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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #4190 - πονηρός

Transliteration
ponērós
Phonetics
pon-ay-ros'  
Word Origin
from a derivative of (4192)
Parts of Speech
Adjective
TDNT
6:546,912
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. full of labours, annoyances, hardships
    1. pressed and harassed by labours
    2. bringing toils, annoyances, perils; of a time full of peril to Christian faith and steadfastness; causing pain and trouble
  2. bad, of a bad nature or condition
    1. in a physical sense: diseased or blind
    2. in an ethical sense: evil wicked, bad
The word is used in the nominative case in Mt. 6:13. This usuallydenotes a title in the Greek. Hence Christ is saying, deliver usfrom "The Evil", and is probably referring to Satan.
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 343 ‑ אֵיד (ade);  873 ‑ בִּאישׁ (be‑oosh');  1681 ‑ דִּבָּה (dib‑baw');  1800 ‑ דַּל (dal);  7200 ‑ רָאָה (raw‑aw');  7227 ‑ רַב (rab);  7451 ‑ רַע (rah, raw‑aw');  7489 ‑ רָעַע (raw‑ah');  7489 ‑ רָעַע (raw‑ah');  7563 ‑ רָשָׁע (raw‑shaw');  8441 ‑ תּוֹעֵבָה (to‑ay‑baw', to‑ay‑baw');  
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (76) NAS (77) HCS (75)
Matthew 23
Mark 2
Luke 11
John 3
Acts 7
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 1
Galatians 1
Ephesians 3
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 2
1 Timothy 1
2 Timothy 2
Hebrews 2
James 2
1 John 5
2 John 1
3 John 1
Revelation 1
Matthew 23
Mark 2
Luke 11
John 3
Acts 8
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 1
Galatians 1
Ephesians 3
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 2
1 Timothy 1
2 Timothy 2
Hebrews 2
James 2
1 John 5
2 John 1
3 John 1
Revelation 1
Matthew 25
Mark 2
Luke 12
John 3
Acts 7
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 1
Galatians 1
Ephesians 3
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 2
1 Timothy 1
2 Timothy 2
Hebrews 2
James 2
1 John 6
2 John 1
3 John 1
Revelation 1
BYZ TIS TR
A-APM 7
A-APN 4
A-APN-C 2
A-ASM 3
A-ASN 5
A-DPM 1
A-DPN 2
A-DSF 2
A-DSM 2
A-GPM 2
A-GPN 3
A-GSF 1
A-GSM 11
A-GSN 2
A-NPF 2
A-NPM 5
A-NPN 4
A-NSF 5
A-NSM 8
A-NSN 4
A-VSM 3
A-APM 7
A-APN 4
A-APN-C 1
A-ASF 1
A-ASM 3
A-ASN 5
A-DPM 1
A-DPN 2
A-DSF 2
A-DSM 2
A-GPM 2
A-GPN 3
A-GSF 1
A-GSM 10
A-GSN 2
A-NPF 2
A-NPM 4
A-NPN 4
A-NSF 5
A-NSM 8
A-NSN 4
A-VSM 3
A-APM 7
A-APN 4
A-APN-C 2
A-ASM 3
A-ASN 5
A-DPM 1
A-DPN 2
A-DSF 2
A-DSM 2
A-GPM 2
A-GPN 3
A-GSF 1
A-GSM 11
A-GSN 2
A-NPF 2
A-NPM 5
A-NPN 4
A-NSF 5
A-NSM 8
A-NSN 4
A-VSM 3
NA WH
A-APM 7
A-APN 4
A-ASM 2
A-ASN 5
A-DPM 1
A-DPN 2
A-DSF 2
A-DSM 1
A-DSN 1
A-GPM 2
A-GPN 4
A-GSF 1
A-GSM 9
A-GSN 3
A-NPF 2
A-NPM 4
A-NPN 4
A-NSF 5
A-NSM 8
A-NSN 4
A-VSM 3
T-ASM 1
A-APM 7
A-APN 5
A-APN-C 2
A-ASM 3
A-ASN 7
A-DPM 1
A-DPN 3
A-DSF 2
A-DSM 2
A-GPM 2
A-GPN 4
A-GSF 1
A-GSM 11
A-GSN 2
A-NPF 2
A-NPM 5
A-NPN 5
A-NSF 5
A-NSM 8
A-NSN 4
A-VSM 3


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πονηρός, ά, όν,

in physical sense, oppressed by toils, πονηρότατος καὶ ἄριστος, of Heracles, Hes. Frr. 138,139.

2. of things, toilsome, painful, grievous, ἔργα Hom. Epigr. 14.20; νούσων πονηρότερον Thgn. 274; φορτίον Ar. Pl. 352 .

II in bad case, in sorry plight, useless, good-for-nothing, σύμμαχοι ib. 220, cf. Nu. 102; στράτευμα X. An. 3.4.34; ἰατρός Antipho 4.2.4 (v.l. for μοχθηρός ) ; κύων, ἱππάριον, Pl. Euthd. 298d, X. Cyr. 1.4.19; δίαιτα, τροφή, σιτία, injurious, Pl. R. 425e, Lg. 735b, Grg. 464d, etc.; π. ἕξις σώματος Id. Ti. 86e; π. σῶμα, opp. χρηστόν, Id. Prt. 313a, cf. R. 341e; π. σκώμματα sorry jests, Ar. Nu. 542; π. βούλευμα Id. Lys. 517 ( Comp. ); π. πράγματα a bad state of things, Th. 8.97, cf. 24; π. ἀρχὴ τῆς παιδείας a bad beginning, Aeschin. 1.11; π. τὴν ϝαυτιλίαν ναυτίλλεσθαι Pl. R. 551c; π. πολιτεία Arist. Pol. 1294b38 . Adv., -ρῶς ἔχειν to be in bad case, Th. 7.83, etc.; ἂ πονηρῶς ἔχει τῶν πραγμάτων Lys. 14.35; π. διακεῖσθαι, διατεθῆναι, Isoc. 19.12, D. 59.55 .

III in moral sense, worthless, knavish, φήμη, βίος, ζόη, A. Ch. 1045, Frr. 90,401, etc.; οὐδεὶς ἑκὼν π. Epich. 78; π. ἦθος Democr. 192; πονηρὸς . . κἀκ πονηρῶν rogue and son of rogues, Ar. Eq. 336 - 7; ὦ πόνῳ πονηρέ in a comic jingle, Id. V. 466, cf. Lys. 350; π. πόρρω τέχνης past master in knavery, Id. V. 192; π. τοῖς φίλοις X. Cyr. 8.4.33; πρὸς ἀλλήλους Id. An. 7.1.39; π. λόγων ἀκρίβεια Antipho 3.3.3; πονηρότεροι σύμβουλοι Id. 5.71; π. [ῥῆμα ] malicious, Ev.Matthew 5:11; τὰ π. wickednesses, X. Cyr. 2.2.25; πονηρὰ δρᾶσαι E. Hec. 1190; τὸ π. LXX De. 17.2; δόλῳ πονηρῷ, Lat. dolo malo, SIG 693.6 (Methymna, ii B.C. ); ὁ π. the evil one, Ev.Matthew 13:19; π. δαίμων PLips. 34.8 (iv A.D.), etc.

2. base, cowardly, S. Ph. 437, etc.; π. χρώματα, i.e. the coward's hue, X. Cyr. 5.2.34 (interpol.).

3. with a political connotation, of the baser sort, E. Supp. 424; οἱ λεγόμενοι π. Pl. R. 519a; opp. καλοὶ κἀγαθοί, Isoc. 15.100,316, cf. Ar. Eq. 186 . On the variation of accent, πονηρός and πόνηρος, v. μοχθηρός fin.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 πονηρός (on the accent cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 3 Göttling, Lehre v., Accent, p. 304 f; ( Chandler §§ 404,405); Lipsius, Grammat. Untersuch., p. 26), πονηρά, πονηρόν; comparitive πονηρότερος ( Matthew 12:45; Luke 11:26); (πονέω, πόνος); from Hesiod ( Homer ( Ephesians 15,20), Theog.) down; the Sept. often for רַע ;

1. full of labors, annoyances, hardships;

a. pressed and harassed by labors; thus Hercules is called πονηροτατος καί ἄριστος, Hesiod fragment 43,5.

b. bringing toils, annoyances, perils: (καιρός, Sirach 51:12); ἡμέρα πονηρά, of a time full of peril to Christian faith and steadfastness, Ephesians 5:16; Ephesians 6:13 (so in the plural ἡμέραι πονηραί the Epistle of Barnabas 2,1 [ET]); causing pain and trouble ( A. V. grievous), ἕλκος, Revelation 16:2.

2. bad, of a bad nature or condition;

a. in a physical sense: ὀφθαλμός, diseased or blind, Matthew 6:23; Luke 11:34 (πονηρία ὀφθαλμῶν, Plato, Hipp., min., p. 374d.; the Greeks use πονηρῶς ἔχειν or διακεῖσθαι of the sick; ἐκ γενετῆς πονηρούς ὑγιεῖς πεποιηκέναι, Justin Martyr, Apology 1,22 ((cf. Otto's note); others take πονηρός in Matthew and Luke as above ethically; cf.

b. and Meyer on Matt.)); καρπός, Matthew 7:17f.

b. in an ethical sense, evil, wicked, bad, etc. ("this use of the word is due to its association with the working (largely the servile) class; not that contempt for labor is thereby expressed, for such words as ἐργάτης, δραστηρ, and the like, do not take on this evil sense, which connected itself only with a word expressive of unintermitted toil and carrying no suggestion of results" (cf. Schmidt, chapter 85, § 1); see κακία, at the end); of persons: Matthew 7:11; Matthew 12:34; Matthew 18:32; Matthew 25:26; Luke 6:45; Luke 11:13; Luke 19:22; Acts 17:5; 2 Thessalonians 3:2; 2 Timothy 3:13; γενεά πονηρά, Matthew 12:39,45; Matthew 16:4; Luke 11:29; πνεῦμα πονηρόν, an evil spirit (see πνεῦμα, 3c.), Matthew 12:45; Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Luke 11:26; Acts 19:12f, 15f; substantively οἱ πονηροί, the wicked, bad men, opposed to οἱ δίκαιοι, Matthew 13:49; πονηροί καί ἀγαθοί, Matthew 5:45; Matthew 22:10; ἀχάριστοι καί πονηροί, Luke 6:35; τόν πονηρόν, the wicked Prayer of Manasseh , i. e. the evil-doer spoken of, 1 Corinthians 5:13; τῷ πονηρῷ, the evil Prayer of Manasseh , who injures you, Matthew 5:39. πονηρός is used pre-eminently of the devil, the evil one: Matthew 5:37; Matthew 6:13; Matthew 13:19,38; Luke 11:4 R L; John 17:15; 1 John 2:13; 1 John 3:12; 1 John 5:18f (on which see κεῖμαι, 2{c}); Ephesians 6:16. of things: αἰών, Galatians 1:4; ὄνομα (which see 1, p. 447a bottom), Luke 6:22; ῤᾳδιούργημα, Acts 18:14; the heart as a storehouse out of which a man brings forth πονηρά words is called θησαυρός πονηρός, Matthew 12:35; Luke 6:45; συνείδησις πονηρά, a soul conscious of wickedness (conscious wickedness; see συνείδησις, b. sub at the end), Hebrews 10:22; καρδία πονηρά ἀπιστίας, an evil heart such as is revealed in distrusting (cf. Buttmann, § 132,24; Winer's Grammar, § 30,4), Hebrews 3:12; ὀφθαλμός (which see), Matthew 20:15; Mark 7:22; διαλογισμοί, Matthew 15:19; James 2:4; ὑπόνοιαι, 1 Timothy 6:4; καύχησις; James 4:16; ῤῆμα, a reproach, Matthew 5:11 ( R G; others omit ῤῆμα); λόγοι, 3 John 1:10; ἔργα, John 3:19; John 7:7; 1 John 3:12; 2 John 1:11; Colossians 1:21; ἔργον (according to the context) wrong committed against me, 2 Timothy 4:18; αἰτία, charge of crime, Acts 25:18 L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading The neuter πονηρόν, and τό πονηρόν, substantively, evil, that which is wicked: εἶδος πονηροῦ (see εἶδος, 2; (others take πονηροῦ here as an adjective, and bring the example under εἶδος, 1 ( R. V. marginal reading appearance of evil))), 1 Thessalonians 5:22; 2 Thessalonians 3:3 (where τοῦ πονηροῦ is held by many to be the genitive of the masculine πονηρός, but cf. Lünemann ad loc.); (τί πονηρόν, Acts 28:21); opposed to τό ἀγαθόν, Luke 6:45; Romans 12:9; plural ( Winer's Grammar, § 34,2), Matthew 9:4; Luke 3:19; wicked deeds, Acts 25:18 Tr text WH text; ταῦτα τά πονηρά, these evil things i. e. the vices just enumerated, Mark 7:23.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πονηρός , - , -όν

(< πονέω , to toil),

[in LXX chiefly for H7451;]

1. (a) of persons, oppressed by toils (Hes.);

(b) of things, toilsome, painful (καιρός , ): ; .

2. bad, worthless;

(a) in physical sense: καρπός , ;

(b) in ethical sense, bad, evil, wicked;

(α ) of persons: ; ; ; , ; ; , , , ; γενεά , ; ; , ; πνεῦμια , , ; ; , ; ; as subst., οἱ Papyri, opp. to δίκαιοι , ; to ἀγαθοί , ; ; οἱ ἀχάριστοι καὶ Papyri, ; sing., Papyri, , ; id. esp. of Satan, the evil one, ; (v. Lft., Notes, 125 ff.; but cf. McN, in l) ; , (WH, R, om.), , , (Lft., Notes, l.c.), ; ; ;

(β ) of thing;: ; ; , ; , ; , ; , , , , , ; , ; , , , ; ὀφθαλμός (q.v.), ; , , ; as subst., neut., τὸ Papyri, , ; opp. to ἀγαθόν , , ; pl., , , .

SYN.: see ἄθεσμος G113.

 

 

 

 


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

";eagerly"; : PSI VI. 621.7 (iii/B.C.) πᾶν γὰρ τὸ δυνατὸν καὶ προθύμως καὶ ἀόκνως ποιήσομεν P Hib I. 82.17 (B.C. 239–8) καλῶς οὖν [π ]οιήσεις συναν [τι ]λ [α ]μβανόμενος προθύμως περὶ τῶν εἰς ταῦτα συγκυρόντων, ";please therefore to give your zealous co-operation in all that concerns this"; (Edd.), and P Flor II. 157.10 (iii/A.D.) ἵνα ὑπηρετούμενοι π ̣ροθύμως ἡμῖν ἐργαζῶνται.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
πονηρα πονηρά πονηρὰ πονηρᾷ πονηραι πονηραί πονηραίς πονηράν πονηρας πονηράς πονηρᾶς πονηρε πονηρέ Πονηρὲ πονηροι πονηροί πονηροὶ πονηροις πονηροίς πονηροῖς πονηρον πονηρόν πονηρὸν πονηρος πονηρός πονηρὸς πονηροτερα πονηρότερα πονηρου πονηρού πονηροῦ πονηρους πονηρούς πονηροὺς πονηρω πονηρώ πονηρῷ πονηρων πονηρών πονηρῶν ponera ponerá ponerà ponēra ponērá ponērà ponerai poneraí ponerā̂i ponērai ponēraí ponērā̂i poneras ponerâs ponēras ponērâs ponere poneré Ponerè ponēre ponēré Ponērè ponero ponērō poneroi poneroí poneroì ponerôi ponēroi ponēroí ponēroì ponērō̂i ponerois poneroîs ponērois ponēroîs poneron ponerón poneròn ponerôn ponēron ponērón ponēròn ponērōn ponērō̂n poneros ponerós poneròs ponēros ponērós ponēròs ponerotera ponerótera ponērotera ponērótera ponerou poneroû ponērou ponēroû ponerous poneroús poneroùs ponērous ponēroús ponēroùs

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