corner graphic   Hi,    
Facebook image
ver. 2.0.17.03.28
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Lexicons

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar

II. Special Kinds of Sentences.
§148. Exclamations.

The originally interrogative מָה‎ is used to introduce exclamations of wonder or indignation = O how! or ridicule, why! how! sometimes strengthened by זֶה‎ or זֹאת‎ according to §136c.—Astonishment or indignation at something which has happened is introduced by אֵיךְ‎ how (likewise originally interrogative) with the perfect; the indignant refusal of a demand by אֵיךְ‎ (but also by מָה‎ Job 31:1) with the imperfect; an exclamation of lamentation by אֵיכָה‎, less frequently אֵיךְ‎ how!; in Joel 1:18 by מָה‎.

Examples:—

מָה‎ (or מַה־‎ with a following Dagĕš, see § 37) expressing admiration (or astonishment) before verbal-clauses, e.g. Genesis 27:20 (מַה־זֶּה‎); 38:29, Numbers 24:5 (how goodly are...!); Psalms 21:2, Song of Solomon 7:2; before the predicate of noun-clauses, e.g. Genesis 28:17, Psalms 8:2; mockingly before the verb, 2 Samuel 6:20 (how glorious was...!); Jeremiah 22:23, Job 26:2 f.; indignantly, Genesis 3:13 מַה־וֹּאת‎; 4:10, 20:9, 31:26 what hast thou done!

אֵיךְ‎ with the perfect, e.g. Genesis 26:9, Psalms 73:19; in scornful exclamation, Isaiah 14:4, 12; in a lament (usually אֵיכָה‎), 2 Samuel 1:25, 27; with the imperfect, in a reproachful question, Genesis 39:9, Genesis 44:8, Psalms 11:1, Psalms 137:4; in a mocking imitation of lament, Micah 2:4.

אֵיכָה‎ with the perfect, Isaiah 1:21, Lamentations 1:1; with the imperfect, Lamentations 2:1, Lamentations 4:1.

Rem. 1. The close relation between a question and an exclamation appears also in the interrogative personal pronoun מִי‎ in such cases as Micah 7:18 מִי־אֵל כָּמ֫וֹךָ‎ who is a God like unto thee? and so in general in rhetorical questions as the expression of a forcible denial; similarly in the use of an interrogative sentence to express a wish, see §150d, 151 a.

2. A weaker form of exclamation is sometimes produced by the insertion of a corroborative כִּי‎ verily, surely, before the predicate, Genesis 18:20; cf. 33:11, Isaiah 7:9, and the analogous cases in the apodoses of conditional sentences, § 159 ee.


Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, March 28th, 2017
the Fourth Week of Lent
There are 19 days til Easter!
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology