Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Let not your heart be troubled (μη ταρασσεστω υμων η καρδια mē tarassesthō humōn hē kardia). Not here the physical organ of life (Luke 21:34), but the seat of spiritual life (πνευμα πσυχη pneuma class="normal greek">ταρασσω psuchē), the centre of feeling and faith (Romans 10:10), “the focus of the religious life” (Vincent) as in Matthew 22:37. See these words repeated in John 14:27. Jesus knew what it was to have a “troubled” heart (John 11:33; John 13:31) where πιστευετε και πιστευετε tarassō is used of him. Plainly the hearts of the disciples were tossed like waves in the wind by the words of Jesus in John 13:38.Ye believe believe also (πιστευω pisteuete kai pisteuete). So translated as present active indicative plural second person and present active imperative of pisteuō The form is the same. Both may be indicative (ye believe and ye believe), both may be imperative (believe and believe or believe also), the first may be indicative (ye believe) and the second imperative (believe also), the first may be imperative (keep on believing) and the second indicative (and ye do believe, this less likely). Probably both are imperatives (Mark 11:22), “keep on believing in God and in me.”
Mansions (μοναι monai). Old word from μενω menō to abide, abiding places, in N.T. only here and John 14:23. There are many resting-places in the Father‘s house (οικια oikia). Christ‘s picture of heaven here is the most precious one that we possess. It is our heavenly home with the Father and with Jesus.If it were not so (ει δε μη ei de mē). Ellipsis of the verb (Mark 2:21; Revelation 2:5, Revelation 2:16; John 14:11). Here a suppressed condition of the second class (determined as unfulfilled) as the conclusion shows. I would have told you (ειπον αν υμιν eipon an humin). Regular construction for this apodosis (αν an and aorist - second active - indicative). For I go (οτι πορευομαι hoti poreuomai). Reason for the consolation given, futuristic present middle indicative, and explanation of his words in John 13:33 that puzzled Peter so (John 13:36.). To prepare a place for you (ετοιμασαι τοπον υμιν hetoimasai topon humin). First aorist active infinitive of purpose of ετοιμαζω hetoimazō to make ready, old verb from ετοιμος hetoimos Here only in John, but in Mark 10:40 (Matthew 20:23). It was customary to send one forward for such a purpose (Numbers 10:33). So Jesus had sent Peter and John to make ready (this very verb) for the passover meal (Mark 14:12; Matthew 26:17). Jesus is thus our Forerunner (προδρομος prodromos) in heaven (Hebrews 6:20).
If I go (εαν πορευτω ean poreuthō). Third-class condition (εαν ean and first aorist passive subjunctive of πορευομαι poreuomai).And prepare (και ετοιμασω kai hetoimasō). Same condition and first aorist active subjunctive of the same verb ετοιμαζω hetoimazō I come again (παλιν ερχομαι palin erchomai). Futuristic present middle, definite promise of the second coming of Christ. And will receive you unto myself (και παραλημπσομαι υμας προς εμαυτον kai paralēmpsomai humas pros emauton). Future middle of παραλαμβανω paralambanō Literally, “And I shall take you along (παρα para -) to my own home” (cf. John 13:36). This blessed promise is fulfilled in death for all believers who die before the Second Coming. Jesus comes for us then also. That where I am there ye may be also (ινα οπου ειμι εγω και υμεις ητε hina hopou eimi egō kai humeis ēte). Purpose clause with ινα hina and present active subjunctive of ειμι eimi This the purpose of the departure and the return of Christ. And this is heaven for the believer to be where Jesus is and with him forever.
Ye know the way (οιδατε την οδον oidate tēn hodon). Definite allusion to the puzzle of Peter in John 13:36. The path to the Father‘s house is now plain.
Whither (που pou) - how (πως pōs). It is Thomas, not Peter (John 13:36.) who renews the doubt about the destination of Jesus including the path or way thither (την οδον tēn hodon). Thomas is the spokesman for the materialistic conception then and now.
I am the way, and the truth, and the life (Εγω ειμι η οδος και η αλητεια και η ζωη Egō eimi hē hodos kai hē alētheia kai hē zōē). Either of these statements is profound enough to stagger any one, but here all three together overwhelm Thomas. Jesus had called himself “the life” to Martha (John 11:25) and “the door” to the Pharisees (John 10:7) and “the light of the world” (John 8:12). He spoke “the way of God in truth” (Mark 12:14). He is the way to God and the only way (John 14:6), the personification of truth, the centre of life.Except by me (ει μη δι εμου ei mē di' emou). There is no use for the Christian to wince at these words of Jesus. If he is really the Incarnate Son of God (John 1:1, John 1:14, John 1:18), they are necessarily true.
If ye had known me (ει εγνωκειτε με ei egnōkeite me). Past perfect indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō to know by personal experience, in condition of second class as is made plain by the conclusion (αν ηιδετε an ēidete) where οιδα oida not γινωσκω ginōskō is used. Thomas and the rest had not really come to know Jesus, much as they loved him.From henceforth ye know him (απ αρτι γινωσκετε αυτον ap' arti ginōskete auton). Probably inchoative present active indicative, “ye are beginning to know the Father from now on.” And have seen him (και εωρακατε kai heōrakate). Perfect active indicative of οραω horaō Because they had seen Jesus who is the Son of God, the Image of God, and like God (John 1:18). Hence God is like Jesus Christ. It is a bold and daring claim to deity. The only intelligible conception of God is precisely what Jesus here says. God is like Christ.
Show us (δειχον ημιν deixon hēmin). Philip now speaks up, possibly hoping for a theophany (Exodus 33:18.), certainly not grasping the idea of Jesus just expressed.
So long time (τοσουτον χρονον tosouton chronon). Accusative of extent of time.And dost thou not know me? (και ουκ εγνωκας με kai ouk egnōkas me). Perfect active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō Jesus patiently repeats his language to Philip with the crisp statement: “he that hath seen me hath seen the Father” (ο εωρακως εμε εωρακεν τον πατερα ho heōrakōs eme eōraken ton patera). Perfect active participle and perfect active indicative of οραω horaō state of completion. Thou (συ su). Emphatic - After these years together.
Believest thou not? (ου πιστευεισ ou pisteueis). Jesus had a right to expect greater faith from these men than from the blind man (John 9:35) or Martha (John 11:27). His words in John 14:1 are clearly needed. This oneness with the Father Jesus had already stated (John 10:38) as shown by his “words” (ρηματα rēmata) and his “works” (εργα erga). Cf. John 3:34; John 5:19; John 6:62.
Believe me (πιστευετε μοι pisteuete moi). Repeated appeal (present active imperative of πιστευω pisteuō) as in John 14:1 to his disciples and as he had done with the hostile Jews to be influenced by his “works” at any rate (John 10:38).
Shall he do also (κακεινος ποιησει kakeinos poiēsei). Emphatic pronoun εκεινος ekeinos “that one also.”Greater works than these (μειζονα τουτων meizona toutōn). Comparative adjective neuter plural from μεγας megas with ablative case τουτων toutōn Not necessarily greater miracles and not greater spiritual works in quality, but greater in quantity. Cf. Peter at Pentecost and Paul‘s mission tours. “Because I go” (οτι εγω πορευορναι hoti egō poreuornai). Reason for this expansion made possible by the Holy Spirit as Paraclete (John 16:7).
Whatsoever ye shall ask (οτι αν αιτησητε hoti an aitēsēte). Indefinite relative clause with οτι hoti (neuter accusative singular of οστις hostis), αν an and the aorist active subjunctive of αιτεω aiteō This is an advance thought over John 14:12.In my name (εν τωι ονοματι μου en tōi onomati mou). First mention of his “name” as the open sesame to the Father‘s will. See also John 14:26; John 15:16; John 16:23, John 16:24, John 16:26. That will I do (τουτο ποιησω touto poiēsō). The Father answers prayers (John 15:16; John 16:23), but so does the Son (here and John 14:14). The purpose (ινα hina clause with first aorist passive subjunctive of δοχαζω doxazō) is “that the Father may be glorified in the Son.” Plead Christ‘s name in prayer to the Father.
If ye shall ask me anything in my name (εαν τι αιτησητε με εν τωι ονοματι μου ean ti aitēsēte me en tōi onomati mou). Condition of third class with εαν ean and first aorist active subjunctive of αιτεω aiteō The use of με me (me) here is supported by Aleph B 33 Vulgate Syriac Peshitta. Just this phrase does not occur elsewhere in John and seems awkward, but see John 16:23. If it is genuine, as seems likely, here is direct prayer to Jesus taught as we see it practiced by Stephen in Acts 7:59; and in Revelation 22:20.
If ye love me (εαν αγαπατε με ean agapāte me). Third-class condition “if ye keep on loving (present active subjunctive, same contract form as indicative) me.” Cf. John 14:23.Ye will keep (τηρησετε tērēsete). Future active of τηρεω tēreō not aorist imperative τηρησατε tērēsate (keep) as some MSS. have. For this phrase see also John 8:51; John 14:23, John 14:24; John 15:20; 1 John 2:5. Continued love prevents disobedience.
And I will pray the Father (καγω ερωτησω τον πατερα kagō erōtēsō ton patera). Ερωταω Erōtaō for prayer, not question (the old use), also in John 16:23 (prayer to Jesus in same sense as αιτεω aiteō), John 14:26 (by Jesus as here); John 17:9 (by Jesus), “make request of.”Another Comforter (αλλον παρακλητον allon paraklēton). Another of like kind (αλλον allon not ετερον heteron), besides Jesus who becomes our Paraclete, Helper, Advocate, with the Father (1 John 2:1, Cf. Romans 8:26.). This old word (Demosthenes), from παρακαλεω parakaleō was used for legal assistant, pleader, advocate, one who pleads another‘s cause (Josephus, Philo, in illiterate papyrus), in N.T. only in John‘s writings, though the idea of it is in Romans 8:26-34. Cf. Deissmann, Light, etcp. 336. So the Christian has Christ as his Paraclete with the Father, the Holy Spirit as the Father‘s Paraclete with us (John 14:16, John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:7; 1 John 2:1). For ever (εις τον αιωνα eis ton aiōna). This the purpose (ινα hina) in view and thus Jesus is to be with his people here forever (Matthew 28:20). See John 4:14 for the idiom.
The Spirit of truth (το πνευμα της αλητειας to pneuma tēs alētheias). Same phrase in John 15:27; John 16:13; 1 John 4:6, “a most exquisite title” (Bengel). The Holy Spirit is marked by it (genitive case), gives it, defends it (cf. John 1:17), in contrast to the spirit of error (1 John 4:6).Whom (ο ho). Grammatical neuter gender (ο ho) agreeing with πνευμα pneuma (grammatical), but rightly rendered in English by “whom” and note masculine εκεινος ekeinos (John 14:26). He is a person, not a mere influence. Cannot receive (ου δυναται λαβειν ou dunatai labein). Left to itself the sinful world is helpless (1 Corinthians 2:14; Romans 8:7.), almost Paul‘s very language on this point. The world lacks spiritual insight (ου τεωρει ou theōrei) and spiritual knowledge (ουδε γινωσκει oude ginōskei). It failed to recognize Jesus (John 1:10) and likewise the Holy Spirit. Ye know him (υμεις γινωσκετε αυτο humeis ginōskete auto). Emphatic position of υμεις humeis (ye) in contrast with the world (John 15:19), because they have seen Jesus the Revealer of the Father (John 14:9). Abides (μενει menei). Timeless present tense. With you (παρ υμιν par' humin). “By your side,” “at home with you,” not merely “with you” (μετ υμων meth' humōn) “in the midst of you.” In you (εν υμιν en humin). In your hearts. So note μετα meta (John 14:16), παρα εν para class="translit"> en f0).
I will not leave (ουκ απησω ouk aphēsō). Future active of απιημι aphiēmi to send away, to leave behind.Desolate (ορπανους orphanous). Old word (ορπος orphos Latin orbus), bereft of parents, and of parents bereft of children. Common in papyri of orphan children. In John 13:33 Jesus called the disciples τεκνια teknia (little children), and so naturally the word means “orphans” here, but the meaning may be “helpless” (without the other Paraclete, the Holy Spirit). The only other N.T. example is in James 1:27 where it means “fatherless.” I come (ερχομαι erchomai). Futuristic present as in John 14:3.
But ye behold me (υμεις δε τεωρειτε με humeis de theōreite me). Emphatic position of υμεις humeis (ye) in contrast to the blind, unseeing world. Cf. John 13:33; John 16:10, John 16:16.Because I live, ye shall live also (οτι εγω ζω και υμεις ζησετε hoti egō zō kai humeis zēsete). This is our blessed guarantee of immortal, eternal life, the continued living of Jesus. He is the surety of a better covenant (Hebrews 7:22), the Risen Christ Jesus. He had said it before (John 6:57).
In that day (εν εκεινηι τηι ημεραι en ekeinēi tēi hēmerāi). The New Dispensation of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Christ‘s Resurrection and the Coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost.Shall know (γνωσεστε gnōsesthe). Future middle of γινωσκω ginōskō Chapter 1 to chapter 3 of Acts bear eloquent witness to these words.
He it is that loveth me (εκεινος εστιν ο αγαπων με ekeinos estin ho agapōn me). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun εκεινος ekeinos “that is the one who loves me.”And will manifest myself unto him (και εμπανισω αυτωι εμαυτον kai emphanisō autōi emauton). Future active of εμπανιζω emphanizō old verb from εμπανης emphanēs (Acts 10:40; Romans 10:20). The Unseen and Risen Christ will be a real and spiritual Presence to the obedient and loving believer.
Not Iscariot (ουχ ο Ισκαριωτης ouch ho Iskariōtēs). Judas Iscariot had gone (John 13:30), but John is anxious to make it clear that this Judas (common name, two apostles also named James) was not the infamous traitor. He is also called Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus (Mark 3:17; Matthew 10:3) and the brother (or son) of James (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13). This is the fourth interruption of the talk of Jesus (by Peter, John 13:36; by Thomas, John 14:5; by Philip, John 14:8; by Judas, John 14:22).And not to the world (και ουχι τωι κοσμωι kai ouchi tōi kosmōi). Judas caught at the word εμπανιζω emphanizō in John 14:21 as perhaps a Messianic theophany visible to all the world as at the judgment (John 5:27.). He seems to suspect a change of plan on the part of Jesus (τι γεγονεν οτι ti gegonen hoti = how has it happened that).
If a man love me (εαν τις αγαπαι με ean tis agapāi me). Condition of third class with εαν ean and present active subjunctive, “if one keep on loving me.” That is key to the spiritual manifestation (εμπανιζω emphanizō).We will come (ελευσομετα eleusometha). Future middle of ερχομαι erchomai and first person plural (the Father and I), not at the judgment, but here and now. And make our abode with him (και μονην παρ αυτωι ποιησομετα kai monēn par' autōi poiēsometha). See John 14:2 for the word μονη monē (dwelling, abiding place). If the Holy Spirit “abides” (μενει menei John 14:17) in you, that heart becomes a temple (ναος naos) of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:16.), and so a fit dwelling place for the Father and the Son, a glorious and uplifting reality.
He that loveth me not (ο μη αγαπων με ho mē agapōn me). Present active articular participle of αγαπαω agapaō with negative μη mē “the one who keeps on not loving me.”Is not mine, but the Father‘s (ουκ εστιν εμοσ αλλα του πατρος ouk estin emos class="normal greek">εμος alla tou patros). Predicative possessive pronoun πατρος emos and the predicate genitive of possession patros f0).
Have I spoken (λελαληκα lelalēka). Perfect active indicative of λαλεω laleō for permanent keeping (τηρεω tēreō John 14:23).While yet abiding with you (παρ υμιν μενων par' humin menōn). Present active participle, no “yet” (ετι eti) in the Greek, “while remaining beside (παρ par') you” before departing for the coming of the other Paraclete.
Whom (ο ho). Grammatical neuter, but “whom” is correct translation. The Father will send the Holy Spirit (John 14:16; Luke 24:49; Acts 2:33), but so will the Son (John 15:26; John 16:7) as Jesus breathes the Holy Spirit upon the disciples (John 20:22). There is no contradiction in this relation of the Persons in the Trinity (the Procession of the Holy Spirit). Here the Holy Spirit (full title as in Mark 3:29; Matthew 12:32; Luke 12:10) is identified with the Paraclete.He (εκεινος ekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun and masculine like παρακλητος paraklētos Shall teach you all things (υμας διδαχει παντα humas didaxei panta). The Holy Spirit knows “the deep things of God” (1 Corinthians 2:10) and he is our Teacher in the Dispensation of the Holy Spirit of both new truth (John 14:25) and old. Bring to your remembrance (υπομνησει υμας hupomnēsei humas). Future active indicative of υπομιμνησκω hupomimnēskō old verb to remind, to recall, here only in this Gospel (cf. 3 John 1:10; 2 Timothy 2:14) and with two accusatives (person and thing). After pentecost the disciples will be able better to recall and to understand what Jesus had said (how dull they had been at times) and to be open to new revelations from God (cf. Peter at Joppa and Caesarea).
My peace (ειρηνην την εμην eirēnēn tēn emēn). This is Christ‘s bequest to the disciples before he goes, the μεδη δειλιατω shalom of the orient for greeting and parting, used by Jesus in his appearances after the resurrection (John 20:19, John 20:21, John 20:26) as in 2 John 1:3; 3 John 1:14, but here and in John 16:33 in the sense of spiritual peace such as only Christ can give and which his Incarnation offers to men (Luke 2:14).Neither let it be fearful (δειλιαω medē deiliatō). Added to the prohibition in John 14:1, only N.T. example of δειλος deiliaō (rare word in Aristotle, in a papyrus of one condemned to death), common in lxx, like palpitating of the heart (from deilos).
I go away, and I come (υπαγω και ερχομαι hupagō kai erchomai), both futuristic presents (John 7:33; John 14:3, John 14:18).If ye loved me (ει ηγαπατε με ei ēgapāte me). Second-class condition with the imperfect active of αγαπαω agapaō referring to present time, implying that the disciples are not loving Jesus as they should. Ye would have rejoiced (εχαρητε αν echarēte an). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρω chairō with αν an conclusion of second-class condition referring to past time, “Ye would already have rejoiced before this” at Christ‘s going to the Father (John 14:12). Greater than I (μειζων μου meizōn mou). Ablative case μου mou after the comparative μειζων meizōn (from positive μεγας megas). The filial relation makes this necessary. Not a distinction in nature or essence (cf. John 10:30), but in rank in the Trinity. No Arianism or Unitarianism here. The very explanation here is proof of the deity of the Son (Dods).
The prince of the world (ο του κοσμου αρχων ho tou kosmou archōn). Satan as in John 12:31 which see.
But that the world may know (αλλ ινα γνωι ο κοσμος all' hina gnōi ho kosmos). Purpose clause with ινα hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκω ginōskō Elliptical construction (cf. John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25). “But I surrendered myself to death,” etc., before ινα hinaArise, let us go hence (εγειρεστε αγωμεν εντευτεν egeiresthe class="normal greek">εγειρω agōmen enteuthen). Imperative present middle of αγωμεν egeirō and the volitive (hortatory) subjunctive agōmen (the word used in John 11:7, John 11:16) of going to meet death. Apparently the group arose and walked out into the night and the rest of the talk (chs. 15 and 16) and prayer (ch. 17) was in the shadows on the way to Gethsemane.
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