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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #3844 - παρά

Transliteration
pará
Phonetics
par-ah'  
Word Origin
a root word
Parts of Speech
Preposition
TDNT
5:727,771
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. from, of at, by, besides, near
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (200) NAS (53) HCS (181)
Matthew 18
Mark 14
Luke 28
John 31
Acts 33
Romans 13
1 Corinthians 6
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 4
Ephesians 2
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 2
2 Thessalonians 3
2 Timothy 5
Hebrews 10
James 4
1 Peter 2
2 Peter 3
1 John 2
2 John 2
Revelation 3
Matthew 4
Mark 3
Luke 8
John 1
Acts 4
Romans 7
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 3
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 9
James 1
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 1
Revelation 1
Matthew 16
Mark 16
Luke 28
John 32
Acts 29
Romans 13
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 3
Galatians 4
Ephesians 2
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 2
2 Thessalonians 2
2 Timothy 4
Hebrews 10
James 3
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 3
2 John 3
Revelation 3
BYZ TIS TR
PREP 200
PREP 189
PREP 200
NA WH
N-ASF 2
P-DPM 1
PREP 184
T-APN 1
T-ASF 1
V-AAS-3S 1
V-AMPNSM 1
PREP 206


Thayer's Expanded Definition
 παρά (it neglects elision before proper names beginning with a vowel, and (at least in Tdf. s text) before some other words; see Tdf Proleg., p. 95, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5,1a.; Buttmann, 10), a preposition indicating close proximity, with various modifications corresponding to the various cases with which it is joined; cf. Viger. editionm Herm., p. 643ff; Matthiae, § 588; Bernhardy (1829), p. 255ff; Kühner, § 440; Krüger, § 68,34-36. It is joined:

I. with the genitive; and as in Greek prose writings always with the genitive of a person, to denote that a thing proceeds from. the side or the vicinity of one, or from one's sphere of power, or from one's wealth or store, Latin a, ab; German von ... her, von neben; French de chez; (English from beside, from); the Sept. for מִלִּפְנֵי, מִיַד, מֵאֵצֶל ( 1 Samuel 17:30); cf. Winer s Grammar, 364 f (342 f)

a. properly, with a suggestion of union of place or of residence, after verbs of coming, departing, setting out, etc. (cf. French venir, partir de chez quelqu'un): Mark 14:43; Luke 8:49 (here Lachmann ἀπό); John 15:26; John 16:27; John 17:8; (παῥ ἧς ἐκβεβλήκει ἑπτά δαιμόνια, Mark 16:9 L Tr text WH); εἶναι παρά Θεοῦ, of Christ, to be sent from God, John 9:16,33; to be sprung from God (by the nature of the λόγος), John 6:46; 7:29> (where for the sake of the context κἀκεῖνος με ἀπέστειλεν ( Tdf. ἀπέσταλκέν) is added); μονογενοῦς παρά πατρός namely, ὄντος, John 1:14; ἐστι τί παρά τίνος, is given by one, John 17:7 (cf.

d. below).

b. joined to passive verbs, παρά makes one the author, the giver, etc. ( Winer s Grammar, 365 (343); Buttmann, § 134,1); so after ἀποστέλλεσθαι, John 1:6 (the expression originates in the fact that one who is sent is conceived of as having been at the time with the sender, so that he could be selected or commissioned from among a number and then sent off); γίνεσθαι, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:11 (παρά κυρίου, from the Lord, by divine agency or by the power at God's command); akin to which is οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρά τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῤῆμα, Luke 1:37 L marginal reading T Tr WH (see ἀδυνατέω, b.); λαλεῖσθαι, Luke 1:45 (not ὑπό, because God had not spoken in person, but by an angel); κατηγορεῖσθαι, Acts 22:30 Rec. (not ὑπό (yet so L T Tr WH) because Paul had not yet been formally accused by the Jews, but the tribune inferred from the tumult that the Jews accused him of some crime).

c. after verbs of seeking, asking, taking, receiving, buying (cf. Winer s Grammar, 370 (347) n.; Buttmann, § 147,5; yet see Lightfoot on Galatians 1:12); as, αἴτω, αἰτοῦμαι, Matthew 20:20 (where L Tr text WH text ἀπ' αὐτοῦ); John 4:9; Acts 3:2; Acts 9:2; James 1:5; 1 John 5:15 (where L T Tr WH ἀπ' αὐτοῦ); ζητῶ, Mark 8:11; Luke 11:16; Luke 12:48; λαμβάνω, Mark 12:2; John 5:34,41, 44; John 10:18; Acts 2:33; Acts 3:5; Acts 17:9; Acts 20:24; Acts 26:10; James 1:7; 2 Peter 1:17; 1 John 3:22 ( L T Tr WH ἀπ' αὐτοῦ); 2 John 1:4; Revelation 2:28 (27); παραλαμβάνω, Galatians 1:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; ἀπολαμβάνω, Luke 6:34 R G LTr marginal reading; κομίζομαι, Ephesians 6:8; γίνεται μοι τί, Matthew 18:19; δέχομαι, Acts 22:5; Philippians 4:18; ἔχω, Acts 9:14; ὠνέομαι, Acts 7:16; ἀγοράζομαι, Revelation 3:18; also after ἄρτον φαγεῖν (namely, δοθεντα), 2 Thessalonians 3:8; εὑρεῖν ἔλεος, 2 Timothy 1:18; ἔσται χάρις, 2 John 1:3. after verbs of hearing, ascertaining, learning, making inquiry; as, ἀκούω τί, John 1:40(John 1:41>); John 6:45f; 7:51; 8:26,40; 15:15>; Acts 10:22; Acts 28:22; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2; πυνθάνομαι, Matthew 2:4; John 4:52; ἀκριβω, Matthew 2:16; ἀπιγινώσκω, Acts 24:8; μανθάνω, 2 Timothy 3:14.

d. in phrases in which things are said εἶναι or ἐξέρχεσθαι from one: Luke 2:1; Luke 6:19; John 17:7 (see a. above).

e. , , τό παρά τίνος (see , II:8; cf. Buttmann, § 125,9; Winer's Grammar, § 18,3); α. absolutely: οἱ παῥ αὐτοῦ, those of one's family, i. e. his kinsmen, relations, Mark 3:21 ( Susanna 33; one's descendants (yet here Vulg. qui cure eo erant), 1 Maccabees 13:52; ( Josephus, Antiquities 1,10, 5)); cf. Fritzsche at the passage, p. 101; (Field, Otium Norv. pars 3:at the passage); τά παρά τίνος, what one has beside him, and so at his service, i. e. one's means, resources, Mark 5:26; τά παρά τινων, namely, ὄντα, i. e. δοθεντα, Luke 10:7; Philippians 4:18; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 366 (343); Josephus, Antiquities 8,6, 6; b. j. 2,8, 4; etc.). β. where it refers to a preceding noun: ἐξουσία παρά τίνος, namely, received, Acts 26:12 ( R G); ἐπικουρίας τῆς παρά ( L T Tr WH ἀπό) τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 26:22 ( παρά τίνος εὔνοια, Xenophon, mem. 2,2, 12); παῥ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, of which I am the author, Romans 11:27 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 193 (182)).

II. with the dative, παρά indicates that something is or is done either in the immediate vicinity of someone, or (metaphorically) in his mind, near by, beside, in the power of, in the presence of, with, the Sept. for אֵצֶל ( 1 Kings 20:1 (1 Kings 21:1>); Proverbs 8:30), בְּיַד ( Genesis 44:16; Numbers 31:49), בְּעֵינֵי (see b. below); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 48, d., p. 394 f (369); (Buttmann, 339 (291 f)).

a. near, by: εἱστήκεισαν παρά τῷ σταυρῷ, John 19:25 (this is the only passage in the N. T. where παρά is joined with a dative of the thing, in all others with a dative of the person). after a verb of motion, to indicate the rest which follows the motion (cf. Buttmann, 339 (292)), ἔστησεν αὐτό παῥ ἑαυτῷ, Luke 9:47.

b. with, i. e. in one's house; in one's town; in one's society: ξενίζεσθαι (which see), Acts 10:6; Acts 21:16; μένειν, of guests or lodgers, John 1:39 (John 1:40>); John 4:40; 14:17,25>; Acts 9:43; Acts 18:3,20 ( R G); Acts 21:7> f; ἐπιμένειν, Acts 28:14 L T Tr WH; καταλύειν, Luke 19:7 ( Demosthenes, de corona § 82 (cf. Buttmann, 339 (292))); ἀριστᾶν, Luke 11:37; ἀπολείπειν τί, 2 Timothy 4:13; παρά τῷ Θεῷ, dwelling with God, John 8:38; equivalent to in heaven, John 17:5; μισθόν ἔχειν, to have a reward laid up with God in heaven, Matthew 6:1; εὑρεῖν χάριν (there where God Isaiah , i. e. God's favor (cf. Winer's Grammar, 365 (343))), Luke 1:30; a person is also said to have χάρις παρά one with whom he is acceptable, Luke 2:52; τοῦτο χάρις παρά Θεῷ, this is acceptable with God, pleasing to him, 1 Peter 2:20 (for בְּעֵינֵי, Exodus 33:12,16; Numbers 11:15); παρά Θεῷ, in fellowship with God (of those who have embraced the Christian religion and turned to God from whom they had before been estranged), 1 Corinthians 7:24; παρά κυρίῳ (in heaven), before the Lord as Judges , 2 Peter 2:11 ( G L omit and Tr WH brackets the phrase); παῥ ὑμῖν, in your city, in your church, Colossians 4:16; with a dative plural equivalent to among, Matthew 22:25; Matthew 28:15; Revelation 2:13; παῥ ἑαυτῷ, at his home, 1 Corinthians 16:2.

c. παῥ ( L Tr WH text ἐν) ἑαυτῷ, with oneself i. e. in one's own mind, διαλογίζεσθαι, Matthew 21:25.

d. a thing is said to be or not to be παρά τίνι, with one, α. which belongs to his nature and character, or is in accordance with his practice or the reverse; as, μή ἀδικία παρά τῷ Θεῷ; Romans 9:14; add, Romans 2:11; 2 Corinthians 1:17; Ephesians 6:9; James 1:17. β. which is or is not within one's power: Matthew 19:26; Mark 10:27; Luke 18:27, cf. Luke 1:37 R G L text e. παρά τίνι, with one i. e. in his judgment, he being judge (so in Herodotus and the Attic writings; cf. Passow, under the word, II:2, vol. ii., p. 667; (Liddell and Scott, under B. II:3)): παρά τῷ Θεῷ, Romans 2:13; 1 Corinthians 3:19; Galatians 3:11; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; James 1:27; 1 Peter 2:4; 2 Peter 3:8 (παρά κυρίῳ); φρόνιμον εἶναι παῥ ἑαυτῷ ( A. V. in one's own conceit), Romans 11:25 (where Tr text WH text ἐν); Romans 12:16.

III. with an accusative; the Sept. for אֵצֶל, יַד עַל, בְּעֵבֶר ( Joshua 7:7; Joshua 22:7); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 49g., p. 403 f (377f); (Buttmann, 339 (292));

1. properly, of place, at, by, near, by the side of, beside, along; so with verbs of motion: περιπατεῖν παρά τήν θάλασσαν ( Plato, Gorgias, p. 511e.), Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16 (here L T Tr WH παράγω); πίπτειν, Matthew 13:4; Mark 4:4; Luke 8:5,41; Luke 17:16; Acts 5:10 (where L T Tr WH πρός); σπαρῆναι, Matthew 13:19; ῥίπτειν, Matthew 15:30; τιθέναι, Acts 4:35,37 (here Tdf. πρός); Acts 5:2>; ἀποτιθεναι, Acts 7:58; ἔρχεσθαι, ἐξέρχεσθαι, Matthew 15:29; Mark 2:13 (here Tdf. εἰς); Acts 16:13; οἱ παρά τήν ὁδόν, namely, πεσόντες, Mark 4:15, cf. Mark 4:4; Luke 8:12, cf. 5. with verbs of rest: καθῆσθαι, Matthew 13:1; Matthew 20:30; Luke 8:35; with εἶναι, Mark 5:21; Acts 10:6. with verbs denoting the business in which one is engaged, as παιδεύειν in passive, Acts 22:3 (so G L T Tr WH punctuate); διδάσκειν, Mark 4:1. without a verb, in specifications of place, Acts 10:32; Hebrews 11:12.

2. beside, beyond, i. e. metaphorically,

a. equivalent to contrary to: παρά τήν διδαχήν, Romans 16:17; παῥ ἐλπίδα, literally, beyond hope, i. e. where the laws and course of nature left no room for hope, hence, equivalent to without (A. V. against) hope, Romans 4:18 (in secular authors, of things which happen against hope, beyond one's expectation, cf. Passow, under the word, III:3, vol. ii, p. 669{b}; Dionysius Halicarnassus, Antiquities 6,25); παρά τόν νόμοι, contrary to the law, Acts 18:13 (παρά τούς νόμους, opposed to κατά τούς νόμους, Xenophon, mem. 1,1, 18); παῥ , contrary to that which, i. e. at variance with that which, Galatians 1:8f; παρά φύσιν, Romans 1:26; Romans 11:24 ( Thucydides 6,17; Plato, rep. 5, p. 466d.); after ἄλλος, other than, different from, 1 Corinthians 3:11 (see examples from secular authors in Passow, under the word, III:3 at the end vol. ii., p. 670{a}); παρά τόν κτίσαντα, omitting or passing by the Creator, Romans 1:25, where others explain it before (above) the Creator, rather than the Creator, agreeably indeed to the use of the preposition in Greek writings (cf. Ast, Lex. Plato, iii., p. 28 (cf. Riddell, Platonic Idioms, § 165 β.; Liddell and Scott, under the word, C. I:5d.)), but not to the thought of the passage. except, save, equivalent to if you subtract from a given sum, less: τεσσαράκοντα παρά μίαν, one (stripe) excepted, 2 Corinthians 11:24 (τεσσαράκοντα ἐτῶν παρά τριάκοντα ἡμέρας, Josephus, Antiquities 4,8, 1; παρά πέντε ναῦς, five ships being deducted, Thucydides 8,29; (παῥ ὀλίγας ψήφους, Josephus, contra Apion 2,37, 3); see other examples from Greek authors in Bernhardy (1829), p. 258; ( Winer s Grammar, as above; especially Sophocles Lexicon, under 3)).

b. above, beyond: παρά καιρόν ἡλικίας, Hebrews 11:11; παῥ δεῖ; ( Plutarch, mor., p. 83f. (de profect. in virt. § 13)), Romans 12:3; equivalent to more than: ἁμαρτωλοί παρά πάντας, Luke 13:2; ἔχρισεν σε ... ἔλαιον ... παρά τούς μετόχους more copiously than ( A. V. above) thy fellows, Hebrews 1:9 (from Psalm 44:8 (Psalm 45:8>); ὑψοῦν τινα παρά τινα, Sirach 15:5); κρίνειν ἡμέραν παῥ ἡμέραν, to prefer one day to another (see κρίνω, 2), Romans 14:5. Hence, it is joined to comparatives: πλέον παρά τό, Luke 3:13; διαφορώτερον παῥ αὐτούς ὄνομα, Hebrews 1:4; add, Hebrews 3:3; 9:23; 11:4; 12:24>; see examples from Greek authors in Winer's Grammar, § 35,2b. (and as above). Ἐλαττουν τινα παρά, to make one inferior to another, Hebrews 2:7,9.

3. on account of (cf. Latin propter equivalent to ob): παρά τοῦτο, for this reason, therefore, 1 Corinthians 12:15f; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 49g. c.

IV. In Composition παρά denotes

1. situation or motion either from the side of, or to the side of; near, beside, by, to: παραθαλάσσιος, παράλιος, παροικέω, παρακολουθέω, παραλαμβάνω, παραλέγομαι, παραπλέω, παράγω; of what is done secretly or by stealth, as παρεισέρχομαι, παρεισάγω, παρεισδύω; cf. (the several words and) Fritzsche, Commentary on Romans , vol. i., p. 346. by the side of i. e. ready, present, at hand (παρά τίνι): πάρειμι, παρουσία, παρέχω, etc.

2. violation, neglect, aberration (cf. our beyond or aside equivalent to amiss): παραβαίνω, παραβάτης, παρανομέω, παρακούω, παρίημι, πάρεσις, παραλογίζομαι, παράδοξος, παραφρονία, etc.

3. like the German an (in anreizen, antreiben, etc.): παραζηλόω, παραπικραίνω, παροξύνω, παροργίζω. (Cf. Vig. edition, Herm., p. 650f)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

παρά ,

prep. c. gen., dat., acc, with radical sense, beside.

I. C. gen. pers., from the side of, from beside, from, indicating source or origin, [in LXX for H6440, H3027, H681;] after verbs of motion, , , , al; after verbs of seeking, receiving, hearing, etc., ; , ; ; , , , , al; after passive verbs, of the agent (like ὑπό ), , , ; absol., οἱ παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ , his family, his kinsfolk, (cf. M, Pr., 106, 1.; Field, Notes, 25 f.; Swete, in l); τὰ παρ᾿ αὐτῆς (αὐτῶν , ὑμῶν ), one's means, wealth, , , .

II. C. dat. pers. (exc. , Papyri τ . σταυρῷ ), by the side of, beside, by, with, [in LXX for H681, H3027, בְּעֵינֵי ;] ; , ; , al.; παρ᾿ ἑαυτῷ , at home, ; c. dat. pl., among, , , al.; metaph., , , , , , al.

III. C. acc, of motion by or towards, [in LXX for H681, יַר H5921), בְּעֵבֶר ;]

1. of place, by the side of, beside, by, along: , ; after verbs of motion, , , , , al.; after verbs of rest, , , , al.

2. beside, beyond, metaph.;

(a) beyond, against, contrary to: , ; ; , al.; except, ;

(b) beyond, above, in comparison with: , ; , ; ; , al.;

(c) on account of: .

IV. In composition: beside, to (παραλαμβάνω , παράγω ), at hand (πάρειμι ), from (παραρρέω ), amiss (παρακούω ), past (παρέρχομαι ), compared with (παρομοιάζω ), above measure (παροργίζω ).

 

 

 

 


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

παροίχομαι, which connotes time ";gone by"; in Acts 14:16, is used in a similar context in P Ryl II. 153.35 (A.D. 138–161) τοῦ παρω ̣χημένου χρόνου, and Syll 652 (= .3 885).5 (c. A.D. 220) δι ]ὰ τῶν παρῳχημένων [χρόνων. Παρῳχηκότα occurs in BGU I. 288.2 (time of Antoninus Pius) in a broken context.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
παρ παρ' παρα παρά παρὰ πρὸς par par' para pará parà pros pròs

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