κερδητησονται hina kerdēthēsontai). Purpose clause with ινα hina and first future passive indicative of κερδαινω kerdainō old verb, to gain (from κερδος kerdos gain, interest) as in Matthew 18:15. See the future with ινα hina also in Luke 20:10; Revelation 3:9. Without the word (ανευ λογου aneu logou). Probably here “word from their wives” (Hart), the other sense of λογος logos (talk, not technical “word of God”). By the behaviour of their wives (δια της των γυναικων αναστροπης dia tēs tōn gunaikōn anastrophēs). Won by pious living, not by nagging. Many a wife has had this blessed victory of grace.
Beholding (εποπτευσαντες epopteusantes). First aorist active participle of εποπτευω epopteuō for which see note on 1 Peter 2:12. See 1 Peter 2:12 also for αναστροπην anastrophēn manner of life).Chaste (αγνην hagnēn). Pure because “in fear” (εν ποβωι en phobōi), no word in the Greek for “coupled,” fear of God, though in Ephesians 5:33 fear (reverence for) of the husband is urged.
Whose adorning (ων κοσμος hōn kosmos). Genitive plural of the relative referring to γυναικων gunaikōn (wives). Κοσμος Kosmos has here its old meaning of ornament (cf. our cosmetics), not the common one of world (John 17:5) considered as an orderly whole. Mundus in Latin is used in this double sense (ornament, world).Let it be (εστω estō). Imperative third singular of ειμι eimi Not the outward adorning of plaiting the hair (ουχ ο εχωτεν εμπλοκης τριχων ouch ho exōthen emplokēs trichōn). The use of ουχ ouch here rather than μη mē (usual negative with the imperative) because of the sharp contrast in 1 Peter 3:4 (αλλ all'). The old adverb εχωτεν exōthen (from without) is in the attributive position like an adjective. Εμπλοκη Emplokē is a late word (from εμπλεκω emplekō to inweave, 2 Timothy 2:4; 2 Peter 2:20) in Strabo, but often in the papyri for struggle as well as plaiting, here only in N.T. Of wearing (περιτεσεως peritheseōs). Late and rare word (Galen, Arrian) from περιτιτημι peritithēmi (Matthew 27:28), to put around, a placing around. Ornaments of gold were worn round the hair as nets and round the finger, arm, or ankle. Or of putting on (ενδυσεως enduseōs). Old word from ενδυω enduō (to put on), here only in N.T. Peter is not forbidding the wearing of clothes and ornaments by women, but the display of finery by contrast. Cf. 1 Timothy 2:9-13; Isaiah 3:16.
But the hidden man of the heart (αλλ ο κρυπτος της καρδιας αντρωπος all' ho kruptos tēs kardias anthrōpos). Here αντρωπος anthrōpos is in contrast with κοσμος kosmos just before. See Paul‘s use of αντρωπος anthrōpos for the outer and old, the inner and new man (2 Corinthians 4:16; Romans 7:22; Colossians 3:9; Ephesians 3:16; Ephesians 4:22, Ephesians 4:24). See also the Jew εν κρυπτωι en kruptōi (Romans 2:29) and what Jesus said about God seeing “in secret” (Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6).In the incorruptible apparel of a meek and quiet spirit (εν τωι απταρτωι του ησυχιου και πραεως πνευματος en tōi aphthartōi tou hēsuchiou kai praeōs pneumatos). No word in the Greek for “apparel” (κοσμωι kosmōi). For απταρτος aphthartos see note on 1 Peter 1:4 and note on 1 Peter 1:23. For πραυς praus see Matthew 5:5; Matthew 11:29. Πνευμα Pneuma (spirit) is here disposition or temper (Bigg), unlike any other use in the N.T. In 1 Peter 3:18, 1 Peter 3:19; 1 Peter 4:6 it means the whole inner man as opposed to σαρχ sarx or σωμα sōma very much as πσυχη psuchē is used as opposed to σωμα sōma (ο ho). Spirit just mentioned. Of great price (πολυτελες poluteles). Old word (from πολυ polu and τελος telos cost), in N.T. only here, Mark 14:3; 1 Timothy 2:9.
Adorned themselves (εκοσμουν εαυτας ekosmoun heautas). Imperfect active of customary action, “used to adorn themselves.” Κοσμεω Kosmeō is old verb from κοσμος kosmos in the sense in 1 Peter 3:3. See Hebrews 11:11, Hebrews 11:35 for like tribute to holy women of the O.T. The participle υποτασσομεναι hupotassomenai repeats 1 Peter 3:1.
As Sarah (ως Σαρρα hōs Sarra).Obeyed Abraham (υπηκουεν τωι Αβρααμ hupēkouen tōi Abraam). Imperfect active of υπακουω hupakouō “used to obey” (with dative). Calling him lord (κυριον αυτον καλουσα kurion auton kalousa). Present active participle of καλεω kaleō See Genesis 18:12. Whose children ye now are (ης εγενητητε τεκνα hēs egenēthēte tekna). First aorist passive indicative of γινομαι ginomai “whose children ye became.” If ye do well (αγατοποιουσαι agathopoiousai). Present active feminine plural participle of αγατοποιεω agathopoieō (1 Peter 2:15), “doing good.” And are not put in fear by any terror (και μη ποβουμεναι μηδεμιαν πτοησιν kai mē phoboumenai mēdemian ptoēsin). Free quotation from Proverbs 3:25, “and not fearing any terror” (cognate accusative of πτοησις ptoēsis after ποβουμεναι phoboumenai present middle participle, late and rare word from πτοεω ptoeō to terrify, as in Luke 21:9, here only in N.T.). Perhaps Peter regards Sarah‘s falsehood as the yielding to a sudden terror (Hart). Hannah could also be named along with Sarah. The women somehow do not organize “daughters of Sarah” societies.
Ye husbands likewise (οι ανδρες ομοιως hoi andres homoiōs). Probably “likewise” here refers to honouring all men (1 Peter 2:17), not “likewise” of 1 Peter 3:1.Dwell with (συνοικουντες sunoikountes). Present active participle of συνοικεω sunoikeō old verb for domestic association, here only in N.T. Used as imperative here like the participle in 1 Peter 2:18; 1 Peter 3:1. According to knowledge (κατα γνωσιν kata gnōsin). “With an intelligent recognition of the nature of the marriage relation” (Vincent). Giving honour unto the woman as unto the weaker vessel (ως αστενεστερωι σκευει τωι γυναικειωι απονεμοντες τιμην hōs asthenesterōi skeuei tōi gunaikeiōi aponemontes timēn). Present active participle of απονεμω aponemō old verb, to assign, to portion out (or off), here only in N.T. Σκευος Skeuos is an old and common word for vessel, furniture, utensil (Matthew 12:29; 2 Timothy 2:20). Here both husband and wife are termed vessels or “parts of the furniture of God‘s house” (Bigg). See Paul‘s use of σκευος skeuos for ministers (2 Corinthians 4:7). Γυναικειωι Gunaikeiōi here is an adjective (female, feminine) from γυνη gunē (woman, wife). She is termed “the weaker” (τωι αστενεστερωι tōi asthenesterōi), not for intellectual or moral weakness, but purely for physical reasons, which the husband must recognize with due consideration for marital happiness. Joint-heirs of the grace of life (συνκληρονομοι χαριτος ζωης sunklēronomoi charitos zōēs). Late double compound found in an Ephesian inscription and the papyri, in N.T. only here, Romans 8:17; Ephesians 3:6; Hebrews 11:9. God‘s gift of life eternal belongs to woman as well as to man. In the eyes of God the wife may be superior to the husband, not merely equal. To the end that your prayers be not hindered (εις το μη εγκοπτεσται τας προσευχας υμων eis to mē egkoptesthai tas proseuchas humōn). Purpose clause with εις το eis to and the present passive infinitive (with negative μη mē) of εγκοπτω egkoptō to cut in, to interrupt, late verb (Polybius), as in Romans 15:22, etc. Very vivid to us now with our telephones and radios when people cut in on us. Προσευχας Proseuchas (prayers) is the accusative of general reference. Husbands surely have here cause to consider why their prayers are not answered.
Finally (το τελος to telos). Adverbial accusative. Conclusion, not of the Epistle, but only of the addresses to various classes. No verb (εστε este imperative, be) here.Likeminded (ομοπρονες homophrones). Old compound (ομοσ πρην homosσυμπατεις phrēn), here only in N.T. Compassionate (συν πασχω sumpatheis). Old adjective (πιλαδελποι sunπιλοσ αδελπος paschō), in N.T. only here and Romans 12:15. Our “sympathetic” in original sense. Loving as brethren (ευσπλαγχνοι philadelphoi). Old compound (ευ philosσπλαγχνον adelphos), here only in N.T. Tender-hearted (ταπεινοπρονες eusplagchnoi). Late and rare compound (ταπεινοσ πρην eu and splagchnon), in Hippocrates, Apocrypha, in N.T. only here and Ephesians 4:32. Humble minded (tapeinophrones). Late compound (tapeinosphrēn), in Plutarch, Proverbs 29:23, here only in N.T.
Not rendering evil for evil (μη αποδιδοντες κακον αντι κακου mē apodidontes kakon anti kakou). Μη Mē and the present active participle of αποδιδωμι apodidōmi to give back. The same phrase in Romans 12:17 and the same idea in 1 Thessalonians 5:15. Peter may have obtained it from Paul or both from Proverbs 17:13; Proverbs 20:22, “an approximation to Christ‘s repeal of the λεχ ταλιονις lex talionis (Matthew 5:38.) which Plato first opposed among the Greeks” (Hart). Common use of αντι anti for exchange.Reviling for reviling (λοιδοριαν αντι λοιδοριας loidorian anti loidorias). Allusion to 1 Peter 2:23 (Christ‘s own example). But contrariwise blessing (τουναντιον δε ευλογουντες tounantion de eulogountes). Adverbial accusative and crasis (το εναντιον to enantion) of the neuter article and the adjective εναντιος enantios (εν αντιος enευλογουντες antios opposite, Matthew 14:24), “on the contrary.” For ευλογεω eulogountes (present active participle of ευλογειτε eulogeō) see Luke 6:28; Romans 12:14 (imperative οτι εις τουτο εκλητητε eulogeite). For hereunto were ye called (εις τουτο hoti eis touto eklēthēte). See note on 1 Peter 2:21 for this verb and use of ινα ευλογιαν κληρονομησητε eis touto (pointing to the preceding argument). That ye should inherit a blessing (ινα hina eulogian klēronomēsēte). Purpose clause with κληρονομεω hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of klēronomeō a plain reference to Esau, who wanted “to inherit the blessing” (Hebrews 12:17) after he had sold his birthright. Christians are the new Israel (both Gentiles and Jews) and are the spiritual descendants of Isaac (Galatians 4:22.).
For (γαρ gar). Reason for the entire exhortation in 1 Peter 3:8, 1 Peter 3:9 and introducing in 1 Peter 3:10-12 a quotation from Psalm 34:13-17 with some slight changes.Would love life (τελων ζωην αγαπαιν thelōn zōēn agapāin). “Wishing to love life.” This present life. The lxx expressions are obscure Hebraisms. The lxx has αγαπων agapōn (participle present active of αγαπαω agapaō not the infinitive αγαπαιν agapāin him refrain (παυσατω pausatō). Third person singular first aorist active imperative of παυω pauō to make stop, whereas the lxx has παυσον pauson (second person singular). His tongue (την γλωσσαν tēn glōssan). See James 3:1-12. That they speak no guile (του μη λαλησαι δολον tou mē lalēsai dolon). Purpose clause with genitive article του tou (negative μη mē) and the first aorist active infinitive of λαλεω laleō But it can also be explained as the ablative case with the redundant negative μη mē after a verb of hindering (παυσατω pausatō) like Luke 4:42. See Robertson, Grammar, p. 1061. “Let him refrain his lips from speaking guile.”
Let him turn away (εκκλινατω ekklinatō). First aorist active imperative third person singular of εκκλινω ekklinō where the lxx has εκκλινον ekklinon (second person singular). Old verb, in N.T. only here, Romans 3:12; Romans 16:17. Peter adapted the passage all through to his own construction and use. So as to ποιησατω poiēsatō (let him do) for ποιησον poiēson (do thou), ζητησατω zētēsatō (let him seek) for ζητησον zētēson (do thou seek), διωχατω diōxatō (let him pursue) for διωχον diōxon (do thou pursue), all first aorist active imperatives (of ποιεω ζητεω διωκω poieōzēteōdiōkō). See Hebrews 12:14 for “pursuing peace.” If men only did!
Upon (επι epi). In the case of righteous (δικαιους dikaious in the O.T. sense like δικαιον Λοτ dikaion Lot in 2 Peter 2:7) for their good, but in the case of men “that do evil” (επι ποιουντας κακα epi poiountas kaka “upon men doing evil things”) “the face of the Lord” (προσωπον κυριου prosōpon kuriou) is not for their good, επι epi here approaching “against” in idea.
That will harm you (ο κακωσων υμας ho kakōsōn humas). Future active articular participle of κακοω kakoō old verb (from κακος kakos bad) as in Acts 7:6, Acts 7:19. Any real hurt, either that wishes to harm you or that can harm. See the words in Isaiah 50:9.If ye be (εαν γενηστε ean genēsthe). Rather, “if ye become” (condition of third class with εαν ean and second aorist middle subjunctive of γινομαι ginomai). Zealous of that which is good (του αγατου ζηλωται tou agathou zēlōtai). “Zealots for the good” (objective genitive after ζηλωται zēlōtai (zealots, not zealous), old word from ζηλοω zēloō (1 Corinthians 12:12).
But and if ye should suffer (αλλ ει και πασχοιτε all' ei kai paschoite). “But if ye should also (or even) suffer.” Condition of the fourth class with ει ei and the optative (undetermined with less likelihood), a rare condition in the vernacular Koiné, since the optative was a dying mode. If matters, in spite of the prophetic note of victory in 1 Peter 3:13, should come to actual suffering “for righteousness‘ sake” (δια δικαιοσυνην dia dikaiosunēn) as in Matthew 5:10 (ενεκεν heneken not δια dia), then “blessed” (μακαριοι makarioi the very word of Jesus there which see, a word meaning “happy,” not ευλογητοι eulogētoi) “are ye” (not in the Greek). If the conclusion were expressed regularly, it would be ειητε αν eiēte an (ye would be), not εστε este (ye are). It is interesting to note the third-class condition in 1 Peter 3:13 just before the fourth-class one in 1 Peter 3:14.Fear not their fear (τον ποβον αυτων μη ποβητητε ton phobon autōn mē phobēthēte). Prohibition with μη mē and the first aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive of ποβεομαι phobeomai to fear, and the cognate accusative ποβον phobon (fear, terror). “Do not fear their threats” (Bigg). Quotation from Isaiah 8:12. Neither be troubled (μηδε ταραχτητε mēde taraxthēte). Prohibition with μηδε mēde and the first aorist (ingressive) subjunctive of ταρασσω tarassō to disturb (Matthew 2:6; John 12:27). Part of the same quotation. Cf. 1 Peter 3:6.
Sanctify (αγιασατε hagiasate). First aorist active imperative of αγιαζω hagiazō This instead of being afraid.Christ as Lord (κυριον τον Χριστον kurion ton Christon). Τον Χριστον Ton Christon direct object with article and κυριον kurion predicate accusative (without article). This is the correct text, not τον τεον ton theon of the Textus Receptus. An adaptation to Christ of Isaiah 8:13. Being ready always (ετοιμοι αει hetoimoi aei). No participle in the Greek, old adjective (Titus 3:1). To give answer (προς απολογιαν pros apologian). “For an apology,” the old sense of απολογια apologia an answer back, a defence (not excuse), as in Acts 22:1, from απολογεομαι apologeomai to defend (not to apologize). A reason concerning the hope that is in you (λογον περι της εν υμιν ελπιδος logon peri tēs en humin elpidos). Original sense of λογον logon (accusative of the thing with αιτουντι aitounti with υμας humās accusative of the person) “concerning the in you hope.” Ready with a spoken defence of the inward hope. This attitude calls for an intelligent grasp of the hope and skill in presenting it. In Athens every citizen was expected to be able to join in the discussion of state affairs. Yet with meekness and fear (αλλα μετα πραυτητος και ποβου alla meta prautētos kai phobou). Of God (1 Peter 2:18; 1 Peter 3:2, 1 Peter 3:4), not of man.
Having a good conscience (συνειδησιν εχοντες αγατην suneidēsin echontes agathēn). Present active participle of εχω echō See 1 Peter 2:18 for συνειδησιν suneidēsin and 1 Peter 3:21 for συνειδησις αγατη suneidēsis agathē again (“a quasi-personification,” Hart).That they may be put to shame (ινα καταισχυντωσιν hina kataischunthōsin). Purpose clause with ινα hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of καταισχυνω kataischunō old verb, to put to shame (Luke 13:17; 1 Peter 2:6). Wherein ye are spoken against (εν ωι καταλαλειστε en hōi katalaleisthe). Present passive indicative of καταλαλεω katalaleō for which see 1 Peter 2:12 with εν ωι en hōi also. Peter may be recalling (Hart) his own experience at Pentecost when the Jews first scoffed and others were cut to the heart (Acts 2:13, Acts 2:37). Who revile (οι επηρεαζοντες hoi epēreazontes). Articular present active participle of επηρεαζω epēreazō old verb (from επηρεια epēreia spiteful abuse), to insult, in N.T. only here and Luke 6:28. In Christ (εν Χριστωι en Christōi). Paul‘s common mystical phrase that Peter has three times (here, 1 Peter 5:10, 1 Peter 5:14), not in John, though the idea is constantly in John. Peter here gives a new turn (cf. 1 Peter 2:12) to αναστροπη anastrophē (manner of life). “Constantly the apostle repeats his phrases with new significance and in a new light” (Bigg).
Better (κρειττον kreitton). Comparative of κρατυς kratus as in 2 Peter 2:21; Hebrews 1:4. Patient endurance not only silences calumny (1 Peter 3:16), is Christlike (1 Peter 3:18), but it has a value of its own (1 Peter 3:17).If the will of God should so will (ει τελοι το τελημα του τεου ei theloi to thelēma tou theou). Condition of the fourth class again (ειτελοι ei- ει theloi) with αγατοποιουντας η κακοποιουντας ei and the optative. For a like pleonasm see John 7:17. For well-doing than for evil-doing (υμας agathopoiountas ē kakopoiountas). Accusative plural agreeing with πασχειν humās understood (accusative of general reference with the infinitive αγατοποιεω paschein (to suffer) of the participles from κακοποιεω agathopoieō (see 1 Peter 2:15) and κακοποιος kakopoieō (Mark 3:4, and see 1 Peter 2:14 for kakopoios).
Because Christ also died (οτι και Χριστος απετανεν hoti kai Christos apethanen). So the best MSS.; later ones επατεν epathen (suffered). The example of Christ should stir us to patient endurance.For sins (περι αμαρτιων peri hamartiōn). “Concerning sins” (not his, but ours, 1 Peter 1:18). Περι Peri (around, concerning) with αμαρτιας hamartias in the regular phrase for the sin offering (Leviticus 5:7; Leviticus 6:30), though υπερ αμαρτιας huper hamartias does occur (Ezekiel 43:25). So in the N.T. we find both περι αμαρτιων peri hamartiōn (Hebrews 5:3) and υπερ αμαρτιων huper hamartiōn (Hebrews 5:1). Once (απαχ hapax). Once for all (Hebrews 9:28), not once upon a time (ποτε pote). The righteous for the unrighteous (δικαιος υπερ αδικων dikaios huper adikōn). Literally, “just for unjust” (no articles). See 1 Peter 2:19 for the sinlessness of Christ as the one perfect offering for sin. This is what gives Christ‘s blood value. He has no sin himself. Some men today fail to perceive this point. That he might bring us to God (ινα ημας προσαγαγηι τωι τεωι hina hēmās prosagagēi tōi theōi). Purpose clause with ινα hina with second aorist active subjunctive of προσαγω prosagō and the dative case τωι τεωι tōi theōi The MSS. vary between ημας hēmās (us) and υμας humās (you). The verb προσαγω prosagō means to lead or bring to (Matthew 18:24), to approach God (cf. προσαγωγην prosagōgēn in Ephesians 2:18), to present us to God on the basis of his atoning death for us, which has opened the way (Romans 3:25; Hebrews 10:19.) Being put to death in the flesh (τανατωτεις μεν σαρκι thanatōtheis men sarki). First aorist passive participle of τανατοω thanatoō old verb (from τανατος thanatos death), to put to death. Σαρκι Sarki is locative case of σαρχ sarx quickened in the spirit (ζωοποιητεις δε πνευματι zōopoiētheis de pneumati). First aorist passive participle of ζωοποιεω zōopoieō rare (Aristotle) verb (from ζωοποιος zōopoios making alive), to make alive. The participles are not antecedent to απετανεν apethanen but simultaneous with it. There is no such construction as the participle of subsequent action. The spirit of Christ did not die when his flesh did, but “was endued with new and greater powers of life” (Thayer). See 1 Corinthians 15:22 for the use of the verb for the resurrection of the body. But the use of the word πνευματι pneumati (locative case) in contrast with σαρκι sarki starts Peter‘s mind off in a long comparison by way of illustration that runs from 1 Peter 3:19-22. The following verses have caused more controversy than anything in the Epistle.
In which also (εν ωι και en hōi kai). That is, in spirit (relative referring to πνευματι pneumati). But, a number of modern scholars have followed Griesbach‘s conjecture that the original text was either Νωε και Nōe kai (Noah also), or Ενωχ και Enōch kai (Enoch also), or εν ωι και Ενωχ en hōi kai Enōch (in which Enoch also) which an early scribe misunderstood or omitted Ενωχ και Enōch kai in copying (ομοιοτελευτον homoioteleuton). It is allowed in Stier and Theile‘s Polyglott. It is advocated by J. Cramer in 1891, by J. Rendel Harris in The Expositor (1901), and Sidelights on N.T. Research (p. 208), by Nestle in 1902, by Moffatt‘s New Translation of the New Testament. Windisch rejects it as inconsistent with the context. There is no manuscript for the conjecture, though it would relieve the difficulty greatly. Luther admits that he does not know what Peter means. Bigg has no doubt that the event recorded took place between Christ‘s death and his resurrection and holds that Peter is alluding to Christ‘s Descensus ad Inferos in Acts 2:27 (with which he compares Matthew 27:52.; Luke 23:34; Ephesians 4:9). With this Windisch agrees. But Wohlenberg holds that Peter means that Christ in his preexistent state preached to those who rejected the preaching of Noah who are now in prison. Augustine held that Christ was in Noah when he preached. Bigg argues strongly that Christ during the time between his death and resurrection preached to those who once heard Noah (but are now in prison) and offered them another chance and not mere condemnation. If so, why did Jesus confine his preaching to this one group? So the theories run on about this passage. One can only say that it is a slim hope for those who neglect or reject Christ in this life to gamble with a possible second chance after death which rests on very precarious exegesis of a most difficult passage in Peter‘s Epistle. Accepting the text as we have, what can we make of it?He went and preached (πορευτεις εκηρυχεν poreutheis ekēruxen). First aorist passive (deponent) participle of πορευομαι poreuomai and first aorist active indicative of κηρυσσω kērussō the verb commonly used of the preaching of Jesus. Naturally the words mean personal action by Christ “in spirit” as illustration of his “quickening” (1 Peter 3:18) whether done before his death or afterwards. It is interesting to observe that, just as the relative εν ωι en hōi here tells something suggested by the word πνευματι pneumati (in spirit) just before, so in 1 Peter 3:21 the relative ο ho (which) tells another illustration of the words δι υδατος di' hudatos (by water) just before. Peter jumps from the flood in Noah‘s time to baptism in Peter‘s time, just as he jumped backwards from Christ‘s time to Noah‘s time. He easily goes off at a word. What does he mean here by the story that illustrates Christ‘s quickening in spirit? Unto the spirits in prison (τοις εν πυλακηι πνευμασιν tois en phulakēi pneumasin). The language is plain enough except that it does not make it clear whether Jesus did the preaching to spirits in prison at the time or to people whose spirits are now in prison, the point of doubt already discussed. The metaphorical use of εν πυλακηι en phulakēi can be illustrated by 2 Peter 2:4; Judges 1:6; Revelation 20:7 (the final abode of the lost). See Hebrews 12:23 for the use of πνευματα pneumata for disembodied spirits.
Which aforetime were disobedient (απειτησασιν ποτε apeithēsasin pote). First aorist active participle of απειτεω apeitheō (for which verb see 1 Peter 3:20) in the dative plural agreeing with πνευμασιν pneumasin These spirits now in prison once upon a time (ποτε pote) were disobedient (typical rebels, Hart calls them).Waited (απεχεδεχετο apexedecheto). Imperfect middle of the double compound απεκδεχομαι apekdechomai late verb, probably first by Paul (1 Corinthians 1:7), though in the apocryphal Acta Pauli (iii) and other late writings cited by Nageli (p. 43). Perfective use of the two prepositions (απο εκ apoκατασκευαζομενης κιβωτου ek) to wait out to the end, as for Christ‘s Second Coming (Philemon 3:20). A hundred years apparently after the warning (Genesis 5:32; Genesis 6:3; Genesis 7:6) Noah was preparing the ark and Noah as a preacher of righteousness (2 Peter 2:5) forewarned the people, who disregarded it. While the ark was a preparing (κατασκευαζω kataskeuazomenēs kibōtou). Genitive absolute with present passive participle of κιβωτος kataskeuazō old compound (Matthew 11:10), for εις ην kibōtos (ark) see Matthew 24:38. Wherein (τουτ εστιν eis hēn). “Into which” (the ark). That is (πσυχαι tout' estin). Explanatory expression like our English idiom (Romans 10:6, etc.). Souls (διεσωτησαν psuchai). Persons of both sexes (living men) as in Acts 2:41; Acts 27:37, etc. Were saved (διασωζω diesōthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of δι υδατος diasōzō old compound, to bring safe through as in Acts 27:44. Through water (δια di' hudatos). “By means of water” as the intermediate agent, an apparent change in the use of dia in composition just before (local use) to the instrumental use here. They came through the water in the ark and so were saved by the water in spite of the flood around them. Peter lays stress (Hart) on the water rather than on the ark (Hebrews 11:7) for the sake of the following illustration.
Which also (ο και ho kai). Water just mentioned.After a true likeness (αντιτυπον antitupon). Water in baptism now as an anti-type of Noah‘s deliverance by water. For βαπτισμα baptisma see note on Matthew 3:7. For αντιτυπον antitupon see note on Hebrews 9:24 (only other N.T. example) where the word is used of the earthly tabernacle corresponding (αντιτυπα antitupa) to the heavenly, which is the pattern (τυπον tupon Hebrews 8:5) for the earthly. So here baptism is presented as corresponding to (prefigured by) the deliverance of Noah‘s family by water. It is only a vague parallel, but not over-fanciful. Doth now save you (υμας νυν σωζει humas nun sōzei). Simplex verb (σωζω sōzō not the compound διασωζω diasōzō). The saving by baptism which Peter here mentions is only symbolic (a metaphor or picture as in Romans 6:2-6), not actual as Peter hastens to explain. Not the putting away of the filth of the flesh (ου σαρκος αποτεσις ρυπου ou sarkos apothesis rupou). Αποτεσις Apothesis is old word from αποτιτημι apotithēmi (1 Peter 2:1), in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 1:14. υπου Rupou (genitive of ρυπος rupos) is old word (cf. ρυπαρος ruparos filthy, in James 2:2; Revelation 22:11), here only in N.T. (cf. Isaiah 3:3; Isaiah 4:4). Baptism, Peter explains, does not wash away the filth of the flesh either in a literal sense, as a bath for the body, or in a metaphorical sense of the filth of the soul. No ceremonies really affect the conscience (Hebrews 9:13.). Peter here expressly denies baptismal remission of sin. But the interrogation of a good conscience toward God (αλλα συνειδησεως αγατης επερωτημα εις τεον alla suneidēseōs agathēs eperōtēma eis theon). Old word from επερωταω eperōtaō (to question as in Mark 9:32; Matthew 16:1), here only in N.T. In ancient Greek it never means answer, but only inquiry. The inscriptions of the age of the Antonines use it of the Senate‘s approval after inquiry. That may be the sense here, that is, avowal of consecration to God after inquiry, having repented and turned to God and now making this public proclamation of that fact by means of baptism (the symbol of the previous inward change of heart). Thus taken, it matters little whether εις τεον eis theon (toward God) be taken with επερωτημα eperōtēma or συνειδησεως suneidēseōs the resurrection of Jesus Christ (δι αναστασεως Ιησου Χριστου di' anastaseōs Iēsou Christou). For baptism is a symbolic picture of the resurrection of Christ as well as of our own spiritual renewal (Romans 6:2-6). See 1 Peter 1:3 for regeneration made possible by the resurrection of Jesus.
Having gone (πορευτεις poreutheis). First aorist (deponent) participle (not periphrastic) of πορευομαι poreuomai made subject (υποταγεντων hupotagentōn). Second aorist passive participle of υποτασσω hupotassō (see 1 Peter 2:18; 1 Peter 3:1) in the genitive absolute construction.Unto him (αυτωι autōi). Christ. See 1 Corinthians 15:28.
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