Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Therefore (ουν oun). This inferential participle gathers up all the great argument of chapters 1-11. Now Paul turns to exhortation (παρακαλω parakalō), “I beseech you.”By the mercies (δια των οικτιρμων dia tōn oiktirmōn). “By means of the mercies of God” as shown in his argument and in our lives. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:3 for “the Father of mercies.” To present (παραστησαι parastēsai). First aorist active infinitive of παριστημι paristēmi for which verb see note on Romans 6:13, a technical term for offering a sacrifice (Josephus, Ant. IV. 6, 4), though not in the O.T. Used of presenting the child Jesus in the temple (Luke 2:22), of the Christian presenting himself (Romans 6:13), of God presenting the saved (Ephesians 5:27), of Christ presenting the church (Colossians 1:28). Bodies (σωματα sōmata). So literally as in Romans 6:13, Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 5:10 and in contrast with νους nous (mind) in Romans 12:2. A living sacrifice (τυσιαν ζωσαν thusian zōsan). In contrast with the Levitical sacrifices of slain animals. Cf. Romans 6:8, Romans 6:11, Romans 6:13. Not a propitiatory sacrifice, but one of praise. Acceptable (ευαρεστον euareston). “Well-pleasing.” See note on 2 Corinthians 5:9. Which is your reasonable service (tēn logikēn humōn latreian). “Your rational (spiritual) service (worship).” For latreia see note on Romans 9:4. την λογικην υμων λατρειαν Logikos is from λατρεια logos reason. The phrase means here “worship rendered by the reason (or soul).” Old word, in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:2 Λογικος to logikon gala (not logical milk, but the milk nourishing the soul).
Be not fashioned (μη συνσχηματιζεστε mē sunschēmatizesthe). Present passive imperative with μη mē stop being fashioned or do not have the habit of being fashioned. Late Greek verb συσχηματιζω suschēmatizō to conform to another‘s pattern (1 Corinthians 7:31; Philemon 2:7.). In N.T. only here and 1 Peter 1:14.According to this world (τωι αιωνι τουτωι tōi aiōni toutōi). Associative instrumental case. Do not take this age as your fashion plate. Be ye transformed (μεταμορπουστε metamorphousthe). Present passive imperative of μεταμορποω metamorphoō another late verb, to transfigure as in Matthew 17:2 (Mark 9:2); 2 Corinthians 3:18, which see. On the distinction between σχημα schēma and μορπη morphē see note on Philemon 2:8. There must be a radical change in the inner man for one to live rightly in this evil age, “by the renewing of your mind” (τηι ανακαινωσει του νοος tēi anakainōsei tou noos). Instrumental case. The new birth, the new mind, the new (καινος kainos) man. That ye may prove (εις το δοκιμαζειν eis to dokimazein). Infinitive of purpose with εις το eis to “to test” what is God‘s will, “the good and acceptable and perfect” (το αγατον και ευαρεστον και τελειον to agathon kai euareston kai teleion).
Not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think (μη υπερπρονειν παρ ο δει προνειν mē huperphronein par' ho dei phronein). Indirect negative command after λεγω legō (I say). Play on the two infinitives προνειν phronein to think, and υπερπρονειν huperphronein (old verb from υπερπρων huperphrōn over-proud, here only in N.T.) to “over-think” with παρ ο par' ho (beyond what) added. Then another play on προνειν phronein and σωπρονειν sōphronein (old verb from σωπρων sōphrōn sober-minded), to be in one‘s right mind (Mark 5:15; 2 Corinthians 5:13). Self-conceit is here treated as a species of insanity.A measure of faith (μετρον πιστεως metron pisteōs). Accusative case, the object of the verb εμερισεν emerisen Each has his gift from God (1 Corinthians 3:5; 1 Corinthians 4:7). There is no occasion for undue pride. To each man (εκαστωι hekastōi). Emphatic position before ως hōs (as) and emphasizes the diversity.
The same office (την αυτην πραχιν tēn autēn praxin). Mode of acting or function. Cf. Acts 19:18; Romans 8:13.
And severally (το δε κατ εις to de kath' heis). A difficult late idiom where the preposition κατ kath' (κατα kata) is treated adverbially with no effect on the nominative case εις heis like υπερ εγω huper egō (2 Corinthians 11:23). So εις κατ εις heis kath' heis (Mark 14:19) and in Modern Greek κατεις katheis as a distributive pronoun. But we have κατ ενα kath' hena in 1 Corinthians 14:31. The use of the neuter article here το to with κατ εις kath' heis is probably the accusative of general reference, “as to each one.”
Differing (διαπορα diaphora). Old adjective from διαπερω diapherō to differ, to vary. So Hebrews 9:10.According to the proportion of our faith (κατα την αναλογιαν της πιστεως kata tēn analogian tēs pisteōs). The same use of πιστις pistis (faith) as in Romans 12:3 “the measure of faith.” Old word. αναλογια analogia (our word “analogy”) from αναλογος analogos (analogous, conformable, proportional). Here alone in N.T. The verb προπητευωμεν prophēteuōmen (present active volitive subjunctive, let us prophesy) must be supplied with which εχοντες echontes agrees. The context calls for the subjective meaning of “faith” rather than the objective and outward standard though πιστις pistis does occur in that sense (Galatians 1:23; Galatians 3:23).
Let us give ourselves. There is no verb in the Greek. We must supply δωμεν εαυτους dōmen heautous or some such phrase.Or he that teacheth (ειτε ο διδασκων eite ho didaskōn). Here the construction changes and no longer do we have the accusative case like διακονιαν diakonian (general word for Christian service of all kinds including ministers and deacons) as the object of εχοντες echontes but the nominative articular participle. A new verb must be supplied of which ο διδασκων ho didaskōn is the subject as with the succeeding participles through Romans 12:8. Perhaps in each instance the verb is to be repeated from the participle like διδασκετω didasketō here (let him teach) or a general term ποιειτω poieitō (let him do it) can be used for all of them as seems necessary before “with liberality” in Romans 12:8 (εν απλοτητι en haplotēti in simplicity, for which word, see note on Matthew 6:22; note on 2 Corinthians 8:2; note on 2 Corinthians 9:11; and note on 2 Corinthians 9:13). He that ruleth (ο προισταμενος ho proistamenos). “The one standing in front” for which see note on 1 Thessalonians 5:12. With diligence (εν σπουδηι en spoudēi). “In haste” as if in earnest (Mark 6:25; 2 Corinthians 7:11., 2 Corinthians 8:8, 2 Corinthians 8:16), from σπευδω speudō to hasten. Again Romans 12:11. With cheerfulness (εν ιλαροτητι en hilarotēti). Late word, only here in N.T., from ιλαρος hilaros (2 Corinthians 9:7) cheerful, hilarious.
Without hypocrisy (ανυποκριτος anupokritos). Late double compound adjective for which see note on 2 Corinthians 6:6. Hypocritical or pretended love is no love at all as Paul describes αγαπη agapē in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13.Abhor (αποστυγουντες apostugountes). Old verb with intensive (απο apo) dislike, only here in N.T. The present active participle is here employed in the sense of the present active indicative as sometimes happens with the independent participle (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1132ff.). This same idiom appears with κολλωμενοι kollōmenoi (cleaving) for which verb see 1 Corinthians 6:17, with προηγουμενοι proēgoumenoi (preferring) in Romans 12:10 (old verb here only in N.T.), and with the participles in Romans 12:11-13 and again in Romans 12:16-18. One can supply εστε este if he prefers.
In love of the brethren (τηι πιλαδελπιαι tēi philadelphiāi). Late word for brotherly love for which see note on 1 Thessalonians 4:9.Tenderly affectioned (πιλοστοργοι philostorgoi). Old compound adjective from πιλος philos and στοργη storgē (mutual love of parents and children), here alone in N.T.
Slothful (οκνηροι oknēroi). Old adjective from οκνεω okneō to hesitate, to be slow. Slow and “poky” as in Matthew 25:26.
Patient in tribulation (τηι τλιπσει υπομενοντες tēi thlipsei hupomenontes). So soon this virtue became a mark of the Christians.
Communicating (κοινωνουντες Koinéōnountes). “Contributing.” From κοινωνεω Koinéōneō for which see note on 2 Corinthians 9:13. Paul had raised a great collection for the poor saints in Jerusalem.Given to hospitality (την πιλοχενιαν διωκοντες tēn philoxenian diōkontes). “Pursuing (as if in a chase or hunt) hospitality” (πιλοχενια philoxenia old word from πιλοχενος philoxenos fond of strangers, πιλος philos and χενος xenos as in 1 Timothy 3:2). In N.T. only here and Hebrews 13:2. See note on 2 Corinthians 3:1. They were to pursue (διωκω diōkō) hospitality as their enemies pursued (διωκοντας diōkontas) them.
And curse not (και μη καταραστε kai mē katarāsthe). Present middle imperative with μη mē Like Matthew 5:44 in spirit, not a quotation, but a reminiscence of the words of Jesus. The negative addition gives emphasis. See Luke 6:28 for the old verb καταραομαι kataraomai from καταρα katara (curse).
Rejoice (χαιρειν chairein). Present active infinitive of χαιρω chairō absolute or independent use of the infinitive as if a finite verb as occurs sometimes (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1092ff.). Literally here, “Rejoicing with rejoicing people, weeping with weeping people.”
Be of the same mind (το αυτο προνουντες to auto phronountes). Absolute or independent use of the participle again as with all the participles through Romans 12:18, “thinking the same thing.”Set not your mind on high things (μη τα υπσηλα προνουντες mē ta hupsēla phronountes). “Not thinking the high things” (υπσηλος hupsēlos from υπσος hupsos height). Cf. 1 Corinthians 13:5. Condescend to things that are lowly (τοις ταπεινοις συναπαγομενοι tois tapeinois sunapagomenoi). “Be carried away with (borne along with) the lowly things” (in contrast with τα υπσηλα ta hupsēla though the associative instrumental case may be masculine, “with lowly men.” See note on Galatians 2:13 and note on 2 Peter 3:17 for the only other N.T. examples of this old verb. Be not wise (μη γινεστε προνιμοι mē ginesthe phronimoi). “Do not have the habit of becoming (γινεστε ginesthe) wise in your own conceits” (παρ εαυτοις par' heautois beside yourselves). Note the imperative in the midst of infinitives and participles.
Render to no man (μηδενι αποδιδοντες mēdeni apodidontes). “Giving back to no man.” Independent participle again.Evil for evil (κακον αντι κακου kakon anti kakou). Directly opposite to the law of retaliation of the Pharisees as in Matthew 5:39; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Corinthians 13:5. Take thought of (προνοουμενοι pronooumenoi). “Taking thought beforehand.” Old word. See note on 2 Corinthians 8:21.
As much as in you lieth (το εχ υμων to ex humōn). Accusative of general reference, “so far as what proceeds from you” (“the from you part”). See το κατ εμε to kat' eme in Romans 1:15. This phrase explains “if it be possible” (ει δυνατον ei dunaton). “All your part is to be peace” (Alford). For “be at peace” (ειρηνευοντες eirēneuontes) see 2 Corinthians 13:11.
Avenge not (μη εκδικουντες mē ekdikountes). Independent participle again of late verb εκδικεω ekdikeō from εκδικος ekdikos exacting justice (Romans 13:4). See already Luke 18:5; 2 Corinthians 10:6.But give place unto wrath (αλλα δοτε τοπον τηι οργηι alla dote topon tēi orgēi). Second aorist active imperative of διδωμι didōmi to give. “Give room for the (note article as in Romans 5:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:16) wrath” of God instead of taking vengeance in your own hands. See note on Ephesians 4:27 for διδοτε τοπον didote topon Paul quotes Deuteronomy 32:35 (the Hebrew rather than the lxx). So have Hebrews 10:30 and the Targum of Onkelos, but the relation between them and Paul we cannot tell. Socrates and Epictetus condemned personal vindictiveness as Paul does here. I will recompense (ανταποδωσω antapodōsō). Future active of the double compound verb quoted also in Romans 11:35.
Feed him (πσωμιζε αυτον psōmize auton). Quotation from lxx text of Proverbs 25:21f. Present active imperative of verb from πσωμος psōmos a morsel, and so to feed crumbs to babies, then to feed in general. In N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 13:3.Thou shalt heap (σωρευσεις sōreuseis). Future active of old verb σωρευω sōreuō from σωρος sōros a heap. In N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 3:6. Coals of fire (αντρακας πυρος anthrakas puros). That is, burning or live coals. Anthrax (our “anthracite”) is an old word, only here in N.T. It is a metaphor for keen anguish. The Arabs have a proverb “coals in the heart,” “fire in the liver.” Such kindness may lead to repentance also.
Be not overcome of evil (μη νικω υπο του κακου mē nikō hupo tou kakou). Present passive imperative of νικαω nikaō to conquer. “Stop being conquered by the evil (thing or man),”But overcome evil with good (αλλα νικα εν τωι αγατωι το κακον alla nika en tōi agathōi to kakon). “But keep on conquering the evil in the good.” Drown the evil in the good. Seneca: Vincit malos pertinax bonitas.
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