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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #2228 -

Transliteration
Phonetics
ay  
Word Origin
a primary particle of distinction between two connected terms
Parts of Speech
particle
TDNT
None
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. either, or, than
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (356) NAS (333) HCS (310)
Matthew 48
Mark 24
Luke 41
John 12
Acts 34
Romans 23
1 Corinthians 41
2 Corinthians 10
Galatians 7
Ephesians 5
Philippians 2
Colossians 2
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
1 Timothy 5
2 Timothy 1
Titus 2
Philemon 1
Hebrews 5
James 6
1 Peter 6
2 Peter 1
1 John 1
Revelation 4
Matthew 49
Mark 22
Luke 37
John 13
Acts 28
Romans 22
1 Corinthians 40
2 Corinthians 11
Galatians 7
Ephesians 5
Philippians 1
Colossians 2
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
1 Timothy 4
2 Timothy 1
Titus 2
Philemon 1
Hebrews 4
James 8
1 Peter 6
2 Peter 1
1 John 1
Revelation 4
Matthew 60
Mark 27
Luke 41
John 12
Acts 33
Romans 26
1 Corinthians 41
2 Corinthians 14
Galatians 8
Ephesians 7
Philippians 1
Colossians 4
1 Thessalonians 2
2 Thessalonians 1
1 Timothy 4
2 Timothy 1
Titus 2
Philemon 1
Hebrews 4
James 8
1 Peter 6
2 Peter 1
1 John 1
Revelation 5
BYZ TIS TR
PRT 355
PRT 315
PRT 359
NA WH
ADV 1
CONJ 265
I-ASN 1
N-DSM 2
N-GSM 1
T-NSF 22
T-VSF 1
V-AAD-2S 1
V-AAI-1P 1
V-AAS-1P 1
V-FAI-1S 1
V-FAI-3S 1
V-IAI-3P 1
V-PAN 1
V-PAS-3S 3
V-PMI-1P 1
PRT 383


Thayer's Expanded Definition
 , a disjunctive conjunction (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53,6). Used

1. to distinguish things or thoughts which either mutually exclude each other, or one of which can take the place of the other: or (Latin aut, vel);

a. to distinguish one thing from another in words of the same construction: Matthew 5:17 (τόν νόμον τούς προφήτας), Matthew 5:36 (λευκήν μέλαιναν); Matthew 6:31; Matthew 7:16; Mark 6:56; Mark 7:11; Luke 2:24; Luke 9:25; John 7:48; John 13:29; Acts 1:7; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:7; Romans 1:21; Romans 3:1; 1 Corinthians 4:3; 1 Corinthians 5:10; 1 Corinthians 10:19; Galatians 1:10, etc.

b. after an interrogative or a declarative sentence, before a question designed to prove the same thing in another way: Matthew 7:4,9; Matthew 12:29; Matthew 16:26; Matthew 26:53; Mark 8:37; Luke 13:4; Luke 14:31; Luke 15:8; Romans 9:21; Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 6:16.

c. before a sentence contrary to the one just preceding, to indicate that if one be denied or refuted the other must stand: Matthew 20:15 (i. e. or, if thou wilt not grant this, is thine eye etc.); Romans 3:29; 1 Corinthians 9:6; 1 Corinthians 10:22; 1 Corinthians 11:14 ( Rec.); 1 Corinthians 14:36>; 2 Corinthians 11:7; ἀγνοεῖτε etc., Romans 6:3; Romans 7:1 (cf. Romans 6:14); οὐκ ὀικατε etc., Romans 11:2; 1 Corinthians 6:9,16, 19.

d. ... , either ... or, Matthew 6:24; Matthew 12:33; Luke 16:13; Acts 24:20; 1 Corinthians 14:6.

2. in a disjunctive question it corresponds to the Latin an after utrum;

a. preceded by πότερον, John 7:17; cf. Klotz ad Dev. 2:2, p. 574 f; preceded by the interrogative μή, 1 Corinthians 9:8; preceded by μήτι, 2 Corinthians 1:17.

b. without an intertog. particle in the first member of the interrogation: τί ἐστι εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν ... εἰπεῖν, Matthew 9:5; Mark 2:9; Luke 5:23; add, Matthew 21:25; Matthew 23:17,19; Matthew 27:17; Mark 3:4; Luke 7:19; Acts 8:34.

c. ... ... , Mark 13:35.

3. as a comparative conjunction, than;

a. after comparatives: Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:22; Luke 9:13; Luke 16:17; John 3:19; John 4:1 ( Tr marginal reading omits; WH brackets ); Acts 4:19; Romans 13:11, and often. is lacking after πλείους followed by a noun of number: Matthew 26:53 T Tr WH; Acts 4:22; Acts 23:13,21; Acts 24:11 (where Rec. adds ); cf. Matthiae, § 455 note 4; Kühner, ii., p. 847; ( Jelf, § 780 Obs. 1); Winer s Grammar, 595 (554); (Buttmann, 168 (146)); Lob. ad Phryn., p. 410f.

b. after ἕτερον: Acts 17:21.

c. πρίν , before that, before, followed by accusative with an infinitive (cf. Buttmann, § 139,35; Winer's Grammar, § 44,6, also, p. 297 (279)): Matthew 1:18; Mark 14:30; Acts 2:20 R G WH marginal reading; Acts 7:2; followed by the aorist subjunc, Luke 2:26 Tr text omits; WH brackets ; Luke 22:34> R G (others ἕως); followed by present optative, Acts 25:16.

d. after θέλω equivalent to to prefer: 1 Corinthians 14:19 (followed by ἤπερ, 2 Maccabees 14:42); examples from Greek authors are given in Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 589f; Winer s Grammar, § 35,2c.; (Buttmann, § 149,7); Kühner, ii., p. 841; ( Jelf, § 779 Obs. 3).

e. after οὐ: John 13:10 R G, where after οὐ χρείαν ἔχει the sentence goes on as though the writer had said οὐκ ἄλλου τίνος χρείαν ἔχει, (cf. Winer s Grammar, 508 (478)).

f. after positive notions, to which in this way a comparative force is given: after καλόν ἐστι ( it is good ... rather than) equivalent to it is better, Matthew 18:8; Mark 9:43,45, 47; cf. Menander's saying καλόν τό μή ζῆν, ζῆν ἀθλιως, and Plautus rud. 4,4, 70 tacita mulier est bona semper, quam loquens; similar examples in the O. T. are Genesis 49:12; Psalm 117:8 (Psalm 118:8>); Jonah 4:3,8; Tobit 6:13 Tobit 12:8; Sirach 20:25 Sirach 22:15; 4 Maccabees 9:1; also after λυσιτελεῖ ( it is gain ... rather than) equivalent to it is better ( Tobit 3:6), Luke 17:2; after χαρά ἐστι ( there will be joy ... more than), Luke 15:7; see examples from Greek authors in Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram. § 149,7; ( Buttmann, p. 360 (309)); Winer, Kühner, others, as above.

4. with other particles;

a. ἀλλ' , see ἀλλά, I:10, p. 28a.

b. γάρ, see γάρ, I. at the end c. καί (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53,6 note), α. or even, or also (Latin aut etiam, vel etiam): ( Matthew 7:10 L T Tr WH); Luke 11:11 G L T Tr WH; Luke 11:12; Luke 18:11; Romans 2:15; 1 Corinthians 16:6; 2 Corinthians 1:13. β. or also (Latin an etiam) (in a disjunctive question): Luke 12:41; Romans 4:9.

d. ἤπερ, than at all (Latin quam forte; German als etwa), after a comparitive (cf. Jelf, § 779 Obs. 5): John 12:43 ( L περ, WH marginal reading ὑπέρ) ( 2 Maccabees 14:42; Homer, Hesiod).

e. ἤτοι ... , either indeed (cf. Kühner, § 540,5) ... or: Romans 6:16 ( Wisdom of Solomon 11:19; Herodotus and following).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

,

disjunctive and comparative particle (Bl., § 36, 12; 77, 11);

1. disjunctive, or;

(a) between single words: Matthew 5:17, Mark 6:56, Luke 2:24, John 6:19, Romans 1:21, al.;

(b) before a sentence expressing a variation, denial or refutation of a previous statement, freq. in interrog. form: Matthew 7:4; Matthew 7:9 Mark 12:14, Luke 13:4, Romans 3:29; Romans 6:3; Romans 9:21, 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 9:6, 2 Corinthians 11:7; . . . , either . . . or, Matthew 6:24, Luke 16:13, 1 Corinthians 14:6;

(c) in a disjunctive question (as Lat. an after utrum): Matthew 9:5, Mark 2:9, Luke 7:19, al.; after πότερον , John 7:17; μή , 1 Corinthians 9:8; μήτι , 2 Corinthians 1:17; . . . . . . , Mark 13:35.

2. Comparative, than: after comparatives, Matthew 10:16, Luke 9:13, John 3:19, Romans 13:11, al.; after ἕτερον , Acts 17:21; θέλω (Kühner3, iv, 303), 1 Corinthians 14:19; πρὶν ἤ , before, seq. acc et inf., Matthew 1:18, Mark 14:30; after a positive adj. (Genesis 49:12; cf. Robertson, Gr., 661), Matthew 18:8-9, Mark 9:43; Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47.

3. With other particles: ἀλλ᾿ ἤ , see ἀλλά ; ἢ γάρ , see γάρ ; ἢ καί , or even, or also, Matthew 7:10, Luke 11:11-12, Romans 2:15; Romans 4:9, al.; ήτοι . . . ή , Romans 6:16 (cf. Wisdom of Solomon 11:19).


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For this particle in interrogative sentences, where we should accent , and for which from ii/B.C. εἶ is a graphic equivalent, cf. the questions to the oracle, P Fay 137.2 f. (i/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 69) χρημάτισόν μοι, ἦ μείνωι ἐν Βακχιάδι; ἦ μέλω (l. μέλλω) ἐντυνχάνιν; ";answer me, Shall I remain in Bacchias? Shall I meet (him)";, BGU I. 229.8 (ii/iii A.D.) (see Berichtigungen i. p. 27) ἠ μὲν σοθήσωμαι (l. εἰ μὲν σωθήσομαι) ταύτης, ἧς ἐν ἐμοὶ ἀσθενίας, τοῦτόν μοι ἐξένικον (l. τοῦτό μοι ἐξένεγκον). For = ";or,"; see BGU IV. 1141.6 (B.C. 14) ἔπεμψας. . . ἵνα ἐπιγνῶσιν πρὸς ἃ ἔγραψά σοι ἠ (= εἰ) ἔστιν ἢ οὐ, and for . . . PSI IV 324.2 (B.C. 261–0) ἐάν τινες. . . διαγράφωσιν ὑμῖν ἢ τὰς τιμὰς ἢ τὸ παραβόλιον, παραλαμβάνετε κτλ. : the alternative is emphasized by the addition of τε. . . καί in IG XII. 2, 562.5 (Rom. time) εἰ δέ τις τολμήσ [ῃ ἐπι ]βαλέσθαι πτῶμα ἤτε ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους μου ἢ καὶ ἕτερός τις, δώσει κτλ. (cited by Radermacher Gr. p. 27). Ἤτοι. . , while found in classical Greek, is characteristic of Hellenistic speech (Radermacher ut s.), see e.g. P Tebt I. 5.59 (B.C. 118) ἤιτοι κώ (μας) ἢι γᾶς ἢ ἄλλας ἱερὰς πρ (οσόδους), P Ryl II. 154.85 (a contract of marriage—A.D. 66) ἤτοι τοῦ Χαιρήμονος ἀποπέμποντος τ [ ]ν Θαισάριον ἢ καὶ αὐτῆς ἑκουσίω [ς ἀ ]παλλασσομέν [η ]ς [ ]π᾽ αὐτοῦ : cf. Romans 6:16. The combination is common in Vett. Val. (e.g. p. 58.20), who also uses ἤπερ (P. 141.26) and ἤγουν (P. 138.12) for simple . Ἤτοι stands alone in PSI IV. 314.12 (A.D. 195) δραχμὰς ἑξακισχει [λί ]α ̣ς ἤ [τ ]οι τάλαντο ̣ν, P Oxy VI. 888.5 (iii/iv A.D.) διὰ τὸ μὴ παρεῖναι τοῖς ὀρφανοῖς ἐπιτρόπους ἤτοι κου [ράτορας. In PSI III. 158.68 (iii/A.D.?) the place of the particles is reversed—δ ̣ι ̣κ ̣ογράφους ἢ δικολόγους ἤτοι τούτων παραπλ [η ]σίους. For ἢ καί suggesting an afterthought, see P Lond 962.5 (A.D. 254 or 261) (= III. p. 210) δέξαι παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ δραχμὰς διακοσίας καὶ ἔχε αὐτὰς εἴς τε περιχωματισμὸν ἢ καὶ λόγον ὀψωνίων ὡς ἐὰν θέλῃς, ";receive from him two hundred drachmas and employ them for banking-up or (for that matter) for the payment of supplies, as you may wish,"; and for ἀλλ᾽ ἤ, as in 2 Corinthians 1:13, see s.v. ἀλλά, and cf. Blass-Debrunner Gr. § 448. 8.

A good parallel to θέλω. . . in 1 Corinthians 14:19 (cf. 2 Maccabees 14:42) is found in BGU III. 846.16 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 95) οὐκ οἶδες, ὅτι θέλω πη ̣ρο ̣̣ς γενέσται (l. γενέσθαι), εἲ (= ) γνοῦναι, ο ̣̓́π ̣ως ἀνθρόπῳ [ ]τ [ι ] ὀφείλω ὀβολόν; ";do you not know that I would rather be a cripple than be conscious that I am still owing any one an obolus?";

On the Semitic use of the positive of an adj. followed by , as in Mark 9:43 ff., see Wellhausen Einl..2 p. 21, where reference is also made to the corresponding use of after a verb with μᾶλλον implied in Mark 3:4, Luke 15:7 : in Matthew 18:13 μᾶλλον is expressed.

Πρὶν ἤ with inf., as in Matthew 1:18 al. (cf. Blass-Debrunner Gr. § 395) may be illustrated by PSI III. 171.25 (ii/B.C.) πρὶν ἢ τὰ λοι [π ]ὰ τη ̣̑[ς οἰ ]κοδομῆς τοῦ ὅρμου συντελεσθῆνα ̣ι ̣.

For πρότερον ἤ see PSI IV. 330.2 (B.C. 258–7) [ι ]μην οὖν σοὶ με ̣, ν ̣ γράφειν πρότερον ἢ ἀντιτεῖναι, and cf. ib. 343.3 (B.C. 256–5) μὴ θαυμάσηις ἐπὶ τῶι Νικόλαον ἀπελθεῖν προτοῦ ἢ τὸν λόγον συνθεῖναι, where the editor points out that προτοῦ = πρὸ τοῦ, and compares Syll 300.22 (B.C. 170) πρὸ τοῦ ἢ Γάϊος Λοκρέτιος τὸ στρατόπεδον πρὸς τὴν πόλιν Θίσβας προσήγαγεν = ";antequam . . . admovit.";

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
η ἤ ἢ e ē ḗ ḕ

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