Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
2 John 1
And her children (και τοις τεκνοις αυτης kai tois teknois autēs). As with εκλεκτη κυρια eklektē kuria so here τεκνα tekna may be understood either literally as in 1 Timothy 3:4, or spiritually, as in Galatians 4:19, Galatians 4:25; 1 Timothy 1:2. For the spiritual sense in τεκνια teknia see 1 John 2:1, 1 John 2:12.Whom (ους hous). Masculine accusative plural, though τεκνοις teknois is neuter plural (dative), construction according to sense, not according to grammatical gender, “embracing the mother and the children of both sexes” (Vincent). See thus ους hous in Galatians 4:19. I (Εγω Egō). Though ο πρεσβυτερος ho presbuteros is third person, he passes at once after the Greek idiom to the first and there is also special emphasis here in the use of αγαπω agapō with the addition of εν αλητειαι en alētheiāi (in truth, in the highest sphere, as in John 17:19; 3 John 1:1) and ουκ εγω μονος ouk egō monos (not I only, “not I alone”). Brooke argues that this language is unsuitable if to a single family and not to a church. But Paul employs this very phrase in sending greetings to Prisca and Aquila (Romans 16:4). That know (οι εγνωκοτες hoi egnōkotes). Perfect active articular participle of γινωσκω ginōskō “those that have come to know and still know.”
For the truth‘s sake (δια την αλητειαν dia tēn alētheian). Repetition of the word, one of which John is very fond (1 John 1:6, “the truth, as revealed by the Christ, and gradually unfolded by the Spirit, who is truth” (Brooke).Which abideth in us (την μενουσαν εν ημιν tēn menousan en hēmin). See John 17:19 for “sanctified in truth” and 1 John 2:6 for abiding in Christ, and so it includes all who are in Christ. It shall be with us (μετ ημων εσται meth' hēmōn estai). Confident assertion, not a mere wish. Note the order of the words, “With us it shall be” (εσται estai future middle of ειμι eimi).
Shall be with us (εσται μετ ημων estai meth' hēmōn). He picks up the words before in reverse order. Future indicative here, not a wish with the optative (ειε eie) as we have in 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2. The salutation is like that in the Pastoral Epistles: “Χαρις Charis the wellspring in the heart of God; ελεος eleos its outpourings; ειρηνη eirēnē its blessed effect” (David Smith).And from Jesus Christ (και παρα Ιησου Χριστου kai para Iēsou Christou). The repetition of παρα para (with the ablative) is unique. “It serves to bring out distinctly the twofold personal relation of man to the Father and to the Son” (Westcott). “The Fatherhood of God, as revealed by one who being His Son can reveal the Father, and who as man (Ιησου Iēsou) can make him known to men” (Brooke).
I rejoice (εχαρην echarēn). Second aorist passive of χαιρω chairō as in 3 John 1:3, “of a glad surprise” (D. Smith), as in Mark 14:11, over the discovery about the blessing of their godly home on these lads.Greatly (λιαν lian). Only here and 3 John 1:3 in John‘s writings. I have found (ευρηκα heurēka). Perfect active indicative of ευρισκω heuriskō as in John 1:41, our “eureka,” here with its usual force, a continued discovery. “He sits down at once and writes to Kyria. How glad she would be that her lads, far away in the great city, were true to their early faith” (David Smith). Certain of thy children (εκ των τεκνων ek tōn teknōn). No τινας tinas as one would expect before εκ ek a not infrequent idiom in the N.T. (John 16:17). Walking (περιπατουντας peripatountas). Present active accusative supplementary participle agreeing with τινας tinas understood. Probably members of the church off here in Ephesus. In truth (εν αλητειαι en alētheiāi). As in 2 John 1:1; 3 John 1:4. We received (ελαβομεν elabomen). Second aorist active (possibly, though not certainly, literary plural) of λαμβανω lambanō This very idiom (εντολην λαμβανω entolēn lambanō) in John 10:18; Acts 17:15; Colossians 4:10. Perhaps the reference here is to 1 John 2:7.; 1 John 3:23.
Beseech (ερωτω erōtō). For pray as in 1 John 5:16.Lady (κυρια kuria). Vocative case and in the same sense as in 2 John 1:1. As though I wrote (ως γραπων hōs graphōn). Common idiom ως hōs with the participle (present active) for the alleged reason. New (καινην kainēn). As in 1 John 2:7., which see. We had (ειχαμεν eichamen). Imperfect active (late α ̇a form like ειχαν eichan in Mark 8:7) of εχω echō and note ειχετε eichete with απ αρχης ap' archēs in 1 John 2:7. Not literary plural, John identifying all Christians with himself in this blessing. That we love one another (ινα αγαπωμεν αλληλους hina agapōmen allēlous). Either a final clause after ερωτω erōtō as in John 17:15 or an object clause in apposition with εντολην entolēn like 1 John 2:27; 1 John 3:23 and like 2 John 1:6.
Love (η αγαπη hē agapē). The love just mentioned.That we should walk (ινα περιπατωμεν hina peripatōmen). Object clause in nominative case in apposition with αγαπη agapē with ινα hina and the present active subjunctive of περιπατεω peripateō “that we keep on walking.” The commandment (η εντολη hē entolē). The one just mentioned with the same construction with ινα hina as in 1 John 3:23. John changes from the first person plural to the second (ηκουσατε ēkousate as in 1 John 2:7, περιπατητε peripatēte) as in 1 John 2:5, 1 John 2:7. In it (εν αυτηι en autēi). Either to αλητειαι alētheiāi (truth) of 2 John 1:4, αγαπη agapē of this verse, or εντολη entolē of this verse. Either makes good sense, probably “in love.” With περιπατεω peripateō (walk) we have often εν en (1 John 1:7; 1 John 2:11, etc.) or κατα kata (according to) as in Mark 7:5; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 10:2, etc.
Deceivers (πλανοι planoi). Late adjective (Diodorus, Josephus) meaning wandering, roving (1 Timothy 4:1). As a substantive in N.T. of Jesus (Matthew 27:63), of Paul (2 Corinthians 6:8), and here. See the verb (των πλανοντων υμας tōn planontōn humās) in 1 John 2:26 of the Gnostic deceivers as here and also of Jesus (John 7:12). Cf. 1 John 1:8.Are gone forth (εχηλταν exēlthan alpha ending). Second aorist active indicative of εχερχομαι exerchomai perhaps an allusion to the crisis when they left the churches (1 John 2:19, same form). Even they that confess not (οι μη ομολογουντες hoi mē homologountes). “The ones not confessing” (μη mē regular negative with the participle). The articular participle describes the deceivers (πλανοι planoi). That Jesus Christ cometh in the flesh (Ιησουν Χριστον ερχομενον εν σαρκι Iēsoun Christon erchomenon en sarki). “Jesus Christ coming in the flesh.” Present middle participle of ερχομαι erchomai treating the Incarnation as a continuing fact which the Docetic Gnostics flatly denied. In 1 John 4:2 we have εληλυτοτα elēluthota (perfect active participle) in this same construction with ομολογεω homologeō because there the reference is to the definite historical fact of the Incarnation. There is no allusion here to the second coming of Christ. This (ουτος houtos). See 1 John 2:18, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:20. The deceiver and the antichrist (ο πλανος και ο αντιχριστος ho planos kai ho antichristos). Article with each word, as in Revelation 1:17, to bring out sharply each separate phrase, though one individual is referred to. The one par excellence in popular expectation (1 John 2:22), though many in reality (1 John 2:18; 3 John 1:7).
Look to yourselves (βλεπετε εαυτους blepete heautous). Imperative active with reflexive pronoun as in Mark 13:9. The verb often used absolutely (Philemon 3:2) like our “look out.”That ye lose not (ινα μη απολεσητε hina mē apolesēte). Negative purpose with ινα μη hina mē and first aorist active subjunctive of απολλυμι apollumi This is the correct text (B), not απολεσωμεν apolesōmen (we). Likewise απολαβητε apolabēte (that ye receive), not απολαβωμεν apolabōmen (we). Which we have wrought (α ηργασαμετα ha ērgasametha). This is also correct, first aorist middle indicative of εργαζομαι ergazomai to work (John 6:27.). John does not wish his labour to be lost. See Romans 1:27 for this use of απολαμβανω apolambanō for receiving. See John 4:36 for μιστος misthos in the harvest. The “full reward” (μιστον πληρη misthon plērē) is the full day‘s wages which each worker will get (1 Corinthians 3:8). John is anxious that they shall hold on with him to the finish.
Whosoever goeth onward (πας ο προαγων pās ho proagōn). “Every one who goes ahead”. Προαγω Proagō literally means to go on before (Mark 11:9). That in itself is often the thing to do, but here the bad sense comes out by the parallel clause.And abideth not in the teaching of Christ (και μη μενων εν τηι διδαχηι του Χριστου kai mē menōn en tēi didachēi tou Christou). Not the teaching about Christ, but that of Christ which is the standard of Christian teaching as the walk of Christ is the standard for the Christian‘s walk (1 John 2:6). See John 7:16; John 18:19. These Gnostics claimed to be the progressives, the advanced thinkers, and were anxious to relegate Christ to the past in their onward march. This struggle goes on always among those who approach the study of Christ. Is he a “landmark” merely or is he our goal and pattern? Progress we all desire, but progress toward Christ, not away from him. Reactionary obscurantists wish no progress toward Christ, but desire to stop and camp where they are. “True progress includes the past” (Westcott). Jesus Christ is still ahead of us all calling us to come on to him.
If any one cometh and bringeth not (ει τις ερχεται και ου περει ei tis erchetai kai ou pherei). Condition of first class with ει ei and two present indicatives (ερχεται περει erchetaiταυτην την διδαχην pherei).This teaching (μη λαμβανετε αυτον tautēn tēn didachēn). This teaching of Christ of 2 John 1:9, which is the standard by which to test Gnostic deceivers (2 John 1:7). John does not refer to entertaining strangers (Hebrews 13:2; 1 Timothy 5:10), but to the deceiving propagandists who were carrying dissension and danger with them. Receive him not (μη mē lambanete auton). Present active imperative with λαμβανω mē For εις οικιαν lambanō in this sense see John 1:12; John 6:21; John 13:20. Into your house (χαιρειν αυτωι μη λεγετε eis oikian). Definite without the article like our at home, to town. Give him no greeting (χαιρειν chairein autōi mē legete). “Say not farewell to him.” Apparently λεγετε chairein here (present active infinitive, object of μη legete present active imperative with negative χαιρειν mē) is used of farewell as in 2 Corinthians 13:11, though usually in the N.T. (Acts 15:23; Acts 23:26; James 1:1) of the salutation. But here the point turns on the stranger bringing into the house (or trying to do so) his heretical and harmful teaching which seems to be after the salutation is over. The usual greeting to a house is given in Luke 10:5. On the other hand, if chairein means greeting, not farewell, here, it can very well be understood of the peril of allowing these Gnostic propagandists to spread their pernicious teachings (cf. Mormons or Bolshevists) in home and church (usually meeting in the home). This is assuming that the men were known and not mere strangers.
Partaketh in his evil works (κοινωνει τοις εργοις αυτου τοις πονηροις koinōnei tois ergois autou tois ponērois). Associative instrumental case with κοινωνει koinōnei as in 1 Timothy 5:22, common verb from κοινωνος koinōnos (partner). It is to be borne in mind that the churches often met in private homes (Romans 16:5; Colossians 4:15), and if these travelling deceivers were allowed to spread their doctrines in these homes and then sent on with endorsement as Apollos was from Ephesus to Corinth (Acts 18:27), there was no way of escaping responsibility for the harm wrought by these propagandists of evil. It is not a case of mere hospitality to strangers.
I would not (ουκ εβουλητην ouk eboulēthēn). Epistolary aorist (first passive indicative).With paper and ink (δια χαρτου και μελανος dia chartou kai melanos). The χαρτης chartēs was a leaf of papyrus prepared for writing by cutting the pith into strips and pasting together, old word, here only in N.T. Μελας Melas is old adjective for black (Matthew 5:36; Revelation 6:5, Revelation 6:12), and for black ink here, 3 John 1:13; 2 Corinthians 3:3. Apparently John wrote this little letter with his own hand. To come (γενεσται genesthai). Second aorist middle infinitive of γινομαι ginomai after ελπιζω elpizō I hope. Face to face (στομα προς στομα stoma pros stoma). “Mouth to mouth.” So in 3 John 1:14; Numbers 12:8. “Face to face” (προσωπον προς προσωπον prosōpon pros prosōpon) we have in 1 Corinthians 13:12. Your (υμων humōn). Or “our” (ημων hēmōn). Both true. That may be fulfilled (ινα πεπληρωμενη ηι hina peplērōmenē ēi). Purpose clause with ινα hina and the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of πληροω plēroō as in 1 John 1:4, which see.
Of thine elect sister (της αδελπης σου της εκλεκτης tēs adelphēs sou tēs eklektēs). Same word εκλεκτη eklektē as in 2 John 1:1; Revelation 17:4. Apparently children of a deceased sister of the lady of 2 John 1:1 who lived in Ephesus and whom John knew as members of his church there.
Saturday, March 25th, 2017
the Third Week of Lent
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