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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #2596 - κατά

Word Origin
a primary particle
Parts of Speech
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. down from, through out
  2. according to, toward, along
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (480) NAS (315) HCS (430)
Matthew 33
Mark 20
Luke 43
John 10
Acts 87
Romans 44
1 Corinthians 23
2 Corinthians 25
Galatians 14
Ephesians 20
Philippians 9
Colossians 11
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 6
2 Timothy 7
Titus 7
Philemon 2
Hebrews 37
James 5
1 Peter 9
2 Peter 4
1 John 1
2 John 1
3 John 1
Jude 3
Revelation 10
Matthew 19
Mark 13
Luke 30
John 5
Acts 51
Romans 32
1 Corinthians 15
2 Corinthians 19
Galatians 13
Ephesians 17
Philippians 3
Colossians 7
2 Thessalonians 3
1 Timothy 5
2 Timothy 6
Titus 6
Philemon 1
Hebrews 23
James 3
1 Peter 8
2 Peter 4
1 John 1
2 John 1
Jude 3
Revelation 9
Matthew 36
Mark 22
Luke 40
John 9
Acts 80
Romans 46
1 Corinthians 23
2 Corinthians 22
Galatians 16
Ephesians 21
Philippians 8
Colossians 12
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 5
2 Timothy 7
Titus 8
Philemon 3
Hebrews 34
James 5
1 Peter 10
2 Peter 4
1 John 1
2 John 1
3 John 1
Jude 4
Revelation 8
PREP 483
PREP 445
PREP 482
P-GP 1
PREP 441
V-PAI-1P 1
PREP 505

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 κατά (on its neglect of elision before a vowel see Tdf, Proleg., p. 95; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5,1a.; a. 10; WH's Appendix, p. 146a), a preposition denoting motion or diffusion or direction from the higher to the lower; as in classical Greek, joined with the genitive and the accusative.

I. With the genitive ( Winer's Grammar, § 47, k., p. 381 (357); (B, § 147,20));

1. properly,

a. down from, down: κατά τοῦ κρημνοῦ, Matthew 8:32; Mark 5:13; Luke 8:33; κατεχην κατά τῆς κεφαλῆς (so that it flowed down from his head (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357) note); but it is more correct here to omit κατά with L T Tr WH; see καταχέω), Mark 14:3; hence κατά κεφαλῆς (a veil hanging down from his entry) ἔχων, 1 Corinthians 11:4 (( A. V. having his head covered) cf. καταπέτασμα (or rather κάλυμμα (which see), but see ἔχω, I:1b.)).

b. down upon (down into) anything: Acts 27:14 ( Winer s Grammar, 381 (357) note{1}; cf. B. D. American edition, under the word ); tropically, κατά βάθους πτωχεία reaching down into the depth, i. e. deep or extreme poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2 (cf. Strabo 9,5, p. 419 ἐστι τό μαντεῖον ἄντρον κοῖλον κατά βάθους).

c. used of motion or extension through a space from top to bottom; hence through, throughout: in the N. T. (and in Luke's writings; Buttmann, § 147,20) everywhere with the adjective ὅλος, as καθ' ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου τῆς Ἰουδαίας, τῆς Ἰόππης, Luke 4:14; Luke 23:5; Acts 9:31; Acts 10:37 (διεσπάρησαν κατά τῆς νήσου, Polybius 3,19, 7; ἐσκεδάσμενοι κατά τῆς χώρας, 1,17, 10; 3,76, 10; μή παραβαίνειν τάς ἁμαροτροχιας, ἀλλά κατ' αὐτῶν ἰέναι, Aelian v. h. 2,27).

2. metaphorically,

a. after verbs of swearing, adjuring (the hand being, as it were, placed down upon the thing sworn by (cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 238; Kühner, § 433at the end)), by: Matthew 26:63; Hebrews 6:13,16 ( Isaiah 45:23; 2 Chronicles 36:13; Judith 1:12; Demosthenes 553,17; 554,23).

b. against (properly, down upon ( Winer's Grammar, 382 (358)); Hebrew עַל): opposed to ὑπέρ, Mark 9:40; 2 Corinthians 13:8; Romans 8:31; opposed to μετά, Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:23; after ἐπιθυμεῖν, Galatians 5:17; εἰπεῖν πονηρόν (ῤῆμα), Matthew 5:11; λαλεῖν, Acts 6:13; Jude 1:15; μαρτυρία, Mark 14:55; Matthew 26:59; μαρτυρεῖν, 1 Corinthians 15:15 (here many take κατά equivalent to with regard to, of; cf. DeWette at the passage; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 272); ψευδομαρτύρειν, Mark 14:56f; γογγύζειν, Matthew 20:11 ( Exodus 15:24 Alex.); διδάσκειν, Acts 21:28; ψεύδεσθαι, James 3:14 ( Xenophon, Apology 13); συμβούλιον λαβεῖν or ποιεῖν, Matthew 27:1; Mark 3:6; αἰτεῖσθαι τί, Acts 25:3,15; after verbs of accusing, etc.: ἔχειν τί, Matthew 5:23; Mark 11:25; Revelation 2:4,14, 20; κατηγορεῖν, Luke 23:14; κατηγορία, John 18:29 ( Tdf. omits κατά); ἐγκάλειν, Romans 8:33; ἐντυγχάνειν τίνι, Romans 11:2; add, Acts 24:1; Acts 25:2; James 5:9; τό χειρόγραφον, Colossians 2:14; κρίσιν ποιεῖν, Jude 1:15; after verbs of rebelling, fighting, prevailing: Matthew 10:35; Matthew 12:25; Acts 14:2; 1 Corinthians 4:6; 2 Corinthians 10:5; 1 Peter 2:11; ( Revelation 12:7 Rec.); ἰσχύειν, Acts 19:16; ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν, John 19:11.

II. With the accusative; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 49d.; Bernhardy (1829), p. 239ff

1. of place;

a. of the place through which anything is done or is extended (properly, down through; opposed to ἀνά, up through): καθ' ὅλην τήν πόλιν κηρύσσειν, Luke 8:39; ἐκφέρειν κατά τάς πλατείας, Acts 5:15 ( R G); add, Luke 9:6; Luke 13:22; Luke 15:14; Acts 8:1; Acts 11:1; Acts 15:23; Acts 21:21; Acts 24:5,12; Acts 27:2; τούς κατά τά ἔθνη (throughout Gentile lands) πάντας Ἰουδαίους, Acts 21:21, cf. Grimm on 2 Maccabees 1:1; κατά τήν ὁδόν, along the way i. e. on the journey ( Winer's Grammar, 400 (374) note{1}), Luke 10:4; Acts 8:36; Acts 25:3; Acts 26:13; along (Latin secundum or praeter ( R. V. off)), πέλαγος τό κατά τήν Κιλικίαν, Acts 27:5.

b. of the place to which one is brought (down): γενόμενος ( Tr WH omit γ.) κατά τόν τόπον (ἐλθών etc.), Luke 10:32 (cf. Field, Otium Norv. Pars iii at the passage); ἐλθόντες κατά τήν Μυσίαν, Acts 16:7; κατά τήν Κνίδον, Acts 27:7; κατ' αὐτόν (came) to him, i. e. to the place where he was lying, Luke 10:33.

c. of direction; toward: Λιβύη κατά Κυρήνην, that Libya which lay toward Cyrene, i. e. Libya of Cyrene (i. e. the chief city of which was Cyrene), Acts 2:10; βλέπειν, to look, lie toward (see βλέπω, 3), Acts 27:12; πορεύεσθαι κατά μεσημβρίαν, Acts 8:26; κατά σκοπόν, toward the goal, my eye on the goal, Philippians 3:14. against (Latin adversus with the accusative); over against, opposite: κατά πρόσωπον, to the face, Galatians 2:11 (see πρόσωπον, 1a.); equivalent to present, Acts 25:16 ( A. V. face to face); 2 Corinthians 10:1; with the genitive of person added, before the face of, in the presence of, one: Luke 2:31; Acts 3:13; τά κατά πρόσωπον, the things that are open to view, known to all, 2 Corinthians 10:7; κατ' ὀφθαλμούς, before the eyes, Galatians 3:1; here, too, according to some (cf. Winer's Grammar, 400 (374) note{3}) belongs κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27, but it is more correctly referred to 3c. α. below.

d. of the place where: κατ' οἶκον (opposed to ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), at home, privately ( Winer's Grammar, 400 (374) note{1}), Acts 2:46; Acts 5:42.

e. of that which so joins itself to one thing as to separate itself from another; our for, by: κατ' ἰδίαν, apart, see ἴδιος, 2; καθ' ἑαυτόν, alone ( by himself), Acts 28:16; James 2:17 ( R. V. in itself) ( 2 Maccabees 13:13; οἱ καθ' αὑτούς Ἕλληνες, Thucydides 1,138; οἱ Βοιωτοι καθ' αὑτούς, Diodorus 13,72; other examples are given by Alberti, Observations, etc., p. 293; Loesner, Observations, e Philone, p. 460f); ἔχειν τί καθ' ἑαυτόν, to have a thing by and to oneself, i. e. to keep it hidden in one's mind, Romans 14:22 ( Josephus, Antiquities 2,11, 1; Heliodorus 7,16; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 401 (375) note{1})); hence, of that which belongs to some person or thing: κατά τήν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν, belonging to ( A. V. in) the church that was there, Acts 13:1; ἐκκλησία κατ' οἶκον τίνος, belonging to one's household (see ἐκκλησία, 4b. aa.); hence it forms a periphrasis — now for the genitive, as τά κατά Ἰουδαίους ἔθη (equivalent to τῶν Ἰουδαίων), Acts 26:3; now for the possessive pronoun, οἱ καθ' ὑμᾶς ποιηταί, your own poets, Acts 17:28 (here WH marginal reading καθ' ἡμᾶς, see their Introductory § 404); νόμου τοῦ καθ' ὑμᾶς (a law of your own), Acts 18:15; τό κατ' ἐμέ πρόθυμον, my inclination, Romans 1:15 (see πρόθυμος); καθ' ὑμᾶς πίστις, Ephesians 1:15 ( κατά τόν τύραννον ὠματης τέ καί δύναμις, Diodorus 14,12; μέχρι τῶν καθ' ἡμᾶς χρόνων, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Antiquities 2,1; cf. Grimm on 2 Maccabees 4:21, p. 88; a throng of examples from Polybius may be seen in Schweighaeuser, Lex. Polybius, p. 323 f; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 154 (146); 400 (374) note{2}; especially Buttmann, § 132,2)).

2. of Time (cf. Winer s Grammar, 401 (374)); during, about; Latin tempore: κατ' ἐκεῖνον, or τοῦτον τόν καιρόν, Acts 12:1; Acts 19:23; Romans 9:9; Hebrews 9:9 ( R G); κατά τό αὐτό, at the same time, together, Acts 14:1 (see αὐτός, III:1); κατά τό μεσονύκτιον, Acts 16:25; κατά μέσον τῆς νυκτός, Acts 27:27; (possibly also κατά μεσημβρίαν, at noon, Acts 8:26 (see μεσημβρία, b.)); κατά καιρόν, see καιρός, 2a.; κατ' ἀρχάς ( Herodotus 3,153), in the beginning (of things), Hebrews 1:10; κατά τήν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ, Hebrews 3:8 (as the Sept. in this passage have rendered the preposition כְּ in the context by ὡς (ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ, Psalm 94:8 (Psalm 95:8>)), some would take it and κατά here equivalent to like as in the day etc.; Vulg. secundum); κατά πᾶν σάββατον, Acts 13:27; Acts 15:21; Acts 18:4; καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, Hebrews 3:13; κατά μῆνα (ἕνα) ἕκαστον, Revelation 22:2; κατ' ὄναρ, during a dream, see ὄναρ.

3. it denotes reference, relation, proportion, of various sorts;

a. distributively, indicating a succession of things following one another ( Winer s Grammar, 401 (374); Buttmann, § 147,20); α, in reference to place: κατά πόλιν, in every city ( city by city, from city to city), Luke 8:1,4; Acts 15:21; Acts 20:23; Titus 1:5 ( Thucydides 1,122); κατ' ἐκκλησίαν, in every church, Acts 14:23; with the plural, κατά πόλεις, Luke 13:22; κατά τάς κώμας, Luke 9:6 ( Herodotus 1,96); κατά τόπους, Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11; κατά τάς συναγωγάς, in every synagogue, Acts 22:19; (cf. κατά τούς οἴκους εἰσπορευόμενος, Acts 8:3). β. in reference to time: κατ' ἔτος, yearly, year by year, Luke 2:41; also κατ' ἐνιαυτόν (see ἐνιαυτός); καθ' ἡμέραν etc., see ἡμέρα, 2, p. 278{a}; κατά μίαν σαββάτου ( R G σαββάτων), on the first day of every week, 1 Corinthians 16:2; κατά ἑορτήν, at any and every feast, Matthew 27:15; Mark 15:6; Luke 23:17 ( Rec.; cf. Buttmann, § 133,26. Others understand the phrase in these passages (contextually) "at or during (see 2above) the feast," viz. the Passover; cf. Winer's Grammar, 401 (374)). γ. universally: καθ' ἕνα πάντες, all one by one, successively, 1 Corinthians 14:31, see more fully in εἷς, 4c.; κατά δύο, by two, 1 Corinthians 14:27; κατά ἑκατόν καί κατά πεντήκοντα, by hundreds and by fifties, Mark 6:40 L T Tr WH; κατά μέρος, severally, singly, part by part, Hebrews 9:5 ( Herodotus 9,25; Xenophon, anab. 3,4, 22); κατ' ὄνομα, by name, i. e. each by its own name ( Vulg. nominatim (or per nomen)): John 10:3; 3 John 1:15 (14); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 858f.

b. equivalent to the Latin ratione habita alicuius rei vel personae; as respects; with regard to; in reference to; so far as relates to; as concerning; ( Winer's Grammar, 401 (375)): κατά σάρκα or κατά τήν σάρκα, as to the flesh (see σάρξ (especially 2b.)), Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3,5; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 11:18; οἱ κύριοι κατά σάρκα (Luther well, die leiblichen Herren), in earthly relations, according to the arrangements of society, Ephesians 6:5; κατά τό εὐαγγέλιον, κατά τήν ἐκλογήν, Romans 11:28; add, Romans 1:4; Romans 7:22; Philippians 3:5; Hebrews 9:9; τά κατά τινα, one's affairs, one's case, Acts 24:22; Acts 25:14; Ephesians 6:21; Philippians 1:12; Colossians 4:7 (and very often in classical Greek); κατά πάντα τρόπον, in every way, in every respect, Romans 3:2; the opposite κατά μηδένα τρόπον, in no wise, 2 Thessalonians 2:3; κατά πάντα, in all respects, in all things, Acts 17:22; Colossians 3:20,22; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:15 ( Thucydides 4,81).

c. according to, agreeably to; in reference to agreement or conformity to a standard, in various ways ( Winer's Grammar, 401 (375)); α. according to anything as a standard, agreeably to: περιπατεῖν κατά τί, Mark 7:5; Romans 8:1 ( Rec.), Romans 8:4>; Romans 14:15>; 2 Thessalonians 3:6; Ephesians 2:2; ζῆν κατά, Acts 26:5; Romans 8:12 f; πορεύεσθαι, 2 Peter 3:3; ἀποδιδόναι τίνι, Matthew 16:27, etc. (see ἀποδίδωμι, (especially 4)); λαμβάνειν, 1 Corinthians 3:8; so with many other verbs a thing is said to be done or to occur κατά, as in Luke 2:27,29; John 7:24; Colossians 2:8; Colossians 3:10; 1 Timothy 1:18; Hebrews 7:15; Hebrews 8:5,9; 1 John 5:14, etc.; (on the phrase κατ' ἄνθρωπον, see ἄνθρωπος, especially 1c.; (cf. . below; Winer's Grammar, 402 (376))); κατά τήν γραφήν, τάς γραφάς, James 2:8; 1 Corinthians 15:3f.; κατά τό γεγραμμένον, 2 Corinthians 4:13; κατά τό εἰρημένον, Romans 4:18; κατά τόν νόμον, Luke 2:39; John 18:31; John 19:7; Hebrews 9:22; κατά τό εὐαγγέλιον μου, Romans 2:16; Romans 16:25; 2 Timothy 2:8, cf. 1 Timothy 1:11; κατά τό ὡρισμένον, Luke 22:22; καθ' ὁμοίωσιν Θεοῦ, James 3:9; κατά λόγον rightly, justly ( A. V. reason would etc.), Acts 18:14; κατά τινα, agreeably to the will of anyone, as pleases him ( Winer's Grammar, 401 f (375)): so κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27 (cf. 1c. above); 2 Corinthians 7:9,11; κατά Χρσιτον Ἰησοῦν, Romans 15:5; κατά κύριον, 2 Corinthians 11:17; κατά τόν καθαρισμόν, after the manner of purifying, as the rite of purification prescribed, John 2:6; οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες, who bear, reflect, the nature of the flesh, equivalent to οἱ σαρκικοί, and οἱ κατά πνεῦμα ὄντες equivalent to οἱ πνευματικοί, Romans 8:5; κατά τί γνώσομαι; in accordance with what criterion i. e. by what sign shall I know? Luke 1:18. Here belongs the use of the preposition in the titles of the records of the life of Christ: εὐαγγέλιον (which word the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts omit) κατά Ματθαῖον, Μᾶρκον, etc., as Matthew etc. composed or wrote (it). This use of the preposition was not primarily a mere periphrasis for the genitive (Ματθαιου, etc., see II:1e. above), but indicated that the same subject had been otherwise handled by others, cf. παλαιά διαθήκη κατά τούς ἑβδομήκοντα (in tacit contrast not only to the Hebrew text, but also to the Greek translations made by others); οἱ ὑπομνηματισμοι οἱ κατά Νημιαν, 2 Maccabees 2:13 (see Grimm at the passage). Subsequently κατά with an accusative of the writer came to take the place of the genitive, as κατά Μωϋσέα πεντάτευχος in Epiphanius (haer. 8,4. Cf. Winer s Grammar, 402 (375); Buttmann, 3; 157 (137); and see, further, Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word εὐαγγέλιον, James Morison, Commentary on Matthew , Introductory § 4). β. in proportion to, according to the measure of: χαρίσματα κατά τήν χάριν τήν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν διάφορα, Romans 12:6; κατά τό μέτρον, 2 Corinthians 10:13; Ephesians 4:7; κατά τήν σκληρότητά σου, Romans 2:5; κατά τόν χρόνον, Matthew 2:16; ἑκάστῳ κατά τήν ἰδίαν δύναμιν, Matthew 25:15; without the article κατά δύναμιν, 2 Corinthians 8:3 (opposed to ὑπέρ δύναμιν, as Homer, Iliad 3,59 κατ' Αισαν, ὀυδ' ὑπέρ Αισαν); καθ' ὅσον, by so much as, inasmuch as, Hebrews 3:3; Hebrews 7:20; Hebrews 9:27; κατά τοσοῦτο, by so much, Hebrews 7:22. γ. used of the cause; through, on account of, from, owing to (in accordance with i. e. in consequence of, by virtue of) ( Winer's Grammar, 402 (376)): κατά πᾶσαν αἰτίαν, ( for every cause), Matthew 19:3; κατά τήν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:9 (κατά τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ πρόνοιαν, Josephus, Antiquities 20,8, 6); κατά χάριν, Romans 4:16; also opposed to κατά ὀφείλημα ( R. V. as of ... as of), Romans 4:4; οἱ κατά φύσιν κλάδοι, the natural branches, Romans 11:21 (cf. Buttmann, 162 (141)); κατά φύσιν ἀγριλαιος, the natural wild olive tree, Romans 11:24; κατά πίστιν δικαιοσύνη, righteousness proceeding from faith, Hebrews 11:7; add, Romans 8:28; Romans 9:11; Romans 11:5; Romans 16:25; 1 Corinthians 12:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10; Galatians 2:2; Galatians 3:29; Ephesians 1:5,7, 9,11, 19; Ephesians 3:7,11, 16,20; Colossians 1:11,29; Philippians 1:20; Philippians 3:21; Philippians 4:11,19; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Timothy 1:8; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 7:16; Titus 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 3:15. adverbial phrases ( Winer's Grammar, § 51,2g.): κατ' ἐξουσίαν (with authority), Mark 1:27; κατ' ἀνάγκην, κατά ἑκούσιον (q. v) (of necessity, of free will), Philemon 1:14; κατά γνῶσιν, 1 Peter 3:7; κατ' ἐπίγνωσιν, Romans 10:2 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 403 (376)); κατά ἄγνοιαν (in ignorance), Acts 3:17. δ. of likeness; as, like as: συντελέσω ... διαθήκην καινήν, οὐ κατά τήν διαθήκην κτλ., Hebrews 8:8f ( 1 Kings 11:10); so with the accusative of a person (cf. under α. above), Galatians 4:28; 1 Peter 1:15; κατά Θεόν, after the image of God, Ephesians 4:24; κρίνεσθαι κατά ἀνθρώπους, ζῆν κατά Θεόν, to be judged as it is fit men should be judged, to live as God lives, 1 Peter 4:6. Hence, it is used ε. of the mode in which a thing is done; of the quality: ἄνδρες οἱ κατ' ἐξοχήν τῆς πόλεως, the principal men of the city, Acts 25:23; καθ' ὑπομένην ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ, equivalent to ὑπομένοντες ἐν ἔργῳ Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament


(bef. a vowel κατ᾿ , καθ᾿ ; on the freq. neglect of elision, v. Tdf., Pr., 95; WH, App., 146a), prep. c. gen., acc,

down, downwards.

I. C. gen. (WM, § 47, k; B1., § 42, 2).

1. C. gen. rei, in local sense;

(a) down, down from: Matthew 8:32, Mark 5:13, Luke 8:33, 1 Corinthians 11:4;

(b) throughout (late usage; B1., l.c.): κ . ὅλης κ .τ .λ ., Luke 4:14; Luke 23:5, Acts 9:31; Acts 10:37;

(c) in a peculiar adjectival phrase: ἡ κ . βάθους πτωχεία , deep or extreme poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2.

2. C. gen. pers., usually in hostile sense;

(a) against (in cl. only after verbs of speaking, witnessing, etc.): opp. to ὑπέρ , Mark 9:40; μετά , Matthew 12:30; after ἐπιθυμεῖν , Galatians 5:17; λαλεῖν , Acts 6:13; διδάσκειν , Acts 21:28; ψεύδεσθαι , James 3:14; after verbs of accusing, etc., Matthew 5:23, Luke 23:14, Romans 8:33, al.; verbs of fighting, prevailing, etc., Matthew 10:35, Acts 14:2, 1 Corinthians 4:6, al.;

(b) of swearing, by: ὄμνυμι κ . Bl., § 34, 1), Hebrews 6:13; Hebrews 6:16, cf. Matthew 26:63.

II. C. acc (WM, § 49 d; B1., § 42, 2).

1. Of motion or direction;

(a) through, throughout: Luke 8:39; Luke 9:6; Luke 10:4, Acts 8:1; Acts 8:36 al.;

(b) to, towards, over against: Luke 10:32 (Field, Notes, 62), Acts 2:10; Acts 16:7, Galatians 2:11, Philippians 3:14, al.;

(c) in adverbial phrases, at, in, by, of: κατ᾿ οἶκον , at home, Acts 2:46; κατ᾿ ἰδίαν (see ἴδιος ); καθ᾿ ἑαντόν , Acts 28:16, Romans 14:22, James 2:17; c. prop. pers., Acts 17:28; Acts 18:15, Romans 1:15, Ephesians 1:15, al.

2. Of time, at, during, about: Acts 8:26; Acts 12:1; Acts 19:23, Romans 9:9, Hebrews 1:10, al.

3. Distributive;

(a) of place: κ . τόπους , Matthew 24:7, al.; κ . πόλιν , Luke 8:1; Luke 8:4 al.; κ . ἐκκλησίαν , Acts 14:23;

(b) of time: κ . ἔτος , Luke 2:41; ἑορτήν , Matthew 27:15, al.;

(c) of numbers, etc.: καθ᾿ ἕνα πάντες , 1 Corinthians 14:31 (on καθ᾿ εἷς , see εἷς ); κ . ἑκατόν , Mark 6:40; κ . μέρος , Hebrews 9:5; κ . ὄνομα , John 10:3.

4. Of fitness, reference, conformity, etc.;

(a) in relation to, concerning: Romans 1:3-4; Romans 7:22; Romans 9:3-5, 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18, Philippians 1:12; κ . πάντα , Acts 17:22, Colossians 3:20; Colossians 3:22 Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:15;

(b) according to, after, like: Mark 7:5, Luke 2:27; Luke 2:29, John 7:24, Romans 8:4; Romans 14:15, Ephesians 2:2, Colossians 2:8, James 2:8, al.

III. In composition, κ . denotes,

1. down, down from (καταβαίνω , etc.), hence, metaph.;

(a) victory or rule over (καταδουλόω , -κυριεύω , etc.);

(b) "perfective" action (M, Pr., 111 ff.).

2. under (κατακαλύπτω , etc.).

3. in succession (καθεξῆς ).

4. after, behind (καταλείπω ).

5. Hostility, against (καταλαλέω ).

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

κατά, the favourite preposition of Polybius, by whom it is often used in place of ἐν, εἰς, and περί (Krebs Präp. p. 4), is also found with considerable variety of application in the NT, where it occurs 73 times c. gen., and 391 times c. acc. (cf, Proleg. p. 105). Brugmann (Kurze Vergleichende Grammatik, p. 479) considers that the earliest use of the word was ";along"; something, so as to remain in connexion and contact with the object, and from this most of the senses found in the NT can be derived.

I. (1) Turning to the construction c. gen. we find that the meaning ";along"; has passed into ";down,"; a usage not found in MGr, in such passages as P Petr II. 18(2b).15 (B.C. 246) ἐπιπεσὼν ἔτυπτεν [αὐ ]τ [ ]ν κατὰ τοῦ τραχήλου, Chrest. I. 499.5 (ii/iii A.D.) the body of a mummy ἔχων τάβλαν κατὰ τοῦ τραχήλου : cf. Matthew 8:32, 1 Corinthians 11:4, 2 Corinthians 8:2.

(2) This in turn becomes ";against,"; as in Matthew 10:35, Mark 14:55, e.g. P Eleph 1.14 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 4) ὅπου ἂν ὲπεγφέρηι Ἡρακλεῖδης κατὰ Δημητρίας ἢ Δημητρία τε καὶ τοὶ μετὰ Δημητρίας πράσσοντες ἐπεγφέρωσιν κατὰ Ἡρακλείδου, ";wheresoever Heraclides brings the charge against Demetria, or Demetria and those acting with Demetria bring the charge against Heraclides,"; P Petr II. 2 (2).2 (B.C. 260) ἐκόμισέν μοι Δωρίμαχος ἔντευξιν κεχρηματισμένη [ν ] κατὰ Διονυσίου, ";Dorimachus brought me an official (or certified) petition against Dionysius"; (Ed.), P Par 45.7 (B.C. 153) προσέχων, μὴ εὕρῃ τι κατά σου ἰπῖν, P Tebt I. 7.3 (B.C. 114) ἐγκλήματα κατὰ τῶν ὑποτεταγμένων τῆι διοικήσει, ";complaints against subordinates of the finance administration,"; P Fay 12.8 (c. B.C. 103) ἐπέδωκα κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ περὶ τούτ ̣ω ̣[ν ] τὰς εἰθισμένας προσαγγελίας, ";I made the customary charges against him on these counts"; (Edd.), P Oxy VI. 898.34 (A.D. 123) κατ᾽ αὐτῆς προελθεῖν, ";to proceed against her."; This usage, which is only figurative in good Attic writers, is common in the Κοινή throughout the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, as the above exx. show : it is, however, lost in MGr (Thumb Handbook, p. 106).

(3) By a usage which in the NT is confined to Luke. (Luke 4:14 al.), and is always associated with ὅλος, κατά has also the force of ";throughout"; as in P Giss I. 48.8 (A.D. 202–3) κατὰ κυριακῆς γῆς : cf. Polyb. iii. 19. 7 κατὰ τῆς νήσου διεσπάρησαν. The phrase καθ᾽ ὕδατος is frequent with reference to land ";under water,"; e.g. BGU II. 571.11 (ii/A.D.) (as amended Archiv i. p. 151 n..8) ἀβρόχου καὶ καθ᾽ ὕδ (ατος), P Oxy VI. 918xi. 13. al. (ii/A.D.) αἱ οὖσ (αι) καθ᾽ ὕδ (ατος), of certain flooded arourae.

(4) Good exx. of the prep, in asseverations, oaths, as in Matthew 26:63, 1 Corinthians 15:15, Hebrews 6:13; Hebrews 6:16, are afforded by P Par 63.39 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 20) λ ̣α ̣βεῖν μὴ μόνον ἐπὶ τῶ [ν ] θεῶν ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ ̣ τῶν βασιλέων, ";to exact oaths from you not only by the gods, but also by the kings"; (Mahaffy), P Par 574.1240 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 113) ἐξορκίζω σε δαῖμον, ὅστις ποτ᾽ οὖν εἷ, κατὰ τούτου τοῦ θεοῦ σαβαρβαρβαθιωθ, ";I adjure thee, O demon, whoever thou art, by the God Sabarbarbathiôth.";

II. (1) When we pass to κατά c. acc., we are at once met with a number of instances of the κατά phrase forming a mere periphrasis (a) for the possessive pronoun, or (b) for the gen. of a subst., or even (c) for an adj.

(a) The following are examples of the first class of these periphrases—P Eleph 13.3 (B.C. 223–2) ἐχάρην ἐπὶ τῶι με αἰσθέσθαι τὰ κατὰ σέ, ";I was glad when I had learned your affairs,"; P Leid Bi. 9 (B.C. 164) ἐπὶ τῆς καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς λειτουργίας, P Tebt I. 24.64 (B.C. 117) τῆς καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς ἀσχολία (= –ίας), P Tor I. 1ii. 32 (B.C. 116) ὑπόμνημα ὑπὲρ τῶν κατ᾽ αὐτούς, P Tebt I. 7.5 (B.C. 114) μηδ᾽ ἄλλοις ἐπιτρέπειν κατ᾽ αὐτοὺς διεξάγειν, ";nor allow others to decide their case";(Edd.), and OGIS 168.17 (B.C. 115) παραγεγονότες εἰς τοὺς καθ᾽ ὑμ [ᾶς τόπους. For τὰ κατ᾽ ἐμέ, as in Philippians 1:12 al., we may add the illiterate P Oxy I. 120.14 (iv/A.D.) ἄχρις ἂν γνῶ πῶς τὰ κατ᾽ αἰμαὶ ἀποτίθαιται (l. ἐμὲ ἀποτίθεται). For further exx. of this usage in late Greek see Schmidt Jos. P. 390, Kälker Quaest. p. 282 f.

(b) The periphrasis for the gen. of a subst. is seen in P Hib I. 82.19 (B.C. 239–8) τὰ κατὰ τὴν γραμματείαν, ";the duties of the scribe’s office,"; P Tebt I. 5.25 (B.C. 118) ἐπὶ τῶν κατ᾽ Ἀλεξά (νδρειαν) ὅρ [μων, ";at the harbours of Alexandria,"; ib. 13.17 (B.C. 114) τὰ κατ [ὰ τ ]ὴν ἐπισ (τατείαν) τ ̣[ῆς κ ]ω ̣(μης), ";the duties of epistates of the village,"; ib. 16.5 (B.C. 114) περὶ τῶν κατὰ Πολέμωνα, ";regarding the case of Polemon,"; ib. 105.47 (B.C. 103) τὰ κατὰ τὴ [ν μ ]ίσθωσιν, ";the provisions of the lease,"; P Lond 1164(k).20 (A.D. 212)(= III. p. 167) ὑπὸ [το ]ῦ κατὰ πατέρα μου ἀνεψειοῦ, and Polyb. iii. 11 3. 1 ἡ κατὰ τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατολή.

(c) This usage went even the length of a κατά phrasetaking the place of an adj., as in P Hib I. 27.42 (B.C. 301–240) ταῖς κατὰ σελήνη [ν ] ἡμέραις, ";the lunar days.";

(2) For κατά, ";according to,"; of standard, law, rule, as in Romans 10:2, 1 Corinthians 7:6, 2 Corinthians 8:8, Hebrews 11:13, cf. P Petr II. 11(1).1 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 7), τὰ λοιπά σοι κατὰ γνώμην ἐστίν, P Tebt I. 40.25 (B.C. 117) κατὰ τοὺς τῆς κώμης ἐθισμούς, P Oxy I. 37ii. 8 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 51) κατὰ τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ κυρίου ἡγεμόνος κριθέντα, Chrest. I. 352.11 (A.D. 117) κατὰ <τὰ > κελευσθέντα, ib..17 κατὰ τὸ ἔθος (cf. Luke 1:8), and from the inscrr. OGIS 56.33 (B.C. 237) κατὰ τὸ πρότερον γραφὲν ψήφισμα. Similarly κατὰ λόγον, as in Acts 18:14, ";in accordance with what is right, befitting,"; is common in epistolary’phrases, e.g. P Eleph 13.1 (B.C. 223–2) εἰ ἔρρω [σ ]αι καὶ τὰ λοιπά σοι κατὰ λόγον ἐστίν, εἴη ἂν ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω, ";if you are well, and other things are going rightly, it would be as I wish,"; P Lond 42.2 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 9) εἰ ἐρρωμένωι τἄλλα κατὰ λόγον ἀπαντᾶι, εἴη ἂν ὡς τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχομένη διατελῶ, P Goodsp Cairo 4.3 (ii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 24), P Par 63.5 (B.C. 165).

We may note here the use of κατά in the titles of the Gospels, where it practically points to authorship (cf. Zahn Introd. ii. pp. 387 f., 396f.). MGr κατὰ τὸ νόμο, ";according to the law,"; κατὰ τὸν καιρό, ";according to the weather"; (Thumb Handbook, p. 106). Κατά has a local sense in P Oxy VI. 904.6 (v/A.D.) πληγαῖς κατακοπτόμενον κατὰ τὸ σῶμα, ";belaboured with blows on my body"; : cf. Romans 7:22, Ephesians 6:5.

(3) This brings us to the idea of ";throughout"; with reference to place, as in P Hib I. 82.19 (B.C. 239–8) κατὰ τόπον, ";throughout the district,"; P Tebt I. 8.8 (c. B.C. 201) ἐν τοῖς κατὰ Λέσβον καὶ Θραίκην τόποις, ib. 5.188 (B.C. 118) τοὺς κατὰ τὴν χώραν φυ (λακίτας), OGIS 90.7 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἐκ τῶν κατὰ τὴν χώραν ἱερῶν, and the contracted κατὴν (= κατὰ τὴν) χώραν P Par 63.93 (B.C. 165) (= P Petr III. p. 26). An interesting memorial inscr. from Egypt, published in Archiv v. p. 168 f., commemorates one who has been laid between his mother and brother—ὧν καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη κατὰ τὸν κόσμον λελάληται.

(4) The meaning ";during,"; ";about,"; with reference to time is common—P Lille I. 1 recto.14 (B.C. 259–8) κατὰ χειμῶνα, ";pendant l’hiver,"; P Tebt I. 28.9 (c. B.C. 114) κατὰ τὸ παρόν, ";at the present time,"; ib. 27.60 (B.C. 113) κατὰ θερείαν, ";in summer,"; P Oxy XIV. 1635.11 (B.C. 44–37) κατὰ τὸν βίον, ";for his lifetime,"; and OGIS 90.27 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) καθ᾽ ὃν καιρόν. Cf. MGr κατὰ τὰ μεσάνυκτα, ";about midnight,"; and the common usage to indicate direction towards something, e.g. ἔρχεται κατὰ τὸ χωριό, ";he is coming towards the village"; (see Thumb Handbook, p. 105 f.).

(5) The distributive force of κατά is well seen in the contract of apprenticeship P Oxy IV. 725.36 (A.D. 183) ἀργήσει δὲ ὁ παῖς εἰς λόγον ἑορτῶν κατ᾽ ἔτος (cf. Luke 2:41) ἡμέρας εἴκοσι, ";the boy shall have 20 holidays in the year on account of festivals"; (Edd.) : see further s.v. ἔτος, where the form καθ᾽ ἕτος is also illustrated, and cf. Michel 1001vi. 24 (c. B.C. 200) καθ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν (cf. Hebrews 9:25). Other exx. of distributive κατά are P Oxy II. 275.18 (B.C. 66) κατὰ μῆνα, P Par 26.13 (B.C. 163–2) (= Selections, p. 14) τὰ ἑαυτῶν καθ᾽ ἡμέραν δέοντα, ";their daily necessities,"; P Giss I. 17.10 (time of Hadrian) οὐ βλέπομέν σε καθ᾽ ἡμέραν, and P Tebt II. 412.2 (late ii/A.D.) τὸ προσκύνημά σου κατ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ποιῶ, ";I make supplications for you every day."; For the Lukan phrase τὸ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν (Luke 11:8; Luke 19:47, Acts 17:11) we may compare the reference in a bailiff’s letter to his ";diary"; or journal—P Oxy IX. 1220.4 (iii/A.D.) ]ν ̣έπεμψά σοι διὰ σημι [ ]σεως τὸ καθ᾽ ἡμέρα (= αν) τοῦ ἀναλώματος ἣν (l. ἵν᾽ εἰδῇς, ";I send in some notes the daily account of our expenditure for your information."; Cf. also P Lond 904.20 (A.D. 104) (= III. p. 125, Selections, p. 73) τῆς κατ᾽ οι ̣̓[κίαν ἀπογραφῆς, ";the house-to-house census"; (cf. Acts 2:46; Acts 5:42), and the magical formula P Oxy VI. 886.19 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections p. 111) ἐρε (l. αἶρε) κατὰ δύο δύο, ";lift them (viz. palm leaves on which were written the names of the gods) two by two,"; which may illustrate Luke 10:1 BK (cf. Proleg. p. 97, Thackeray Gr. i. p. 54 f.). For the phrase τὸ δὲ καθ᾽ εἷς in Romans 12:5 (cf. Mark 14:19, John 8:9) cf. τὸ καθ᾽ ἕν as the heading of a list of articles etc.—P Tebt I. 47.34 (B.C. 113) ἔστιν δὲ τὸ καθ᾽ ἕν · θύραν μυρικί (νην), σκαφεῖα β ̄, al., ";the list is : a door of tamarisk-wood, two hoes"; etc., also P Rein 17.8 (B.C. 109) where, after the mention of certain agricultural implements and other objects, it is added—ὧν τὸ καθ᾽ ἓν ὑποκεῖται, ";of which the list is given below,"; P Ryl II. 65i. 9 (B.C. 67) πλείονα σώματα ὧν τὸ καθ᾽ ἓν ἐπὶ τῆς [ ]σομένης [διεξα ]γωγῆς σημανθήσεται, ";a number of corpses, the details of which will appear in the forthcoming inquiry"; (Edd.), ib. 127.15, .24 (A.D. 29). The phrase κατ᾽ ὄνομα, ";individually,"; ";one by one,"; occurs frequently in closing greetings, as in 3 Jn.15, e.g. BGU I. 27.18 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 102) ἀσπάζομαι. . . πάντες (= –ας) τοὺς φιλοῦντάς σε κατ᾽ ὄνομα, P Tebt II. 422.16 (iii/A.D.) ἀσπάζομαι. . τοὺς ἐνοίκους πάντες (= –ας) κα [τ ]᾽ ὄνομα, P Meyer 23.13 (end of iv/A.D.) ἀσπάζομα ̣ι ὑμᾶς πάντας κ ̣α ̣τ᾽ ὄνομα. For the similar use of κατ᾽ ἄνδρα see P Amh II. 69.8 (A.D. 154) καταχω (ρίζομεν) ὑμεῖν μέτρημ (α) κατ᾽ ἄνδρα ἰσδοχῆς ἀπὸ Παῦνι ἕως Μ [εσ ]ορή, ";we report to you the individual amounts received by us from Pauni to Mesore"; (Edd.), ib. .13 κατ᾽ ἄνδρα καταγωγῆς, ";individual deliveries,"; and P Lond 259.73 (A.D. 94–5) (= II. p. 38) διὰ τῶν. . κατ᾽ ἄνδρα λόγων. In ib. 604.3 (A.D. 47) (= III. p. 71) we have κάτανδρα for κατ᾽ ἄνδρα, and in P Tebt I. 72.17 (B.C. 114) the phrase is contracted into κἄνδρα according to Mayser Gr. p. 145. With the distributive κατά cf. in MGr καθείς, καθένας, καθέτις (κάθα εἷς), ";every one,"; and such a phrase as ὀλίγο κατ᾽ ὀλίγο, ";little by little.";

III. A few miscellaneous phrases may conclude this long note. Thus c. gen. we have P Tor II. 12.7 (Ptol.) οὐ γεγόγενεν (l. γέγονεν) ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν ὠνηὶ κατὰ τῆς οἰκείας, ";emptio tuae domûs";—";Graecitas vere barbara"; (Ed.), and P Fay 32.14 (A.D. 131) ἐὰν δέ τι κατὰ τούτ (ου) ἐξοικονομῶ, πρότερον ἀποδίξω ὑπάρχειν, ";if I alienate any of my rights over it, I will first establish my title to the ownership"; (Edd.). With the acc. we have P Tebt I. 104.18 (B.C. 92) κατὰ δύναμιν τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτοῖς, ";so far as their property shall admit,"; ib. 27iii. 83 (B.C. 113) ἡ δ᾽ εἴσπραξις τῶν προεθησομένων παρὰ σοῦ κατὰ κράτος ἔσται, ";and any losses will be rigorously exacted from you"; (Edd.), OGIS 90.26 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) τήν τε πόλιν κατὰ κράτος εἷλεν, P Tebt I. 6.24 (B.C. 140–39) τῶν κατὰ μέρος ἐθνῶν, ";the several associations,"; ib. II. 382.24 (B.C. 30–A.D. 1) πάντ [α ] τὰ [κ ]ατὰ δύο μέρηι, ";all that pertains to the two shares,"; P Petr II. 11 (1).7 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) τοῦτο δὲ γίνεται διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀθροῦν ἡμᾶς, ἀλλὰ κατὰ μικρὸν λαμβάνειν, ";this happens because we do not get our money in a lump sum, but in small instalments,"; P Tebt I. 5.253 (B.C. 118) κατὰ μηδεμίαν παρεύρεσι (= -σιν), ";on no pretext whatsoever,"; ib..87 (B.C. 118) κατὰ τοῦτο, ";on this account,"; ";in consequence,"; ib. II. 381.14 (A.D. 123) (= Selections, p. 78) ἕτερα καθ᾽ ὃν δήποτε οὖν τρόπον, ";other things of whatsoever kind,"; P Lond 904.21 (A.D. 104) (= III. p. 125, Selections, p. 73) καθ᾽ ἥ [ντινα ] δήποτε αἰτ [ίαν (cf. 2 Maccabees 14:3, 3 Maccabees 7:7), and P Tebt I. 42.5 (c. B.C. 114) ἠδικημένος καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπ [ ] Ἁρμιύσιος, ";having been excessively wronged by Harmiusis."; The marriage contract P Eleph 1.5 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections, p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτὸ ὅπου ἂν δοκῆι ἄριστον εἶναι, ";and that we should live together wherever it may seem best"; supports the rendering of κατὰ τὸ αὐτό in Acts 14:1 AV, RV. On the other hand, the meaning similiter, ";after the same manner,"; preferred by Blass ad l., and adopted for κατὰ τὰ αὐτά in Luke 17:30 RV, is found in the Will P Eleph 2.6 (B.C. 285–4) ἐὰν δέ τι πάσχηι Διονύσιος, καταλειπέτω τὰ ὑπάρχοντα πᾶσιν τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῖς αὑτοῦ, κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ καὶ Καλλίστα ἐάν τι πάσχηι, καταλειπέτω τὰ ὑπάρχοντα κτλ. ; cf. OGIS 56.66 (B.C. 237) ἐξεῖναι δὲ κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις παρθένοις ταῖς βουλομέναις συντελεῖν τὰ νόμιμα τῆι θεῶι.

On the derivation of κατά, and its use in composition, see Moulton Gr. ii. § 121.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
επ' καθ καθ' καθά κατ κατ' κατα κατά κατὰ καταμόνας kat kat' kata katá katà kath kath'

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