American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
The science, which treats of the heavenly bodies, was much studied in Asia in ancient times. The Chaldeans excelled in it. The Hebrews do not appear to have made great proficiency in it, though their climate and mode of life invited to the contemplation of the heavens. Revelation had taught them who created and governed all the world, Genesis 1:1,1-31 , and the infinite presence of the one living and true God filled the universe, to their minks, with a glory unknown to others, Psalm 19.1-14; Isaiah 40:26; Amos 5:8 . The Bible does not aim to teach the science of astronomy, but speaks of the sun, moon, and stars in the familiar language of mankind in all ages. The following heavenly bodies are alluded to particularly in Scripture: Venus, the morning star, Isaiah 14:12 Revelation 2:28; Orion, and the Pleiades, Job 9:9 38:31 Amos 5:8; the Great Bear, called "Arcturus," Job 9:9 38:32; Draco, "the crooked serpent" Job 26:13; and Gemini, "the twins," 2 Kings 23:5 Acts 28:11 . The planets Jupiter and Venus were worshipped under various names, as Baal and Ahtoreth, Gad and Meni, Isaiah 65:11 . Mercury is named as Nebo; in Isaiah 46:1; Saturn as Chiun, in Amos 5:26; and Mars as Nergal, in 2 Kings 17:30 . See IDOLATRY and STARS.
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