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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #3844 - παρά

Transliteration
pará
Phonetics
par-ah'  
Word Origin
a root word
Parts of Speech
Preposition
TDNT
5:727,771
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. from, of at, by, besides, near
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (200) NAS (53) HCS (181)
Matthew 18
Mark 14
Luke 28
John 31
Acts 33
Romans 13
1 Corinthians 6
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 4
Ephesians 2
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 2
2 Thessalonians 3
2 Timothy 5
Hebrews 10
James 4
1 Peter 2
2 Peter 3
1 John 2
2 John 2
Revelation 3
Matthew 4
Mark 3
Luke 8
John 1
Acts 4
Romans 7
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 3
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 9
James 1
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 1
Revelation 1
Matthew 16
Mark 16
Luke 28
John 32
Acts 29
Romans 13
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 3
Galatians 4
Ephesians 2
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 2
2 Thessalonians 2
2 Timothy 4
Hebrews 10
James 3
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 3
2 John 3
Revelation 3
BYZ TIS TR
PREP 200
PREP 189
PREP 200
NA WH
N-ASF 2
P-DPM 1
PREP 184
T-APN 1
T-ASF 1
V-AAS-3S 1
V-AMPNSM 1
PREP 206


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πᾰρά [ρᾰ],

and Lyr. also παραί: shortd. πάρ, in Hom., Lyr. (but rarely in Trag., in lyr. passages, A. Supp. 553, S. Tr. 636), and in all dial ects exc. Att., GDI 5434.8 (Paros), IG 5(2).3.14 (Tegea, iv B. C.), Inscr.Magn. 26.28 (Thess.), etc.:

Pr c. gen., dat., and acc., prop. beside: hence, WITH GEN. prop. denoting motion from the side of, from beside, from:

I of Place, πὰρ νηῶν ἔλθωμεν Il. 13.744; παρὰ ναῦφιν ἐλευσόμεθ' 12.225, etc.; παρ' Ὠκεανοῖο ῥοάων.. ἐπερχομένη Od. 22.197; πὰρ νηῶν ἀπώσεται Il. 8.533, etc.; δῶρα π. νηὸς ἐνεικέμεν 19.194; φάσγανον ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος π. μηροῦ 1.190, cf. 21.173; σπασσάμενος.. ἄορ παχέος π. μηροῦ 16.473; πλευρὰ παρ' ἀσπίδος ἐξεφαάνθη was exposed beside the shield, 4.468, cf. A. Th. 624.

II commonly of Persons,

1 with Verbs of going or coming, bringing, etc., ἦλθε.. πὰρ Διός Il. 2.787; παρ' Αἰήταο πλέουσα Od. 12.70, etc.; ἀγγελίη ἥκει π. βασιλέος Hdt. 8.140. ά; αὐτομολήσαντες π. βασιλέως X. An. 1.7.13; ἐξεληλυθὼς παρ' Ἀριστάρχου D. 21.117; ὁ π. τινὸς ἥκων his messenger, X. Cyr. 4.5.53; so οἱ π. τινός Th. 7.10, Mark 3:21, etc.; ὅστις ἀφικνεῖτο τῶν π. βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτόν X. An. 1.1.5, etc.; τεύχεα καλὰ φέρουσα παρ' Ἡφαίστοιο from his workshop, Il. 18.137, cf. 617, etc.; ἀπαγγέλλειν τι π. τινός X. An. 2.1.20; σὺ δὲ οἰμώζειν αὐτοῖς παρ' ἐμοῦ λέγε Luc. DMort. 1.2.

2. issuing from a person, γίγνεσθαι π. τινός to be born from, Pl. Smp. 179b; λόγος (sc. ἐστί) π. Ἀθηναίων c. acc. et inf., Hdt. 8.55: freq. following a Noun, δόξα ἡ π. τῶν ἀνθρώπων glory from (given by) men, Pl. Phdr. 232a; ἡ π. τινὸς εὔνοια the favour from, i. e. of, any one, X. Mem. 2.2.12; τὸ παρ' ἐμοῦ ἀδίκημα done by me, Id. Cyr. 5.5.13; τὰ π. τινός all that issues from any one, as commands, commissions, Id. An. 2.3.4, etc.; or promises, gifts, presents, Id. Mem. 3.11.13; τὰ παρ' ἐμοῦ my opinions, Pl. Smp. 219a; παρ' ἑωυτοῦ διδούς giving from oneself, i. e. from one's own means, Hdt. 2.129, 8.5; παρ' ἑαυτοῦ προσετίθει X. HG 6.1.3; νόμον θὲς παρ' ἐμοῦ by my advice, Pl. Prt. 322d; αὐτοὶ παρ' αὑτῶν of themselves, Id. Tht. 150d, cf. Phdr. 235c.

3. with Verbs of receiving, obtaining, and the like, τυχεῖν τινος π. τινός Od. 6.290, 15.158; πὰρ δ' ἄρα μιν Ταφίων πρίατο 14.452; ἀρέομαι πὰρ μὲν Σαλαμῖνος Ἀθαναίων χάριν Pi. P. 1.76; εὑρέσθαι τι π. τῶν θεῶν Isoc. 9.14, cf. IG 12.40.10; δέχεσθαι, λαμβάνειν, ἁρπάζειν π. τινός, Th. 1.20, X. Oec. 9.11, Hes. Th. 914; ἀντιάσαι, αἰτήσασθαι π. τινός, S. El. 870 (lyr.), X. HG 3.1.4; ἀξιοῖ π. τοῦ ἰατροῦ φάρμακον πιὼν ἐξεμέσαι τὸ νόσημα Pl. R. 406d; κόσμος τοῖς πράξασι γίγνεται π. τῶν ἀκουσάντων Id. Mx. 236e: without Verb, ὁ καρπὸς ὁ π. τῶν δημάρχων IG 12.76.27: with Verbs of learning, etc., μεμαθηκέναι π. τινῶν Hdt. 2.104, etc.

4. with Pass. Verbs, πὰρ Διὸς.. μῆνις ἐτύχθη Il. 15.122; π. θεῶν ἡ τοιαύτη μανία δίδοται Pl. Phdr. 245c, etc.; τὰ π. τῶν θεῶν σημαινόμενα, συμβουλευόμενα, X. Cyr. 1.6.2; τὰ π. τινὸς λεγόμενα ib. 6.1.42; τὰ π. τῆς τύχης δωρηθέντα the presents of.., Isoc. 4.26; με π. σοῦ σοφίας πληρωθήσεσθαι Pl. Smp. 175e.

III rarely for παρά c. dat., by, near, πὰρ ποδός Pi. P. 10.62, 3.60; παρὰ δὲ κυανέων πελαγέων dub. l. in S. Ant. 966 (lyr.); τὸν Ῥειτὸν τὸν παρὰ τοῦ ἄστεως IG 12.81.5; πολλοὶ παρ' ἀμφοτέρων ἔπιπτον, = ἀμφοτέρωθεν, D.S. 19.42. π. τῆς συγχωρήσεώς τινος without his consent, BCH 46.337 (Teos).

WITH DAT. denoting rest by the side of any person or thing, answering the question where ?

I of Places, κατ' ἂρ ἕζετ'.. πὰρ πυρί, ἔκειτο π. σηκῷ, Od. 7.154, 9.319; νέμονται π. πέτρῃ 13.408; ἑσταότες παρ ὄχεσφιν Il. 8.565; πὰρ ποσὶ μαρναμένων ἐκυλίνδετο at their feet, 14.411, etc.; π. θύρῃσι at the door, 7.346; π. ῥηγμῖνι θαλάσσης 2.773; δεῖπνον.. εἵλοντο παρ' ὄχθῃσιν ποταμοῖο Od. 6.97, cf. Il. 4.475, 20.53, etc.; κεῖσθαι παρ' Ἅιδῃ S. OT 972; παρ' οἴνῳ over wine, ib. 780, etc.

II

1. of persons, beside, πὰρ δὲ οἷ αὐτῷ εἷσε Θεοκλύμενον Od. 15.285; κεῖτο παρὰ μνηστῇ ἀλόχῳ Il. 9.556, cf. 6.246, etc.; παρ' ἀνδράσιν εὐνάζεσθαι Od. 5.119; δαίνυσθαι π. τινί 8.243; πὰρ δέ οἱ ἑστήκει stood by him, Il. 4.367.

2. at one's house or place, with one, μένειν π. τισί 9.427; θητευέμεν ἄλλῳ, ἀνδρὶ παρ' ἀκλήρῳ Od. 11.490; φιλέεσθαι π. τινί Il. 13.627; παρ' ἑωυτοῖσι at their own house, Hdt. 1.105, cf. 86; παιδευθῆναι π. τινί X. Cyr. 1.2.15; καταλύειν π. τινί D. 18.82 (but παρά τινα καταλῦσαι Th. 1.136), etc.: hence οἱ παρ' ἐμοί those of my household, X. Mem. 2.7.4, etc.; τὰ παρ' ἐμοί life with me, Id. An. 1.7.4; οἱ παρ' ἡμῖν ἄνθρωποι our people, Pl. Phd. 64b; ἡ παρ' ἡμῖν πολιτεία, ὁ παρ' ὑμῖν δῆμος, D. 15.19; ὁ παρ' αὑτῷ βίοτος one's own life, S. OT 612; τὸ παρ' ἡμῖν πῦρ Pl. Phlb. 29f; ὅσος παρ' ὑμῖν ὁ φθόνος φυλάσσεται S. OT 382; τὸ παρ' ἡμῖν σῶμα Pl. Phlb. 29f; also, in one's hands, τὰ π. τοῖς Ἑλληνοταμίαις ὄντα IG 12.91.6; ἔχειν παρ' ἑωυτῷ Hdt. 1.130, etc.; οὔπω παρ' ἐμοὶ τότ' ἦν λέγειν I had no right to speak then, Men. Epit. 98.

3. before, in the presence of, ἤειδε π. μνηστῆρσιν Od. 1.154; before a judge, δίκας γίγνεσθαι π. τῷ πολεμάρχῳ IG 12.16.9; π. Δαρείῳ κριτῇ Hdt. 3.160; π. τῷ βασιλέϊ Id. 4.65; παρὰ δικασταῖς Th. 1.73; εἰς κρίσιν καθιστάναι τινὰ π. τισί D. 18.13: hence παρ' ἐμοί in my judgement, Hdt. 1.32, cf. S. Tr. 589, E. Heracl. 881, 1 Corinthians 3:19; π. τούτῳ μέγα δυνήσεται with him, Pl. Grg. 510e.

4. in quoting authors, παρ' Ἐφόρῳ, παρ' Αἰσχίνῃ, π. Θουκυδίδῃ, in Ephorus, etc., Plb. 9.2.4, D.H. Comp. 9, 18. III Arc., = π. c. gen., from, καθὰ εἶχον τὰς ἰντολὰς π. τᾷ ἰδίᾳ πόλι SIG 559.9 (Megalop., iii B. C.), cf. 558.10 (Ithaca, iii B. C.).

WITH ACCU S. in three main senses,

I beside, near, by,

II along,

III past, beyond.

I beside, near, by:

1 with Verbs of coming, going, etc., to the side of, to, ἴτην π. νῆας Il. 1.347, cf. 8.220, etc.; βῆ.. π. θῖνα 1.34, cf. 327, etc.; τρέψας πὰρ ποταμόν to the side of.., 21.603, cf. 3.187: more freq. of persons, εἶμι παρ' Ἥφαιστον to the chamber of H., 18.143, cf. Od. 1.285, etc.; ἐσιόντες π. τοὺς φίλους Th. 2.51, etc.; φοιτᾶν π. τὸν Σωκράτη Pl. Phd. 59d; πέμπειν ἀγγέλους, πρέσβεις π. τινά, Hdt. 1.141, Th. 1.58, etc.; ἄγειν π. τινά Hdt. 1.86; καταφυγὴ π. φίλων τινάς Th. 2.17.

2. with Verbs of rest, beside, near, by, sts. with ref. to past motion (expressed in such phrases as ἧσο παρ' αὐτὸν ἰοῦσα Il. 3.406, cf. 11.577), ἔς ῥα θρόνους ἕζοντο παρ' Ἀτρεΐδην Μενέλαον Od. 4.51, cf. 13.372; κεῖται ποταμοῖο παρ' ὄχθας lies stretched beside.., Il. 4.487, cf. 12.381; παρ' ἔμ' ἵστασο come and stand by me, 11.314, cf. 592, 20.49, etc.; π. πυθμέν' ἐλαίης θῆκαν Od. 13.122; καταθέτω π. τὰ ἴκρια IG 12.94.28; κοιμήσαντο π. πρυμνήσια they lay down by.., Od. 12.32, cf. 3.460; ὁ παρ' ἐμὲ καθήμενος Pl. Euthd. 271b, cf. Phd. 89b; ἐκάθητο π. τὴν πύλην, π. τὴν ὁδόν, LXX Genesis 19:1, Mark 10:46; παρ' αὐτὸν τὸν καλέσαντα κατακείμενος δειπνῆσαι Thphr. Char. 21.2, cf. Pl. Smp. 175c; ἐκαθέζετο π. τὸν Λύσιν Id. Ly. 211a, cf. R. 328c; στὰς παρ' αὐτόν Id. Phd. 116c; τέμενος νεμόμεσθα.. παρ' ὄχθας Il. 12.313, cf. 6.34, IG 12.943.45; τοῦ Εὐρίπου, παρ' ὃν ᾤκει Aeschin. 3.90; κατελείφθη π. τὸν νηόν Hdt. 4.87; τὴν παρ' ἐμὲ ἐοῦσαν δύναμιν Id. 8.140. ά (v.l. ἐμοί) ; εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ' ἑαυτόν X. Cyr. 1.4.18, cf. An. 1.9.31, Ar. Fr. 451, Isaiah 8:16, Alex. 248, Demetr.Com. Nov. 1.5, IG 22.654.23 (iii B. C.), Plb. 3.26.1, 11.14.3, 28.14.3; ἡ π. θάλασσαν Μακεδονία Th. 2.99, cf. S. El. 184 (lyr.), Tr. 636 (lyr.); Καρβασυανδῆς π. Καῦνον IG 12.204.52; τὸ κουρεῖον τὸ π. τοὺς Ἑρμᾶς Lys. 23.3, cf. And. 1.62, Isa 6.20, 8.35, Aeschin. 1.182, 3.88, Lycurg. 112; τᾶς παστάδος τᾶς παρ' Ἀπόλλωνα IG 42 (1).109 iii 146 (Epid.); παρ' ὄμμα before one's eyes, E. Supp. 484; π. πόδας on the spot, Phld. Ir. p.78 W., Rh. 2.2 S.; immediately thereafter, Plb. 1.7.5, 1.8.2, al. Dor., Boeot., and Thess., = supr. B. 11.2, at the house of.., with a person, IG 7.3171.7 (Orchom. Boeot.), GDI 1717 (Delph.); παρ' ἁμὲ πολυτίματος [ὁ σῖτος ] Ar. Ach. 759 (Megar.); τοῖς κατοικέντεσσι πὰρ ἀμμέ IG 9(2).517.18 (Larissa, iii B. C.); τοῖ πὰρ ἀμμὲ πολιτεύματος ib.13; πεπολιτευκὼρ πὰρ ἁμέ Schwyzer 425.5 (Elis, iii/ii B. C.): so in Att., θέμενος π. γυναῖκας depositing with.., Pl. R. 465c.

3. with Verbs of striking, wounding, etc., βάλε στῆθος π. μαζόν Il. 4.480, etc.; τὸν δ' ἕτερον.. κληῗδα παρ' ὦμον πλῆξε 5.146; τύψε κατὰ κληῗδα παρ' αὐχένα 21.117, cf. 4.525, 8.325, etc.; αἰχμὴ δ' ἐξελύθη παρὰ νείατον ἀνθερεῶνα 5.293, cf. 17.310; δησάμενος τελαμῶνι π. σφυρόν ib. 290.

4. with Verbs of placing, examining, etc., side by side with.., ὁ ἔλεγχος π. τὸν ἔλεγχον παραβαλλόμενος Pl. Grg. 475e, cf. Hp.Mi. 369c, Smp. 214c, R. 348a; ἐξέτασον παρ' ἄλληλα τὰ σοὶ κἀμοὶ βεβιωμένα D. 18.265; ἄλλα παρ' ἄλλατιθέμενα.. τῶν χρωμάτων Arist. Mete. 375a24. Geom., παραβάλλειν π. apply an area to (i. e. along) a finite straight line, Euc. 1.44, Archim. Aequil. 2.1; π. τὴν δοθεῖσαν αὐτοῦ γραμμὴν παρατείναντα Pl. Men. 87a; [εὐθεῖα] παρ' ἣν δύνανται αἱ καταγόμεναι τεταγμένως the line to which are applied the squares of the or dinates, etc., Apollon. Perg. Con. 1.11: hence, Arith., παραβάλλειν τι π. τι divide by.. (v. παραβάλλω A. VII. 2); μερίζω τι π. τι Dioph. 4.33; ἐπὶ γ π. ί multiply by 3 and divide by 10, PLond. 5.1718.2 (vi A. D.).

5. Geom., parallel to.., Democr. 155, Arist. Top. 158b31, Archim. Sph. Cyl. 1.12, al.

6. metaph. in Gramm., like, as a parody of.., π. τὸ Σοφόκλειον, π. τὰ ἐν Τεύκρῳ Σοφοκλέους, Sch. Ar. Av. 1240, Nu. 584. Gramm., of words which differ as compared with other words, π. τὸ τοῦ ἔρωτος ὄνομα σμικρὸν παρηγμένον ἐστίν.. [τὸ ἥρως ] Pl. Cra. 398d, cf. 399a, Lg. 654a: hence, derived from.., π. τὸ ἔδαφος, δάπεδον, A.D. Pron. 31.16; π. τὸ δρῶ δρᾶμα Sch. A.R. 2.624; σύγκειται [τὸ αὐθέντης] π. τὸ εἷναι.. καὶ π. τὸ αὐτός Phryn. PS p.24 B.

7. generally, of Comparison, alongside of, compared with, usu. implying superiority, δοκέοντες π. ταῦτα οὐδ' ἂν τοὺς σοφωτάτους ἀνθρώπων Αἰγυπτίους οὐδὲν ἐπεξευρεῖν Hdt. 2.160, cf. 7.20, 103; ἡλίου ἐκλείψεις αἳ πυκνότεραι π. τὰ ἐκ τοῦ πρὶν χρόνου μνημονευόμενα ξυνέβησαν Th. 1.23, cf. 4.6; τῶν ἁπάντων ἀπερίοπτοί εἰσι π. τὸ νικᾶν Id. 1.41; π. τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα ὥσπερ θεοὶ ἄνθρωποι βιοτεύουσι X. Mem. 1.4.14; φαίνεται π. τὸ ἀλγεινὸν ἡδὺ καὶ π. τὸ ἡδὺ ἀλγεινὸν ἡ ἡσυχία Pl. R. 584a, cf. Phdr. 236d, La. 183c, al.; εὐδαίμων μᾶλλον π. πάντας BCH 26.332 (Halae); προετέρει π. πάντας PSI 4.422.34 (iii B. C.): sts. implying inferiority or defect, ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παρ' ἀγγέλους a little lower than the angels, LXX Psalms 8:6; μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ ὑστεροῦσι π. τὸν ἥλιον lag one day behind the sun, Gem. 8.19; so perh. παρ' αὐτόν, ὑπὲρ αὐτόν (has passed the ball?) short of him, beyond him, Antiph. 234; μέγα τοι ἡμέρα παρ' ἡμέραν γιγνομένη γνώμην ἐξ ὀργῆς μεταστῆσαι one day compared with another is important.., a day's delay makes a difference, Antipho 5.72; τί γὰρ παρ' ἦμαρ ἡμέρα τέρπειν ἔχει προσθεῖσα κἀναθεῖσα τοῦ γε κατθανεῖν; what joy has one day compared with another to offer, since it only brings us nearer to, or farther from, death (which is neither good nor evil)? S. Aj. 475; ὃς μὲν κρίνει (prefers) ἡμέραν παρ' ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει (approves) πᾶσαν ἡμέραν Romans 14:5.

8. with Verbs of estimating, to set at so and so much, hence π. = equivalent to.., ταρβῶ μὴ.. θῆται παρ' οὐδὲν τὰς ἐμὰς ἐπιστολάς set at nought, E. IT 732, cf. A. Ag. 229 (lyr.); παρ' οὐδὲν ἄγειν S. Ant. 35; π. μικρὸν ἡγεῖσθαι or ποιεῖσθαί τι hold of small account, Isoc. 5.79, D. 61.51; παρ' ὀλίγον ποιεῖσθαί τινα X. An. 6.6.11; so with εἶναι, etc., παρ' οὐδέν ἐστι are as nothing, S. OT 983, cf. Ant. 466; παρ' οὐδὲν αὐταῖς ἦν ἂν ὀλλύναι πόσεις E. Or. 569; οὐ π. μέγα ἔσεσθαι τὸ πταῖσμα Arr. An. 1.18.6; so perh. π. σμικρὰ κεχώρηκε have turned out of little account, have amounted to little, Hdt. 1.120. in Accountancy, without a verb, π. τὴν καταλλαγήν on account of κ., PHib. 1.100.4 (iii B. C.).

9. of correspondence, ὀφείλειν στατῆρα π. στατῆρα stater for stater (one to each of two creditors), BCH 50.214 (Thasos, v B. C.);

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 παρά (it neglects elision before proper names beginning with a vowel, and (at least in Tdf. s text) before some other words; see Tdf Proleg., p. 95, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5,1a.; Buttmann, 10), a preposition indicating close proximity, with various modifications corresponding to the various cases with which it is joined; cf. Viger. editionm Herm., p. 643ff; Matthiae, § 588; Bernhardy (1829), p. 255ff; Kühner, § 440; Krüger, § 68,34-36. It is joined:

I. with the genitive; and as in Greek prose writings always with the genitive of a person, to denote that a thing proceeds from. the side or the vicinity of one, or from one's sphere of power, or from one's wealth or store, Latin a, ab; German von ... her, von neben; French de chez; (English from beside, from); the Sept. for מִלִּפְנֵי, מִיַד, מֵאֵצֶל ( 1 Samuel 17:30); cf. Winer s Grammar, 364 f (342 f)

a. properly, with a suggestion of union of place or of residence, after verbs of coming, departing, setting out, etc. (cf. French venir, partir de chez quelqu'un): Mark 14:43; Luke 8:49 (here Lachmann ἀπό); John 15:26; John 16:27; John 17:8; (παῥ ἧς ἐκβεβλήκει ἑπτά δαιμόνια, Mark 16:9 L Tr text WH); εἶναι παρά Θεοῦ, of Christ, to be sent from God, John 9:16,33; to be sprung from God (by the nature of the λόγος), John 6:46; 7:29> (where for the sake of the context κἀκεῖνος με ἀπέστειλεν ( Tdf. ἀπέσταλκέν) is added); μονογενοῦς παρά πατρός namely, ὄντος, John 1:14; ἐστι τί παρά τίνος, is given by one, John 17:7 (cf.

d. below).

b. joined to passive verbs, παρά makes one the author, the giver, etc. ( Winer s Grammar, 365 (343); Buttmann, § 134,1); so after ἀποστέλλεσθαι, John 1:6 (the expression originates in the fact that one who is sent is conceived of as having been at the time with the sender, so that he could be selected or commissioned from among a number and then sent off); γίνεσθαι, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:11 (παρά κυρίου, from the Lord, by divine agency or by the power at God's command); akin to which is οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρά τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῤῆμα, Luke 1:37 L marginal reading T Tr WH (see ἀδυνατέω, b.); λαλεῖσθαι, Luke 1:45 (not ὑπό, because God had not spoken in person, but by an angel); κατηγορεῖσθαι, Acts 22:30 Rec. (not ὑπό (yet so L T Tr WH) because Paul had not yet been formally accused by the Jews, but the tribune inferred from the tumult that the Jews accused him of some crime).

c. after verbs of seeking, asking, taking, receiving, buying (cf. Winer s Grammar, 370 (347) n.; Buttmann, § 147,5; yet see Lightfoot on Galatians 1:12); as, αἴτω, αἰτοῦμαι, Matthew 20:20 (where L Tr text WH text ἀπ' αὐτοῦ); John 4:9; Acts 3:2; Acts 9:2; James 1:5; 1 John 5:15 (where L T Tr WH ἀπ' αὐτοῦ); ζητῶ, Mark 8:11; Luke 11:16; Luke 12:48; λαμβάνω, Mark 12:2; John 5:34,41, 44; John 10:18; Acts 2:33; Acts 3:5; Acts 17:9; Acts 20:24; Acts 26:10; James 1:7; 2 Peter 1:17; 1 John 3:22 ( L T Tr WH ἀπ' αὐτοῦ); 2 John 1:4; Revelation 2:28 (27); παραλαμβάνω, Galatians 1:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; ἀπολαμβάνω, Luke 6:34 R G LTr marginal reading; κομίζομαι, Ephesians 6:8; γίνεται μοι τί, Matthew 18:19; δέχομαι, Acts 22:5; Philippians 4:18; ἔχω, Acts 9:14; ὠνέομαι, Acts 7:16; ἀγοράζομαι, Revelation 3:18; also after ἄρτον φαγεῖν (namely, δοθεντα), 2 Thessalonians 3:8; εὑρεῖν ἔλεος, 2 Timothy 1:18; ἔσται χάρις, 2 John 1:3. after verbs of hearing, ascertaining, learning, making inquiry; as, ἀκούω τί, John 1:40(John 1:41>); John 6:45f; 7:51; 8:26,40; 15:15>; Acts 10:22; Acts 28:22; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2; πυνθάνομαι, Matthew 2:4; John 4:52; ἀκριβω, Matthew 2:16; ἀπιγινώσκω, Acts 24:8; μανθάνω, 2 Timothy 3:14.

d. in phrases in which things are said εἶναι or ἐξέρχεσθαι from one: Luke 2:1; Luke 6:19; John 17:7 (see a. above).

e. , , τό παρά τίνος (see , II:8; cf. Buttmann, § 125,9; Winer's Grammar, § 18,3); α. absolutely: οἱ παῥ αὐτοῦ, those of one's family, i. e. his kinsmen, relations, Mark 3:21 ( Susanna 33; one's descendants (yet here Vulg. qui cure eo erant), 1 Maccabees 13:52; ( Josephus, Antiquities 1,10, 5)); cf. Fritzsche at the passage, p. 101; (Field, Otium Norv. pars 3:at the passage); τά παρά τίνος, what one has beside him, and so at his service, i. e. one's means, resources, Mark 5:26; τά παρά τινων, namely, ὄντα, i. e. δοθεντα, Luke 10:7; Philippians 4:18; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 366 (343); Josephus, Antiquities 8,6, 6; b. j. 2,8, 4; etc.). β. where it refers to a preceding noun: ἐξουσία παρά τίνος, namely, received, Acts 26:12 ( R G); ἐπικουρίας τῆς παρά ( L T Tr WH ἀπό) τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 26:22 ( παρά τίνος εὔνοια, Xenophon, mem. 2,2, 12); παῥ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, of which I am the author, Romans 11:27 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 193 (182)).

II. with the dative, παρά indicates that something is or is done either in the immediate vicinity of someone, or (metaphorically) in his mind, near by, beside, in the power of, in the presence of, with, the Sept. for אֵצֶל ( 1 Kings 20:1 (1 Kings 21:1>); Proverbs 8:30), בְּיַד ( Genesis 44:16; Numbers 31:49), בְּעֵינֵי (see b. below); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 48, d., p. 394 f (369); (Buttmann, 339 (291 f)).

a. near, by: εἱστήκεισαν παρά τῷ σταυρῷ, John 19:25 (this is the only passage in the N. T. where παρά is joined with a dative of the thing, in all others with a dative of the person). after a verb of motion, to indicate the rest which follows the motion (cf. Buttmann, 339 (292)), ἔστησεν αὐτό παῥ ἑαυτῷ, Luke 9:47.

b. with, i. e. in one's house; in one's town; in one's society: ξενίζεσθαι (which see), Acts 10:6; Acts 21:16; μένειν, of guests or lodgers, John 1:39 (John 1:40>); John 4:40; 14:17,25>; Acts 9:43; Acts 18:3,20 ( R G); Acts 21:7> f; ἐπιμένειν, Acts 28:14 L T Tr WH; καταλύειν, Luke 19:7 ( Demosthenes, de corona § 82 (cf. Buttmann, 339 (292))); ἀριστᾶν, Luke 11:37; ἀπολείπειν τί, 2 Timothy 4:13; παρά τῷ Θεῷ, dwelling with God, John 8:38; equivalent to in heaven, John 17:5; μισθόν ἔχειν, to have a reward laid up with God in heaven, Matthew 6:1; εὑρεῖν χάριν (there where God Isaiah , i. e. God's favor (cf. Winer's Grammar, 365 (343))), Luke 1:30; a person is also said to have χάρις παρά one with whom he is acceptable, Luke 2:52; τοῦτο χάρις παρά Θεῷ, this is acceptable with God, pleasing to him, 1 Peter 2:20 (for בְּעֵינֵי, Exodus 33:12,16; Numbers 11:15); παρά Θεῷ, in fellowship with God (of those who have embraced the Christian religion and turned to God from whom they had before been estranged), 1 Corinthians 7:24; παρά κυρίῳ (in heaven), before the Lord as Judges , 2 Peter 2:11 ( G L omit and Tr WH brackets the phrase); παῥ ὑμῖν, in your city, in your church, Colossians 4:16; with a dative plural equivalent to among, Matthew 22:25; Matthew 28:15; Revelation 2:13; παῥ ἑαυτῷ, at his home, 1 Corinthians 16:2.

c. παῥ ( L Tr WH text ἐν) ἑαυτῷ, with oneself i. e. in one's own mind, διαλογίζεσθαι, Matthew 21:25.

d. a thing is said to be or not to be παρά τίνι, with one, α. which belongs to his nature and character, or is in accordance with his practice or the reverse; as, μή ἀδικία παρά τῷ Θεῷ; Romans 9:14; add, Romans 2:11; 2 Corinthians 1:17; Ephesians 6:9; James 1:17. β. which is or is not within one's power: Matthew 19:26; Mark 10:27; Luke 18:27, cf. Luke 1:37 R G L text e. παρά τίνι, with one i. e. in his judgment, he being judge (so in Herodotus and the Attic writings; cf. Passow, under the word, II:2, vol. ii., p. 667; (Liddell and Scott, under B. II:3)): παρά τῷ Θεῷ, Romans 2:13; 1 Corinthians 3:19; Galatians 3:11; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; James 1:27; 1 Peter 2:4; 2 Peter 3:8 (παρά κυρίῳ); φρόνιμον εἶναι παῥ ἑαυτῷ ( A. V. in one's own conceit), Romans 11:25 (where Tr text WH text ἐν); Romans 12:16.

III. with an accusative; the Sept. for אֵצֶל, יַד עַל, בְּעֵבֶר ( Joshua 7:7; Joshua 22:7); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 49g., p. 403 f (377f); (Buttmann, 339 (292));

1. properly, of place, at, by, near, by the side of, beside, along; so with verbs of motion: περιπατεῖν παρά τήν θάλασσαν ( Plato, Gorgias, p. 511e.), Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16 (here L T Tr WH παράγω); πίπτειν, Matthew 13:4; Mark 4:4; Luke 8:5,41; Luke 17:16; Acts 5:10 (where L T Tr WH πρός); σπαρῆναι, Matthew 13:19; ῥίπτειν, Matthew 15:30; τιθέναι, Acts 4:35,37 (here Tdf. πρός); Acts 5:2>; ἀποτιθεναι, Acts 7:58; ἔρχεσθαι, ἐξέρχεσθαι, Matthew 15:29; Mark 2:13 (here Tdf. εἰς); Acts 16:13; οἱ παρά τήν ὁδόν, namely, πεσόντες, Mark 4:15, cf. Mark 4:4; Luke 8:12, cf. 5. with verbs of rest: καθῆσθαι, Matthew 13:1; Matthew 20:30; Luke 8:35; with εἶναι, Mark 5:21; Acts 10:6. with verbs denoting the business in which one is engaged, as παιδεύειν in passive, Acts 22:3 (so G L T Tr WH punctuate); διδάσκειν, Mark 4:1. without a verb, in specifications of place, Acts 10:32; Hebrews 11:12.

2. beside, beyond, i. e. metaphorically,

a. equivalent to contrary to: παρά τήν διδαχήν, Romans 16:17; παῥ ἐλπίδα, literally, beyond hope, i. e. where the laws and course of nature left no room for hope, hence, equivalent to without (A. V. against) hope, Romans 4:18 (in secular authors, of things which happen against hope, beyond one's expectation, cf. Passow, under the word, III:3, vol. ii, p. 669{b}; Dionysius Halicarnassus, Antiquities 6,25); παρά τόν νόμοι, contrary to the law, Acts 18:13 (παρά τούς νόμους, opposed to κατά τούς νόμους, Xenophon, mem. 1,1, 18); παῥ , contrary to that which, i. e. at variance with that which, Galatians 1:8f; παρά φύσιν, Romans 1:26; Romans 11:24 ( Thucydides 6,17; Plato, rep. 5, p. 466d.); after ἄλλος, other than, different from, 1 Corinthians 3:11 (see examples from secular authors in Passow, under the word, III:3 at the end vol. ii., p. 670{a}); παρά τόν κτίσαντα, omitting or passing by the Creator, Romans 1:25, where others explain it before (above) the Creator, rather than the Creator, agreeably indeed to the use of the preposition in Greek writings (cf. Ast, Lex. Plato, iii., p. 28 (cf. Riddell, Platonic Idioms, § 165 β.; Liddell and Scott, under the word, C. I:5d.)), but not to the thought of the passage. except, save, equivalent to if you subtract from a given sum, less: τεσσαράκοντα παρά μίαν, one (stripe) excepted, 2 Corinthians 11:24 (τεσσαράκοντα ἐτῶν παρά τριάκοντα ἡμέρας, Josephus, Antiquities 4,8, 1; παρά πέντε ναῦς, five ships being deducted, Thucydides 8,29; (παῥ ὀλίγας ψήφους, Josephus, contra Apion 2,37, 3); see other examples from Greek authors in Bernhardy (1829), p. 258; ( Winer s Grammar, as above; especially Sophocles Lexicon, under 3)).

b. above, beyond: παρά καιρόν ἡλικίας, Hebrews 11:11; παῥ δεῖ; ( Plutarch, mor., p. 83f. (de profect. in virt. § 13)), Romans 12:3; equivalent to more than: ἁμαρτωλοί παρά πάντας, Luke 13:2; ἔχρισεν σε ... ἔλαιον ... παρά τούς μετόχους more copiously than ( A. V. above) thy fellows, Hebrews 1:9 (from Psalm 44:8 (Psalm 45:8>); ὑψοῦν τινα παρά τινα, Sirach 15:5); κρίνειν ἡμέραν παῥ ἡμέραν, to prefer one day to another (see κρίνω, 2), Romans 14:5. Hence, it is joined to comparatives: πλέον παρά τό, Luke 3:13; διαφορώτερον παῥ αὐτούς ὄνομα, Hebrews 1:4; add, Hebrews 3:3; 9:23; 11:4; 12:24>; see examples from Greek authors in Winer's Grammar, § 35,2b. (and as above). Ἐλαττουν τινα παρά, to make one inferior to another, Hebrews 2:7,9.

3. on account of (cf. Latin propter equivalent to ob): παρά τοῦτο, for this reason, therefore, 1 Corinthians 12:15f; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 49g. c.

IV. In Composition παρά denotes

1. situation or motion either from the side of, or to the side of; near, beside, by, to: παραθαλάσσιος, παράλιος, παροικέω, παρακολουθέω, παραλαμβάνω, παραλέγομαι, παραπλέω, παράγω; of what is done secretly or by stealth, as παρεισέρχομαι, παρεισάγω, παρεισδύω; cf. (the several words and) Fritzsche, Commentary on Romans , vol. i., p. 346. by the side of i. e. ready, present, at hand (παρά τίνι): πάρειμι, παρουσία, παρέχω, etc.

2. violation, neglect, aberration (cf. our beyond or aside equivalent to amiss): παραβαίνω, παραβάτης, παρανομέω, παρακούω, παρίημι, πάρεσις, παραλογίζομαι, παράδοξος, παραφρονία, etc.

3. like the German an (in anreizen, antreiben, etc.): παραζηλόω, παραπικραίνω, παροξύνω, παροργίζω. (Cf. Vig. edition, Herm., p. 650f)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

παρά ,

prep. c. gen., dat., acc, with radical sense, beside.

I. C. gen. pers., from the side of, from beside, from, indicating source or origin, [in LXX for H6440, H3027, H681;] after verbs of motion, , , , al; after verbs of seeking, receiving, hearing, etc., ; , ; ; , , , , al; after passive verbs, of the agent (like ὑπό ), , , ; absol., οἱ παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ , his family, his kinsfolk, (cf. M, Pr., 106, 1.; Field, Notes, 25 f.; Swete, in l); τὰ παρ᾿ αὐτῆς (αὐτῶν , ὑμῶν ), one's means, wealth, , , .

II. C. dat. pers. (exc. , Papyri τ . σταυρῷ ), by the side of, beside, by, with, [in LXX for H681, H3027, בְּעֵינֵי ;] ; , ; , al.; παρ᾿ ἑαυτῷ , at home, ; c. dat. pl., among, , , al.; metaph., , , , , , al.

III. C. acc, of motion by or towards, [in LXX for H681, יַר H5921), בְּעֵבֶר ;]

1. of place, by the side of, beside, by, along: , ; after verbs of motion, , , , , al.; after verbs of rest, , , , al.

2. beside, beyond, metaph.;

(a) beyond, against, contrary to: , ; ; , al.; except, ;

(b) beyond, above, in comparison with: , ; , ; ; , al.;

(c) on account of: .

IV. In composition: beside, to (παραλαμβάνω , παράγω ), at hand (πάρειμι ), from (παραρρέω ), amiss (παρακούω ), past (παρέρχομαι ), compared with (παρομοιάζω ), above measure (παροργίζω ).

 

 

 

 


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

παροίχομαι, which connotes time ";gone by"; in Acts 14:16, is used in a similar context in P Ryl II. 153.35 (A.D. 138–161) τοῦ παρω ̣χημένου χρόνου, and Syll 652 (= .3 885).5 (c. A.D. 220) δι ]ὰ τῶν παρῳχημένων [χρόνων. Παρῳχηκότα occurs in BGU I. 288.2 (time of Antoninus Pius) in a broken context.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
παρ παρ' παρα παρά παρὰ πρὸς par par' para pará parà pros pròs

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