Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
2 Peter 1
Simon Peter (Σιμων Πετρος Simōn Petros). Aleph A K L P have Σψμεων Symeōn as in Acts 15:14, while B has Σιμων Simōn The two forms occur indifferently in 1 Macc. 2:3, 65 for the same man.Servant and apostle (δουλος και αποστολος doulos kai apostolos). Like Romans 1:1; Titus 1:1. To them that have obtained (τοις λαχουσιν tois lachousin). Dative plural articular participle second aorist active of λαγχανω lagchanō old verb, to obtain by lot (Luke 1:9), here with the accusative (πιστιν pistin) as in Acts 1:17. Like precious (ισοτιμον isotimon). Late compound adjective (ισος isos equal, τιμη timē honor, price), here only in N.T. But this adjective (Field) is used in two ways, according to the two ideas in τιμη timē (value, honor), either like in value or like in honor. This second idea is the usual one with ισοτιμος isotimos (inscriptions and papyri, Josephus, Lucian), while πολυτιμος polutimos has the notion of price like τιμη timē in 2 Peter 1:7, 2 Peter 1:19; 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:6. The faith which they have obtained is like in honor and privilege with that of Peter or any of the apostles. With us (ημιν hēmin). Associative-instrumental case after ισοτιμον isotimon Equal to τηι ημων tēi hēmōn (the faith of us). In the righteousness (εν δικαιοσυνηι en dikaiosunēi). Definite because of the preposition εν en and the following genitive even though anarthrous. The O.T. sense of δικαιοσυνη dikaiosunē applied to God (Romans 1:17) and here to Christ. Of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ (του τεου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου tou theou hēmōn kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou). So the one article (του tou) with τεου theou and σωτηρος sōtēros requires precisely as with του κυριου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου tou kuriou hēmōn kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou (of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ), one person, not two, in 2 Peter 1:11 as in 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:2, 2 Peter 3:18. So in 1 Peter 1:3 we have ο τεος και πατηρ ho theos kai patēr (the God and Father), one person, not two. The grammar is uniform and inevitable (Robertson, Grammar, p. 786), as even Schmiedel (Winer-Schmiedel, Grammatik, p. 158) admits: “Grammar demands that one person be meant.” Moulton (Prol., p. 84) cites papyri examples of like usage of τεος theos for the Roman emperors. See the same idiom in Titus 2:13. The use of τεος theos by Peter as a predicate with Jesus Christ no more disproves the Petrine authorship of this Epistle than a like use in John 1:1 disproves the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel and the same use in Titus 2:13 disproves the genuineness of Titus. Peter had heard Thomas call Jesus God (John 20:28) and he himself had called him the Son of God (Matthew 16:16).
Be multiplied (πλητυντειη plēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative of πλητυνω plēthunō in a wish for the future (volitive use) as in 1 Peter 1:2; Judges 1:2.In the knowledge (εν επιγνωσει en epignōsei). Full (additional, επι epi) knowledge as in 2 Peter 1:8 (only γνωσις gnōsis in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:6; 2 Peter 3:18), but επιγνωσιν epignōsin again in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:8; 2 Peter 2:20. As in Colossians, so here full knowledge is urged against the claims of the Gnostic heretics to special γνωσις gnōsis God and of Jesus our Lord (του τεου και Ιησου του κυριου ημων tou theou kai Iēsou tou kuriou hēmōn). At first sight the idiom here seems to require one person as in 2 Peter 1:1, though there is a second article (του tou) before κυριου kuriou and Ιησου Iēsou is a proper name. But the text here is very uncertain. Bengel, Spitta, Zahn, Nestle accept the short reading of P and some Vulgate MSS. and some minuscles with only του κυριου ημων tou kuriou hēmōn (our Lord) from which the three other readings may have come. Elsewhere in 2 Peter γνωσις gnōsis and επιγνωσις epignōsis are used of Christ alone. The text of 2 Peter is not in a good state of preservation.
Seeing that his divine power hath granted unto us (ως ημιν της τειας δυναμεως αυτου δεδωρημενης hōs hēmin tēs theias dunameōs autou dedōrēmenēs). Genitive absolute with the causal particle ως hōs and the perfect middle participle of δωρεω dōreō old verb, to bestow (δωρεα dōrea gift), usually middle as here, in N.T. elsewhere only Mark 15:45. Αυτου Autou refers to Christ, who has “divine power” (της τειας δυναμεως tēs theias dunameōs), since he is τεος theos (2 Peter 1:1). Τειος Theios (from τεος theos) is an old adjective in N.T. here and 2 Peter 1:4 only, except Acts 17:29, where Paul uses το τειον to theion for deity, thus adapting his language to his audience as the papyri and inscriptions show. The use of τειος theios with an imperial connotation is very common in the papyri and the inscriptions. Deissmann (Bible Studies, pp. 360-368) has shown the singular linguistic likeness between 2 Peter 1:3-11 and a remarkable inscription of the inhabitants of Stratonicea in Caria to Zeus Panhemerios and Hecate dated a.d. 22 (in full in C I H ii No. 2715 a b). One of the likenesses is the use of της τειας δυναμεως tēs theias dunameōs Peter may have read this inscription (cf. Paul in Athens) or he may have used “the familiar forms and formulae of religious emotion” (Deissmann), “the official liturgical language of Asia Minor.” Peter is fond of δυναμις dunamis in this Epistle, and the δυναμις dunamis of Christ “is the sword which St. Peter holds over the head of the False Teachers” (Bigg).All things that pertain unto life and godliness (παντα τα προς ζωην και ευσεβειαν panta ta pros zōēn kai eusebeian). “All the things for life and godliness.” The new life in Christ who is the mystery of godliness (1 Timothy 3:16). Ευσεβεια Eusebeia with its cognates (ευσεβησ ευσεβωσ ευσεβεω eusebēsευ eusebōsσεβομαι eusebeō) occurs only in this Epistle, Acts, and the Pastoral Epistles (from του καλεσαντος eu well, and καλεω sebomai to worship). Of him that called us (δια δοχης και αρετης tou kalesantos). Genitive of the articular first aorist active participle of ιδιαι δοχηι και αρετηι kaleō Christ called Peter and all other Christians. By his own glory and virtue (ιδιος dia doxēs kai aretēs). So B K L, but Aleph A C P read αρετη idiāi doxēi kai aretēi (either instrumental case “by” or dative “to”). Peter is fond of idios (own, 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:5; 2 Peter 2:16, 2 Peter 2:22, etc.). “Glory” here is the manifestation of the Divine Character in Christ. For aretē see note on 1 Peter 2:9, note on Philemon 4:8, and note on 2 Peter 1:5.
Whereby (δι ων di' hōn). Probably the “glory and virtue” just mentioned, though it is possible to take it with παντα τα προς panta ta pros etc., or with ημιν hēmin (unto us, meaning “through whom”).He hath granted (δεδωρηται dedōrētai). Perfect middle indicative of δωρεω dōreō for which see 2 Peter 1:3. His precious and exceeding great promises (τα τιμια και μεγιστα επαγγελματα ta timia kai megista epaggelmata). Επαγγελμα Epaggelma is an old word (from επαγγελλω epaggellō) in place of the common επαγγελια epaggelia in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 3:13. Τιμιος Timios (precious, from τιμη timē value), three times by Peter (1 Peter 1:7 of faith; 1 Peter 1:19 of the blood of Christ; 2 Peter 1:4 of Christ‘s promises). Μεγιστα Megista is the elative superlative used along with a positive adjective (τιμια timia). That ye may become (ινα γενηστε hina genēsthe). Purpose clause with ινα hina and second aorist middle subjunctive of γινομαι ginomai these (δια τουτων dia toutōn). The promises. Partakers (κοινωνοι koinōnoi). Partners, sharers in, for which word see 1 Peter 5:1. Of the divine nature (τειας πυσεως theias phuseōs). This phrase, like το τειον to theion in Acts 17:29, “belongs rather to Hellenism than to the Bible” (Bigg). It is a Stoic phrase, but not with the Stoic meaning. Peter is referring to the new birth as 1 Peter 1:23 (αναγεγεννημενοι anagegennēmenoi). The same phrase occurs in an inscription possibly under the influence of Mithraism (Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary). Having escaped (αποπυγοντες apophugontes). Second aorist active participle of αποπευγω apopheugō old compound verb, in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 2:18-20, with the ablative here (πτορας phthorās old word from πτειρω phtheirō moral decay as in 2 Peter 2:12) and the accusative there. By lust (εν επιτυμιαι en epithumiāi). Caused by, consisting in, lust. “Man becomes either regenerate or degenerate” (Strachan).
Yea, and for this very cause (και αυτο τουτο δε kai auto touto de). Adverbial accusative (αυτο τουτο auto touto) here, a classic idiom, with both και kai and δε de Cf. και τουτο kai touto (Philemon 1:29), τουτο μεντουτο δε touto men- παρεισενεγκαντες touto de (Hebrews 10:33). “The soul of religion is the practical part” (Bunyan). Because of the new birth and the promises we have a part to play.Adding on your part (παρεισπερω pareisenegkantes). First aorist active participle of εισπερω pareispherō old double compound, to bring in (παρα eispherō), besides (σπουδην πασαν para), here only in N.T. All diligence (σπευδω spoudēn pāsan). Old word from πασαν σπουδην speudō to hasten (Luke 19:5.). This phrase (ποιουμενος pāsan spoudēn) occurs in Judges 1:3 with ισπερεσται poioumenos and on the inscription in Stratonicea (2 Peter 1:3) with εν τηι πιστει υμων ispheresthai (certainly a curious coincidence, to say the least, though common in the Koiné). In your faith (πιστις en tēi pistei humōn). Faith or αγαπη pistis (strong conviction as in Hebrews 11:1, Hebrews 11:3, the root of the Christian life Ephesians 2:8) is the foundation which goes through various steps up to love (εν agapē). See similar lists in James 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:3.; Galatians 5:22.; Romans 5:3.; Romans 8:29. Hermas (Vis. iii. 8. 1-7) has a list called “daughters” of one another. Note the use of επιχορηγησατε en (in, on) with each step. Supply (επιχορηγεω epichorēgēsate). First aorist active imperative of επι epichorēgeō late and rare double compound verb (χορηγεω epi and χορηγος chorēgeō 1 Peter 4:11 from χορος chorēgos chorus-leader, ηγεομαι choros and αρετην hēgeomai to lead), to fit out the chorus with additional (complete) supplies. Both compound and simplex (more common) occur in the papyri. In 2 Peter 1:11 and already in 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5; Colossians 2:19. Virtue (γνωσιν aretēn). Moral power, moral energy, vigor of soul (Bengel). See 2 Peter 1:3. Knowledge (gnōsin). Insight, understanding (1 Corinthians 16:18; John 15:15).
Temperance (την εγκρατειαν tēn egkrateian). Self-control. Old word (from εγκρατης egkratēs εν en and κρατος kratos one holding himself in as in Titus 1:8), in N.T. only here, Acts 24:25; Galatians 5:23. The opposite of the πλεονεχια pleonexia of the heretics.Patience (την υπομονην tēn hupomonēn). For which see James 1:3. Godliness (την ευσεβειαν tēn eusebeian). For which see 2 Peter 1:3.
Love of the brethren (την πιλαδελπιαν tēn philadelphian). See 1 Peter 1:22.Love (την αγαπην tēn agapēn). By deliberate choice (Matthew 5:44). Love for Christ as the crown of all (1 Peter 1:8) and so for all men. Love is the climax as Paul has it (1 Corinthians 13:13).
For if these things are yours and abound (ταυτα γαρ υμιν υπαρχοντα και πλεοναζοντα tauta gar humin huparchonta kai pleonazonta). Present active circumstantial (conditional) participles neuter plural of υπαρχω huparchō and πλεοναζω pleonazō (see 1 Thessalonians 3:12) with dative case υμιν humin “these things existing for you (or in you) and abounding.”They make you to be (κατιστησιν kathistēsin). “Render” (present active indicative of κατιστημι kathistēmi old verb, James 3:6), singular because ταυτα tauta neuter plural. Not idle nor unfruitful (ουκ αργους ουδε ακαρπους ouk argous oude akarpous). Accusative predicative plural with υμας humas understood, both adjectives with alpha privative, for αργος argos see James 2:20 and for ακαρπος akarpos Matthew 13:22. Knowledge (επιγνωσιν epignōsin). “Full (additional) knowledge” as in 2 Peter 1:2.
He that lacketh these things (ωι μη παρεστιν ταυτα hōi mē parestin tauta). “To whom (dative case of possession) these things are not (μη mē because a general or indefinite relative clause).”Seeing only what is near (μυωπαζων muōpazōn). Present active participle of μυωπαζω muōpazō a rare verb from μυωπς muōps (in Aristotle for a near-sighted man) and that from μυεω τους ωπας mueō tous ōpas (to close the eyes in order to see, not to keep from seeing). The only other instance of μυωπαζω muōpazō is given by Suicer from Ps. Dion. Eccl. Hier. ii. 3 (μυωπασουσηι και αποστρεπομενηι muōpasousēi kai apostrephomenēi) used of a soul on which the light shines (blinking and turning away). Thus understood the word here limits τυπλος tuphlos as a short-sighted man screwing up his eyes because of the light. Having forgotten (λητην λαβων lēthēn labōn). “Having received forgetfulness.” Second aorist active participle of λαμβανω lambanō and accusative λητην lēthēn old word, from λητομαι lēthomai to forget, here only in N.T. See 2 Timothy 1:5 for a like phrase υπομνησιν λαβων hupomnēsin labōn (having received remembrance). The cleansing (του καταρισμου tou katharismou). See Hebrews 1:3 for this word for the expiatory sacrifice of Christ for our sins as in 1 Peter 1:18; 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Peter 3:18. In 1 Peter 3:21 Peter denied actual cleansing of sin by baptism (only symbolic). If there is a reference to baptism here, which is doubtful, it can only be in a symbolic sense. Old (παλαι palai). Of the language as in Hebrews 1:1.
Wherefore (διο dio). Because of the exhortation and argument in 2 Peter 1:5-9.Give the more diligence (μαλλον σπουδασατε māllon spoudasate). “Become diligent (first aorist ingressive active imperative of σπουδαζω spoudazō as in 2 Timothy 2:15; 2 Peter 1:15) the more” (μαλλον mallon not less). To make (ποιεισται poieisthai). Present middle infinitive of ποιεω poieō to make for yourselves. Calling and election (κλησιν και εκλογην klēsin kai eklogēn). Both words (κλησιν klēsin the invitation, εκλογην eklogēn actual acceptance). See for εκλογη eklogē 1 Thessalonians 1:4; Romans 9:11. If ye do (ποιουντες poiountes). Present active circumstantial (conditional) participle of ποιεω poieō “doing.” Ye shall never stumble (ου μη πταισητε ποτε ou mē ptaisēte pote). Strong double negative (ου μη ποτε ou mē pote) with first aorist active subjunctive of πταιω ptaiō old verb to stumble, to fall as in James 2:10; James 3:2.
Thus (ουτως houtōs). As shown in 2 Peter 1:10.Shall be supplied (επιχορηγητησεται epichorēgēthēsetai). Future passive of επιχορηγεω epichorēgeō for which see 2 Peter 1:5. You supply the virtues above and God will supply the entrance (η εισοδος hē eisodos old word already in 1 Thessalonians 1:9, etc.). Richly (πλουσιως plousiōs). See Colossians 3:16 for this adverb. Into the eternal kingdom (εις την αιωνιον βασιλειαν eis tēn aiōnion basileian). The believer‘s inheritance of 1 Peter 1:4 is here termed kingdom, but “eternal” (αιωνιον aiōnion feminine same as masculine). Curiously again in the Stratonicea inscription we find της αιωνιου αρχης tēs aiōniou archēs (of the eternal rule) applied to “the lords of Rome.” But this is the spiritual reign of God in men‘s hearts here on earth (1 Peter 2:9) and in heaven. Of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (του κυριου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου tou kuriou hēmōn kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou). For which idiom see note on 2 Peter 1:1.
Wherefore (διο dio). Since they are possessed of faith that conduces to godliness which they are diligently practising now he insists on the truth and proposes to do his part by them about it.I shall be ready always (μελλησω αει mellēsō aei). Future active of μελλω mellō (Matthew 24:6), old verb, to be on the point of doing and used with the infinitive (present, aorist, or future). It is not here a periphrastic future, but rather the purpose of Peter to be ready in the future as in the past and now (Zahn). To put you in remembrance (υμας υπομιμνησκειν humas hupomimnēskein). Present active infinitive of υπομιμνησκω hupomimnēskō old causative compound (υπο μιμνησκω hupoπερι mimnēskō like our suggest), either with two accusatives (John 14:26) or περι τουτων peri with the thing as here), “to keep on reminding you of those things” (καιπερ ειδοτας peri toutōn). Though ye know them (οιδα kaiper eidotas). Second perfect active concessive participle of υμας oida agreeing (acc. plural), with εστηριγμενους humas Cf. Hebrews 5:8. Are established (στηριζω estērigmenous). Perfect passive concessive participle of στηρισον stērizō (1 Peter 5:10). The very verb (εν τηι παρουσηι αλητειαι stērison) used by Jesus to Peter (Luke 22:32). In the truth which is with you (παρουσηι en tēi parousēi alētheiāi). “In the present truth” (the truth present to you), παρειμι parousēi present active participle of παρων pareimi to be beside one. See Colossians 1:6 for this use of parōn Firmly established in the truth, but all the same Peter is eager to make them stronger.
I think it right (δικαιον ηγουμαι dikaion hēgoumai). Peter considers this to be his solemn duty, “right” (δικαιον dikaion). Cf. Philemon 3:1; Ephesians 6:1.So long as (επ οσον eph' hoson). For this phrase see Matthew 9:15; Romans 11:13. Tabernacle (σκηνωματι skēnōmati). Old word, in literal sense in Deuteronomy 33:18 for the usual σκηνη skēnē (Peter‘s word at the Transfiguration, Mark 9:5), earliest use (in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 1:14; Acts 7:46 of the tabernacle of the covenant) in this metaphorical sense of life as a pilgrimage (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 2:11), though Paul has σκηνος skēnos so in 2 Corinthians 5:1, 2 Corinthians 5:4. Peter feels the nearness of death and the urgency upon him. To stir you up (διεγειρειν υμας diegeirein humas). Present active infinitive of διεγειρω diegeirō late (Arist., Hippocr., Herodian, papyri), perfective (δια dia = thoroughly) compound, to wake out of sleep (Mark 4:39), “to keep on rousing you up.” By putting you in remembrance (εν υπομνησει en hupomnēsei). Old word, from υπομιμνησκω hupomimnēskō (2 Peter 1:12), in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 3:1; 2 Timothy 1:5. “By way of reminding you.”
The putting off of my tabernacle (η αποτεσις του σκηννωματος μου hē apothesis tou skēnnōmatos mou). For αποτεσις apothesis see note on 1 Peter 3:21 and for σκηνωμα skēnōma see note on 2 Peter 1:13. For the metaphor see 2 Corinthians 5:3.Cometh swiftly (ταχινη εστιν tachinē estin). Late adjective (Theocritus, lxx, inscription), in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 2:1. It is not clear whether ταχινος tachinos means soon or speedy as in Isaiah 59:7 and like ταχυς tachus in James 1:19, or sudden, like ταχυς tachus in Plato (Republ. 553 D). Either sense agrees with the urgent tone of Peter here, whether he felt his death to be near or violent or both. Signified unto me (εδηλωσεν μοι edēlōsen moi). First aorist active indicative of δηλοω dēloō old verb (from δελος delos), as in 1 Peter 1:11. Peter refers to the incident told in John 21:18., which he knew by personal experience before John wrote it down.
Peter may also have had an intimation by vision of his approaching death (cf. the legend Domine quo vadis) as Paul often did (Acts 16:9; Acts 18:9; Acts 21:11; Acts 23:11; Acts 27:23).At every time (εκαστοτε hekastote). As need arises, old adverb, here alone in N.T. After my decease (μετα την εμην εχοδον meta tēn emēn exodon). For εχοδος exodos meaning death see Luke 9:31, and for departure from Egypt (way out, εχ οδος exεχειν υμας hodos) see Hebrews 11:22, the only other N.T. examples. Here again Peter was present on the Transfiguration mount when the talk was about the “exodus” of Jesus from earth. That ye may be able (εχω echein humas). Literally, “that ye may have it,” the same idiom with σπουδασω echō and the infinitive in Mark 14:8; Matthew 18:25. It is the object-infinitive after την τουτων μνημην ποιεισται spoudasō (I will give diligence, for which see 2 Peter 1:10). To call these things to remembrance (ποιεω tēn toutōn mnēmēn poieisthai). Present middle infinitive of Μνημη poieō (as in 2 Peter 1:10). μναομαι Mnēmē is an old word (from μνειαν ποιουμαι mnaomai), here alone in N.T. This idiom, like the Latin mentionem facere, is common in the old writers (papyri also both for “mention” and “remembrance”), here only in N.T., but in Romans 1:20 we have mneian poioumai (I make mention). Either sense suits here. It is possible, as Irenaeus (iii. I. I) thought, that Peter had in mind Mark‘s Gospel, which would help them after Peter was gone. Mark‘s Gospel was probably already written at Peter‘s suggestion, but Peter may have that fact in mind here.
We did not follow (ουκ εχακολουτησαντες ouk exakolouthēsantes). First aorist active participle of εχακολουτεω exakoloutheō late compound verb, to follow out (Polybius, Plutarch, lxx, papyri, inscriptions as of death following for any Gentile in the temple violating the barrier), with emphatic negative ουκ ouk “not having followed.” See also 2 Peter 2:2 for this verb.Cunningly devised fables (σεσοπισμενοις μυτοις sesophismenois muthois). Associative instrumental case of μυτος muthos (old term for word, narrative, story, fiction, fable, falsehood). In N.T. only here and the Pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 1:4, etc.). Perfect passive participle of σοπιζω sophizō old word (from σοπος sophos), only twice in N.T., in causative sense to make wise (2 Timothy 3:15), to play the sophist, to invent cleverly (here) and so also in the old writers and in the papyri. Some of the false teachers apparently taught that the Gospel miracles were only allegories and not facts (Bigg). Cf. 2 Peter 2:3 for “feigned words.” When we made known unto you (εγνωρισαμεν υμιν egnōrisamen humin). First aorist active indicative of γνωριζω gnōrizō to make known unto you. Possibly by Peter himself. The power and coming (την δυναμιν και παρουσιαν tēn dunamin kai parousian). These words can refer (Chase) to the Incarnation, just as is true of επιπανεια epiphaneia in 2 Timothy 1:10 (second coming in 1 Timothy 6:14), and is true of παρουσια parousia (2 Corinthians 7:6 of Titus). But elsewhere in the N.T. παρουσια parousia (technical term in the papyri for the coming of a king or other high dignitary), when used of Christ, refers to his second coming (2 Peter 3:4, 2 Peter 3:12). But we were eye-witnesses (αλλ εποπται γενητεντες all' epoptai genēthentes). First aorist passive participle of γινομαι ginomai “but having become eye-witnesses.” Εποπται Epoptai old word (from εποπτω epoptō like εποπτευω epopteuō in 1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 3:2), used of those who attained the third or highest degree of initiates in the Eleusinian mysteries (common in the inscriptions). Cf. αυτοπτης autoptēs in Luke 1:2. Of his majesty (της εκεινου μεγαλειοτητος tēs ekeinou megaleiotētos). Late and rare word (lxx and papyri) from μεγαλειος megaleios (Acts 2:11), in N.T. only here, Luke 9:43 (of God); Acts 19:27 (of Artemis). Peter clearly felt that he and James and John were lifted to the highest stage of initiation at the Transfiguration of Christ. Emphatic εκεινου ekeinou as in 2 Timothy 2:26.
For he received (λαβων γαρ labōn gar). Second aorist active participle nominative singular of λαμβανω lambanō “he having received,” but there is no finite verb, anacoluthon, changing in 2 Peter 1:19 (after parenthesis in 2 Peter 1:18) to εχομεν βεβαιοτερον echomen bebaioteron rather than εβεβαιωσεν ebebaiōsen there came such a voice to him (πωνης ενεχτεισης αυτωι τοιασδε phōnēs enechtheisēs autōi toiasde). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle feminine singular of περω pherō (cf. 1 Peter 1:13), repeated ενεχτεισαν enechtheisan in 2 Peter 1:18. Πωνη Phōnē (voice) is used also of Pentecost (Acts 2:6). Τοιοσδε Toiosde (classical demonstrative) occurs here alone in the N.T.From the excellent glory (υπο της μεγαλοπρεπους δοχης hupo tēs megaloprepous doxēs). “By the majestic glory.” Μεγαλοπρεπης Megaloprepēs old compound (μεγας megas great, πρεπει prepei it is becoming), here only in N.T., several times in O.T., Apocr. (2 Macc. 8:15), adverb in the inscriptions. Probably a reference to νεπελη πωτεινη nephelē phōteinē (bright cloud, shekinah) in Matthew 17:5. The words given here from the “voice” agree exactly with Matthew 17:5 except the order and the use of εις ον eis hon rather than εν ωι en hōi Mark (Mark 9:7) and Luke (Luke 9:35) have ακουετε akouete But Peter did not need any Gospel for his report here.
This voice (ταυτην την πωνην tautēn tēn phōnēn). The one referred to in 2 Peter 1:17.We heard (ηκουσαμεν ēkousamen). First aorist active indicative of ακουω akouō a definite experience of Peter. Brought (ενεχτεισαν enechtheisan). “Borne” as in 2 Peter 1:17. When we were with him (συν αυτωι οντες sun autōi ontes). Present active participle of ειμι eimi “being with him.” In the holy mount (εν τωι αγιωι ορει en tōi hagiōi orei). Made holy by the majestic glory. See Ezekiel 28:14 for “holy mount of God,” there Sinai, this one probably one of the lower slopes of Hermon. Peter‘s account is independent of the Synoptic narrative, but agrees with it in all essentials.
The word of prophecy (τον προπητικον λογον ton prophētikon logon). “The prophetic word.” Cf. 1 Peter 1:10, a reference to all the Messianic prophecies.Made more sure (βεβαιοτερον bebaioteron). Predicate accusative of the comparative adjective βεβαιος bebaios (2 Peter 1:10). The Transfiguration scene confirmed the Messianic prophecies and made clear the deity of Jesus Christ as God‘s Beloved Son. Some with less likelihood take Peter to mean that the word of prophecy is a surer confirmation of Christ‘s deity than the Transfiguration. Whereunto (ωι hōi). Dative of the relative referring to “the prophetic word made more sure.” That ye take heed (προσεχοντες prosechontes). Present active participle with νουν noun (mind) understood, “holding your mind upon” with the dative (ωι hōi). As unto a lamp (ως λυχνωι hōs luchnōi). Dative also after προσεχοντες prosechontes of λυχνος luchnos old word (Matthew 5:15). Shining (παινοντι phainonti). Dative also present active participle of παινω phainō to shine (John 1:5). So of the Baptist (John 5:35). In a dark place (εν αυχμηρωι τοπωι en auchmērōi topōi). Old adjective, parched, squalid, dirty, dark, murky, here only in N.T., though in Aristotle and on tombstone for a boy. Until the day dawn (εως ου ημερα διαυγασηι heōs hou hēmera diaugasēi). First aorist active subjunctive of διαυγαζω diaugazō with temporal conjunction εως ου heōs hou usual construction for future time. Late compound verb διαυγαζω diaugazō (Polybius, Plutarch, papyri) from δια dia and αυγη augē to shine through, here only in N.T. The day-star (πωσπορος phōsphoros). Old compound adjective (πως phōs light, περω pherō to bring), light-bringing, light-bearer (Lucifer) applied to Venus as the morning star. Our word ποσπορυς phosphorus is this word. In the lxx εωσπορος heōsphoros occurs. Cf. Malachi 4:2; Luke 1:76-79; Revelation 22:16 for “dawn” applied to the Messiah. Arise (ανατειληι anateilēi). First aorist active subjunctive of ανατελλω anatellō (James 1:11; Matthew 5:45).
Knowing this first (τουτο πρωτον γινωσκοντες touto prōton ginōskontes). Agreeing with ποιειτε poieite like προσεχοντες prosechontes in 2 Peter 1:19.No prophecy of Scripture (πασα προπητεια ου pāsa prophēteia ou). Like the Hebrew γινεται lȯkōl but also in the papyri as in 1 John 2:21 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 753). Is (εστιν ginetai). Rather “comes,” “springs” (Alford), not “is” (ιδιας επιλυσεως estin). Of private interpretation (γνωμης idias epiluseōs). Ablative case of origin or source in the predicate as with του τεου gnōmēs in Acts 20:3 and with εχ ημων tou theou and επιλυσις ex hēmōn in 2 Corinthians 4:7. “No prophecy of Scripture comes out of private disclosure,” not “of private interpretation.” The usual meaning of επιλυω epilusis is explanation, but the word does not occur elsewhere in the N.T. It occurs in the papyri in the sense of solution and even of discharge of a debt. Spitta urges “dissolved” as the idea here. The verb epiluō to unloose, to untie, to release, occurs twice in the N.T., once (Mark 4:34) where it can mean “disclose” about parables, the other (Acts 19:39) where it means to decide. It is the prophet‘s grasp of the prophecy, not that of the readers that is here presented, as the next verse shows.
For (γαρ gar). The reason for the previous statement that no prophet starts a prophecy himself. He is not a self-starter.Came (ηνεχτη ēnechthē). First aorist passive indicative of περω pherō (2 Peter 1:17.). By the will of man (τεληματι αντρωπου thelēmati anthrōpou). Instrumental case of τελημα thelēma Prophecy is of divine origin, not of one‘s private origination (ιδιας επιλυσεως idias epiluseōs). Moved by the Holy Ghost (υπο πνευματος αγιου περομενοι hupo pneumatos hagiou pheromenoi). Present passive participle of περω pherō moved from time to time. There they “spoke from God.” Peter is not here warning against personal interpretation of prophecy as the Roman Catholics say, but against the folly of upstart prophets with no impulse from God.
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