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Bible Commentaries

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Hebrews 1

 

 

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Verse 1

Hebrews 1:1. πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως) God spoke πολυμερῶς, in many portions. The creation was revealed in the time of Adam; the last judgment in the time of Enoch; and so from time to time knowledge was given more fully unfolded. He also spoke πολυτρόπως, in divers modes of revelation, in dreams and visions. Therefore πολυμερῶς refers to the matter, πολυτρόπως to the form. In both there is an antithesis to one total and most perfect communication of GOD to us in Jesus Christ. The very multitude of prophets shows, that they “prophesied in part;” therefore, says he, you ought not to be frightened at the novelty of Christianity.— πάλαι, in time past) For a very considerable space of time there had arisen no prophets, in order that the Son might be the more an object of expectation. [Malachi, the last of the prophets of the Old Testament, prophesied at the interval of some ages before the birth of Christ.—V. g.]— θεὸς, God) The apostle treats of GOD in this passage; of Christ, ch. Hebrews 2:3; of the Holy Ghost, ch. Hebrews 3:7.— λαλήσας, having spoken) A Synecdoche(1) for every sort of communication, as Psalms 2:5. So דבר ῥῆ΄α, a word, is used in a wide sense.— ἐν, in) [Not as Engl. Vers. by] Therefore God Himself was in the prophets, as also especially in the Son. A mortal king speaks by his ambassador, not, however, in his ambassador. If the apostle had not used the ἐν, in, with a view to what follows, in order that it might apply to the Son, he would doubtless have put διὰ τῶν προφητῶν, by the prophets. For this reason it is not inconsistent to urge the use of the ἐν, in.— ἐν τοῖς προφήταις, in the prophets) Artemonius, Part I., cap. 43, contends that Luke wrote ἐν τοῖς ἀγγέλοις; for he is of opinion, that Luke wrote this epistle, p. 98; and this opinion is not inconsistent with Clem. Alex. adumbr. on 1 Peter 5:13, where Luke is said to have translated the Epistle of Paul to the Hebrews, although we have proved above that it was written in Greek by Paul himself. All the copies(2) have ἐν τοῖς προφήταις; and the epistle, showing the excellence of Christ by using so many comparisons, certainly prefers Him to the prophets also, and to them all: Matthew 11:13; Matthew 12:41; John 8:53. But it prefers Him to the prophets, if not in this passage, then nowhere else; and here, indeed, it touches upon it, as it were by the way, at the very beginning, as this comparison is immediately after swallowed up by others more illustrious. In the mean time, this mention of the prophets summarily, made at the very beginning of the epistle, admirably anticipates objections, and presents a conciliatory argument; so that the apostle hereby declares, that he embraces the whole scripture of the Old Testament, and asserts nothing contrary to it. Wolfius has more on this passage.

Moses occupies the first place among the prophets, of whom Paul afterwards speaks separately. The antithesis of the prophets and the Son is the same as in Matthew 21:34; Matthew 21:37, and the very appellation, Son, indicates His excellence above the prophets: and whatever is presently said of the angels [as to their inferiority to the Son] is intended to be understood as holding good much more of the prophets.— ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμέρων τούτων, in the last of these days) There is a similar expression in Numbers 24:14, באחרית הימים, LXX., ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν; in like manner, 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 1:20, and in a different sense 2 Timothy 3:1, note. The antithesis is πάλαι, in time past. The apostle intimates, that no further speaking was afterwards to be expected. This whole epistle, concerning which comp. 2 Peter 3:15, sets before us the end of all things as at hand: ch. Hebrews 2:8, Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 9:28, Hebrews 10:13; Hebrews 10:25; Hebrews 10:37, Hebrews 11:40, Hebrews 12:23, Hebrews 13:4.— ἐλάλησεν, hath spoken) all things, in one most perfect way [as contrasted with the many ways of revealing Himself formerly].— ἡμῖν, to us) The antithesis is τοῖς πατράσιν, unto the fathers.— ἐν υἱῷ, in the Son) ἐν often denotes by, but here it has a higher meaning; comp. John 14:10. How great a prophet is the very Son of God! The name, Son, is put here by Antonomasia,(3) as equivalent to a proper name; but a proper name in Hebrew is without the article; and so in the present case the article is omitted. It is also omitted in Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:28. So בר, Psalms 2:12 . God hath spoken to us in the Son alone. The apostles were also spoken to; who themselves also are considered in the light of persons to whom the word was spoken, before that they could speak the word to others: they were ὑπηρέται τοῦ λόγου, ministers of the word; but the apostles taught nothing new after Christ, and as the Father spoke in the Son, so the Son spoke in the apostles. The Son also spoke by the prophets in the Old Testament: but in a different manner. The majesty of this Son is SET FORTH, I. Absolutely,— α) by the very name of Son, Hebrews 1:1; β) by three glorious predicates, expressed by as many finite verbs along with the pronoun who: Whom He has appointed, by Whom He made, Who sat down; and in this way His course, as it were, is described from the beginning of all things till He reached the goal, Hebrews 1:2-3. II. In comparison with the angels, Hebrews 1:4. The CONFIRMATION presently after corresponds to this proposition, and the very name of Son is presently proved at Hebrews 1:5; as also the inheritance, at Hebrews 1:6-9; the making of the worlds, Hebrews 1:10-12; the sitting on the right hand, at Hebrews 1:13-14. Let us consider them one by one.


Verse 2

Hebrews 1:2. ὃν ἔθηκε κληρονόμον πάντων, whom He appointed heir of all things) Immediately following the name of Son, mention is appropriately made of the inheritance or heirship; and God really appointed Him heir, before that He made the worlds, Ephesians 3:11; Proverbs 8:22-23; hence in the text the making of the worlds follows after the heirship. As the Son, He is the first-begotten: as the Heir, He is the heir of the whole universe, Hebrews 1:6.— διʼ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησε τοὺς αἰῶνας) This is the ancient order of the words: by whom also He made the worlds. The emphasis of the particle καὶ, also, falls on the verb made in this sense: He not only appointed the Son heir of all things before creation, but also made the worlds by Him.(4) The particle διὰ, by, takes away nothing from the majesty of the Son. On the fact, see Hebrews 1:10; and on the particle, comp. ch. Hebrews 2:10. By the Son He made the worlds, and all things that are therein; ch. Hebrews 11:3. Therefore the Son was before all worlds; and His glory is evident, looking backwards to anterior times, although it is not until these last days that God has spoken to us in Him. Indeed in this way He has conferred on these last days complete salvation.

ABD( δ) corrected, f Vulg. Memph. Syr. read the order as Bengel does. But Rec. Text, without any very old authority, save Orig. 4, 60c, and later Syr., read τοὺς αἰῶνας ἐποίησεν.—ED.


Verse 3

Hebrews 1:3. ὃς—ὑ ψηλο͂ ς, who—on high) This is the third of those glorious predicates, He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Again, three points of importance are introduced into this predicate, by the three participles. Paul mentions these points in the same order, Colossians 1:15; Colossians 1:17; Colossians 1:20. The first participle and likewise the second, from the finite verb ἐκάθισεν, sat down, being the aorist, have the meaning of an imperfect tense, and may be resolved into because, ὢν, φέρων τε, because (inasmuch as) He was, because (inasmuch as) He was upholding (comp. ὢν, ch. Hebrews 5:8); but the third, as being without the particle τὲ, and, cohering more closely with the same finite verb, is to be resolved into after that: ποιησάμενος, after that He made.— ὢνφέρων τε, because [inasmuch as] He was—and upheld) That glory, on which the Son entered when He was exalted to the right hand of the Father, no angel was capable of taking, but the Son took it; for He also had it formerly in respect of God, whose glory shines refulgently in Him, and in respect of all things, which He upholds; John 6:62; Revelation 1:18.— ἀπαύγασμα, the brightness) Wisdom of Solomon 7:25-26 : For she (wisdom) is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the GLORY ( δοξησ) of the Almighty: therefore no defiled thing falls into her. For she is the BRIGHTNESS ( απαυγασ΄α) of the everlasting light, and the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness. ἀπὸ has in this compound word an intensive power—as in ἀποστίλβω, ἀποκυέω, ἀποτίκτω, ἀπέχω,—not the power of diminishing. It does not imply less or greater, but propagation [extension of the Father’s glory].— τῆς δόξης, of the glory) Glory denotes the nature of God revealed in His brightness, the same as His eternal power and Godhead, Romans 1:20.— χαρακτὴρ, the impress, the express image) Whatever the hypostasis (personal essence) of the Father has, that is represented in the Son, as His express image.— ὑποστάσεως, of His hypostasis) [of His personal essence]. If we gather from the LXX. the meaning of this word, variously used by them—never however concerning GOD—it denotes here the immoveable everlastingness of the Divine life and power; comp. Hebrews 1:11. Therefore the parallels are δόξα, the glory, always undefiled [‘incorruptible’], Romans 1:23, and ὑπόστασις, the hypostasis or personal essence, which always holds as it were the same place. It was with this feeling that the old Rabbins, as it would seem, called God מקום, Place, or rather State.— τὰ πάντα, all things) [the universe]. The article is to be referred to πάντων, of all things, Hebrews 1:2. τῷ ῥήματι, by the word) The Son of GOD is a person; for He has the word.— αὑτοῦ) The same as ἑαντοῦ in the next clause.— διʼ ἑαυτοῦ) by Himself, i.e. without the external Levitical instrumentality or covenant. This power of His shines forth from the titles already given.— καθαρισμὸν, purification) There lies hidden here an anticipation.(5) When Christ lived in the flesh, it did not appear that so majestic things should be predicated of Him; but the apostle replies, that His sojourn in the weakness of the flesh was only for a time, for the purging of our sins. In this chapter he describes the glory of Christ, in that light chiefly, as He is the Son of GOD then subsequently he describes the glory of Christ as man, ch. Hebrews 2:6. He mentions the actual glory of the Son of GOD before His humiliation in a summary manner; but His glory after His exaltation, most fully; for it was from this exaltation in particular, and not before, that the glory which He had from eternity began to be most clearly seen. And the purging of our sins, and subsequent sitting on the right hand of the Majesty, are most fully treated of in ch. 7, etc.— ἐκάθισεν, He sat down) by the will of the Father; comp. ἔθηκε, He appointed, Hebrews 1:2. On this sitting, see Hebrews 1:13-14. The ministering priests stood; the sitting therefore denotes the accomplishment of the sacrifice, and the glorious kingdom begun. By this finite verb, sat down, after the participles, is implied the scope, subject, sum of the epistle; comp. Hebrews 8:1.— τῆς μεγαλωσύνης) of the Majesty, i.e. of GOD.— ἐν ὑψηλοῖς, on high) in the heavens, Hebrews 8:1.


Verse 4

Hebrews 1:4. τοσούτῳ, so much) This verse has two clauses, of which, by Chiasmus, the second is discussed in Hebrews 1:5, but the first in Hebrews 1:13; and the Interrogation gives a point to both. The Chiasmus,(6) σχῆμα χιαστὸν, oratio decussata, is so frequent in this epistle, that the observation of this figure alone contributes very much to the explanation of the epistle. See Hebrews 1:9, ch. Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:12; Hebrews 2:17, Hebrews 3:1; Hebrews 3:8, Hebrews 4:14-16, Hebrews 5:7, Hebrews 6:7, Hebrews 7:6, Hebrews 8:4; Hebrews 8:10, Hebrews 9:1, Hebrews 10:20; Hebrews 10:23; Hebrews 10:33; Hebrews 10:38, Hebrews 11:1; Hebrews 11:33, Hebrews 12:22-24, Hebrews 13:10, with the annott. It may be asked, Why, in this one epistle, does that figure occur in every chapter? Ans. It is shown, at some of those passages which I have just now quoted, that Paul uses the Chiasmus even elsewhere, but more frequently to the Jews; and Surenhusius shows, in the βίβλος καταλλαγῆς, p. 78, etc., 607, 608, that their teachers greatly delight in this figure of speech in their writings. Therefore the apostle, who became all things to all men, has adapted his style to the Hebrews; and these men, who were guided by the Spirit, had quite ready at their command all the forms of discourse, in a greater degree than the most practised rhetoricians.— κρείττων γενόμενος, being made better) by His exaltation, Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 1:13. The antithesis is ἠλαττωμένον, made lower or less, ch. Hebrews 2:9. This may be compared with Mark 10:18, note, [where Jesus, in His voluntary humiliation, saith, “Why callest thou Me good?” etc.] κρείττων, better, more excellent, more powerful: οἱ κρείττονες, the gods, among the ancient heathens.— τῶν ἀγγέλων, than the angels) whose excellence is elsewhere spoken of as great.— παρʼ αὐτοὺς) παρὰ denotes great pre-eminence above [as compared with] others. Comp. παρὰ, Hebrews 1:9, ch. Hebrews 3:3. Angels are excluded in part explicitly, Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 1:13, and in part by implication; for while none of them has taken this name, the Son of GOD, from that very circumstance they are not the heirs of this name, and therefore not the heirs of all things; but they are a portion, no doubt a distinguished one, of the inheritance of the Son, whom they worship as Lord, Hebrews 1:6 : nor were the worlds created by them, but rather they themselves were created, Hebrews 1:7.— κεκληρονόμηκεν ὄνομα, He hath inherited a name) The name of Son is proper for the Son, because He is the Son; and in this name principally the inheritance consists. All things are an addition to the inheritance, Hebrews 1:2. The inheritance of the name is more ancient than the worlds themselves. The inheritance of all things is as old as all things themselves.


Verse 5

Hebrews 1:5. τίνι γὰρ, for to which [whom]) A frequent argument in this epistle is derived from the silence of Scripture: Hebrews 1:13, ch. Hebrews 2:16, Hebrews 7:3; Hebrews 7:14.— τῶν ἀγγέλων, of the angels) For none of them took [was capable of taking] this glory.— υἱὸς, the Son) Acts 13:33.— ἐγὼυἱὸν) So the LXX., 2 Samuel 7:14. That promise, I will be to Him a Father, and He shall be to Me a Son, had regard to Solomon, but much more, considering how august the promise is, to the Messiah; otherwise Solomon also would be greater than the angels. The seed of David, or the Son of David, is one name, under which, according to the nature (relation) of the predicate, sometimes Solomon, sometimes Christ—sometimes Solomon, and at the same time, in a higher sense, Christ—is intended; an ambiguity well suited to the times of expectation, Psalms 89:27-28. The apostles are the true interpreters of the Divine words, even though we should not have arrived at such an idea (such a mode of interpretation) as this without them [had it not been for their interpreting Scripture so].


Verse 6

Hebrews 1:6. ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, and again, when He brings His First-begotten into the world) Comp. with ὅταν, when, ὅταν in James 1:2, joined with the 2d Aor. subj. The particle δὲ, but, intimates that something more important is to follow. Not only is the Son greater than angels, but He is worshipped by angels. οἰκουμένη, is the world subject to Christ, ch. Hebrews 2:5, as the First-begotten; see the psalm last quoted, and presently about to be quoted. This introduction implies something more than a mission, or mere sending. Both, however, take for granted τὴν προΰπαρξιν, the pre-existence of the Son of GOD and His entrance into the world corresponds to that pre-existence: ch. Hebrews 10:5. He entered, by the will of GOD, when He presented Himself to do the will of GOD, ch. Hebrews 10:5; with which comp. ch. Hebrews 9:11; when He came into the world, as He is everywhere said to have done. πάλιν, again, is brought in, corresponding to the common word, likewise, where scripture upon scripture is quoted, Hebrews 1:5, ch. Hebrews 2:13, Hebrews 10:30; but the meaning of this particle is more clearly seen when it is enclosed in a parenthesis, the verb, I say, or some other of that kind, being supplied, in this manner: But when (I shall again state what GOD says concerning His Son) He brings in His First-begotten. So John 12:39, They could not believe, because (I shall again quote Isaiah) the same prophet says, He has blinded, etc. Matthew 5:33, Ye have heard (I shall again bring forward an example) that it was said to the ancients. For the forms of quotation are somewhat freely introduced into a speech; ch. Hebrews 8:5, ὃρα γὰρ φησι, instead of For, He says, See.

The appellation, First-begotten, includes the appellation, Son, and further shows the force of its signification. For it involves the rights of primogeniture, which the Only-begotten most eminently possesses. Paul also uses similar language, Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15; Colossians 1:18. In this passage, the appellation, First-begotten, includes the description of the subject of Whom the Psalm is treating, with the Ætiology(7) or reason given for the predicate, viz. He is brought in, for He is the First-begotten.— λέγει, He says) An abbreviated mode of expression. When the bringing in was predicted, the word was given; when the bringing in was accomplished, the same word was fulfilled. He says, viz. GOD comp Hebrews 1:5. Therefore the word αὐτῷ, Him, presently after, refers to the Son.— καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, and let all the angels of GOD worship Him) LXX., Deuteronomy 32, before Deuteronomy 1:43, has these words: εὐφράνθητε οὐρανοὶ ἅμα αὐτῷ καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, which are wanting in the Hebrew text and in the Chaldee Paraphrase. Mill is of opinion that the omission was occasioned long ago by the recurrence of the verb הרנינו . Then [after the words in the LXX. at the beginning of Deuteronomy 1:43] there follows in Moses, εὐφράνθητε ἔθνη μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, הרנינו גוים עמו (where ב after מ is wanting), which Paul, Romans 15:10, also refers to the times of the Messiah. Moses, especially in the Song, wrote of Christ. Nevertheless, Psalms 97:7 has, προσκυνήσατε αὐτῷ πάντες οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ; and Paul refers to this psalm, for the bringing in of the First-begotten into the world, in this passage, corresponds to the inscription of the psalm in the LXX, τῷ δαβὶδ, ὅτε γῆ αὐτοῦ καθίσταται, that is, of David, when the land is brought under his authority, as Oederus has observed.


Verse 7

Hebrews 1:7. πρὸς, unto) [Engl. Vers. of, i.e. in reference to] “He saith to the angels,” by an indirect speech; comp πρὸς, to, Hebrews 11:18, note, [“In reference to whom it was said, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.”] The apostle seems also to have had in his mind Psalm 130:20, which immediately precedes the passage, Psalms 104:4.— λέγει, He saith) viz. God, by the prophet.— ποιῶνφλόγα) LXX., in exactly as many letters, Psalms 104:4. πνεύματα, spirits, and πυρὸς φλόγα, a flame of fire, signify not only the office of angels, but their very nature, which is no doubt of surpassing excellence, as the metaphor is taken from things the most efficacious and the most subtile, but yet very far inferior to the majesty of the Son. Therefore the expression, ποιῶν, who maketh, intimates that the angels are creatures, made by His command; but the Son is eternal, Hebrews 1:8, and the Creator, Hebrews 1:10. The subject, viz. ἄγγελοι, angels, and λειτουργοὶ, ministers, as is proved by their being put with the article,(8) has its antithesis in Hebrews 1:8-9. Moreover, the antithesis of Who makes, intimating the creation of the angels, is found in Hebrews 1:10-11. I consider it to be the predicate of the Father; comp. Hebrews 1:8.


Verse 8

Hebrews 1:8. πρὸς τὸν υἱὸν to the Son) by a direct speech. Comp. πρὸς, to, Hebrews 1:7.— θρόνοςμετόκους σου) So again, the LXX. say distinctly, Psalms 45:7-8, Thy throne, O GOD, is for ever and ever: the sceptre (rod) of thy kingdom is a sceptre (rod) of righteousness. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hast hated iniquity; therefore GOD, even thy GOD, has anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Concerning the Throne, comp. Lamentations 5:19. [Government over all is indicated.—V. g.]— θεὸς, O God) The vocative case with the article is in the highest degree emphatic. They clearly do violence to the text, who hold the opinion, that it is the nominative case in this passage, as Artemonius does, Part. ii. c. 2. The Throne and the Sceptre are joined; nor did God say, I will be thy throne, but, I will establish the throne of the son of David; Psalms 89:5; Psalms 89:30; Psalms 89:37.— αἰῶνα· εὐθύτητος, for ever: of righteousness) Eternity and righteousness are attributes very closely connected, Psalms 89:15, where the words מכון and יקדמו should be well considered. See also Hebrews 1:3 of this Psalms 45, where לעולם may be taken into consideration.


Verse 9

Hebrews 1:9. διὰ τοῦτο, therefore) From the love of righteousness, in which Christ excels, there is deduced here not so much His anointing, as the duration of the office for which He was anointed. This discourse has four parts: the throne—the sceptre—thou lovest—therefore. Of these the first and fourth, the second and third, are parallel by Chiasmus; for the former describe the supreme happiness of the King; the latter, His virtue.— θεός, θεός σου) It may be resolved thus: God, who is thy God. Comp. Psalms 43:4; Psalms 67:7 : but the Son Himself is called GOD, as in the preceding verse.— ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως) the oil of gladness, and everlasting joy, is the Holy Spirit.— παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου, above [as compared with] thy fellows) These fellows may seem to some the angels; for even the angels have the name of gods, sons of God, morning stars, although in a far lower signification; and the name of Angel is wont to be given to the Son of GOD, although with a more majestic meaning. And indeed the Son of God has the angels as His companions, Genesis 18:2; Job 33:23; Psalms 68:18; 1 Timothy 3:16; Matthew 25:31 : and it might have seemed proper that He should rather assume [take to Himself as associates] angels than the seed of Abraham, if a different economy [dispensation] had not demanded something different, ch. Hebrews 2:16; and that very humiliation, of which Ibid., Hebrews 1:7, takes for granted intercourse with them. In short, the 45th Psalm itself addresses Christ as God in this very verse, and a little before as גבור, brave, strong, Hebrews 1:4 ; a term applied to the angels, Psalms 103:20. Therefore the angels may appear to be called the fellows of Christ, especially since Paul refers all the sayings here quoted to the superiority of Christ above the angels. Nevertheless the peculiar relationship of Christ to men leads us to conclude, that men are here meant by “His fellows,” ch. Hebrews 2:11, etc. For the Bridegroom has His companions, as the Bride has hers, Psalms 45:14 : and there is the same comparison, ibid. Hebrews 1:2, Thou art fairer than the sons of MEN.


Verse 10

Hebrews 1:10. καὶ, and) This particle connects the testimonies.— σὺ κατʼ ἀρχὰςοὐκ ἐκλείψουσι) Psalms 102:26-28; LXX. κατʼ ἀρχὰς σὺ, κύριε, τἡν γῆν, etc., the remainder in the same words. The time of the creation is intimated, to which the end of the world is opposed; and by this very fact, Dissertation 3. of Artemonius is done away with.— σὺ, Thou) The same to whom the discourse is directed in the preceding ver.— κύριε, O Lord) The LXX. have repeated that from ver. 23 of the same psalm. Christ is preached (proclaimed) even in those passages, where many might contend that the writer was principally speaking of the Father.— γῆν, the earth: οὐρανοὶ, the heavens) A gradation. There is no reason why the angels may not be included in the word heavens, as the creation of man is included under the word earth, which passes away.


Verse 11

Hebrews 1:11. αὐτοὶ, they) the earth and heaven.— ἀπολοῦνται, shall perish) There is the same word at Luke 5:37; James 1:11; 1 Peter 1:7; 2 Peter 3:6.


Verse 12

Hebrews 1:12. ἀλλάξεις, Thou shalt change.— ἀλλαγήσονται, they shall be changed) Many read for ἀλλάξεις, ἑλίξεις: but there is the one verb חלף twice in the Hebrew, which the LXX. often translate ἀλλάσσω, never by ἑλίσσω.(9) αὐτὸς) הוא, the same, never another (anything different), without old age and change. See Hiller, Onom., p. 71, 262. So 1 Samuel 2:10 יהוה, LXX. αὐτός.

AB and the oldest MS. of Vulg. Amiat. have ἑλίξεις D( δ) corrected, f, and Victor’s Vulg., have ἀλλάξεις.—ED.


Verse 13

Hebrews 1:13. δὲ, but) An Epitasis. [See Append.]


Verse 14

Hebrews 1:14. πάντες, all) although distinguished into various orders by various names, implying even some dominion: Ephesians 1:21.— λειτουργικὰἀποστελλόμενα, who minister—who are sent) They minister before God [are employed in praises.—V. g.]; are sent, viz. abroad, to men [in order that they may execute the commandments of GOD concerning other created things.—V. g.] Both are opposed to sitting at the right hand. Comp. Luke 1:19.— τοὺς μέλλοντας κληρονομεῖν, those who shall receive the inheritance of) i.e. the elect, and them who believe or who are about to believe. A sweet periphrasis.— σωτηρίαν, salvation) from so many and so great dangers.

—————

 


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Bibliography Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:4". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/hebrews-1.html. 1897.


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