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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #4253 - πρό

Transliteration
pró
Phonetics
pro  
Word Origin
a primary preposition
Parts of Speech
Preposition
TDNT
6:683,935
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. before
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 6040 ‑ עֳנִי (on‑ee');  
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (48) NAS (43) HCS (47)
Matthew 5
Mark 1
Luke 8
John 9
Acts 8
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 2
2 Corinthians 1
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Colossians 1
2 Timothy 2
Titus 1
Hebrews 1
James 2
1 Peter 2
Matthew 4
Mark 1
Luke 7
John 9
Acts 7
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 2
2 Corinthians 1
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Colossians 1
2 Timothy 1
Titus 1
Hebrews 1
James 2
1 Peter 2
Jude 1
Matthew 5
Mark 1
Luke 7
John 9
Acts 7
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 2
2 Corinthians 1
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Colossians 1
2 Timothy 2
Titus 1
Hebrews 1
James 2
1 Peter 2
Jude 1
BYZ TIS TR
PREP 47
PREP 40
PREP 48
NA WH
ADV 1
N-NPM 1
PREP 37
PREP 52


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πρό,

before, forth:

PREP. WITH GENIT.:

I of Place, before, in front of, ἠγερέθοντο π. ἄστεος Od. 24.468, cf. Il. 15.351, etc.; π. πτόλιος δεδαϊγμένον 19.292; κείνους κιχησόμεθα π. πυλάων 10.126, cf. 6.80, etc.; φύλοπις αἰνὴ ἕστηκε π. νεῶν 18.172; πυρὰ φαίνετο Ἰλιόθι π. 8.561, cf. 10.12, Od. 8.581, etc.; κλαγγὴ γεράνων πέλει οὐρανόθι π. Il. 3.3; π. τειχέων Pi. O. 13.56; ἔμπροσθε π. (v.l.) τῆς ἀκροπόλιος, ὄπισθε δὲ τῶν πυλέων Hdt. 8.53, cf. 9.52; π. δόμων, π. δωμάτων, in front of, i.e. outside the house, Pi. P. 2.18, 5.96, etc.; π. θυρῶν S. El. 109 (anap.), etc.; τὴν π. τοῦ Ἡραίου νῆσον before or off the Heraeum, Th. 3.75, cf. 7.22; π. ποδός, v. cross πούς 1.4a; π. χειρῶν at hand, S. Ant. 1279, E. Rh. 274, dub. in Tr. 1207; π. τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν προφαίνεσθαι Aeschin. 2.148 .

2. with Vbs. of motion, π. δ' ἄρ' αὐτῶν κύνες ἤϊσαν Od. 19.435, cf. Il. 23.115; π. Ἀχαιῶν ἄγγελος ᾔει 10.286, cf. 13.693; π. ἕθεν κλονέοντα φάλαγγας 5.96 .

3. before, in front of, for the purpose of shielding or guarding, π. Τρώων ἑσταότ' Il. 24.215: hence, in defence of, μάχεσθαι . . π. τε παίδων καὶ π. γυναικῶν 8.57, cf. 4.156, 373, Hdt. 8.74, etc.; ὀλέσθαι π. πόληος, Lat. pro patria mori, Il. 22.110; π. τῆς Σπάρτης ἀποθνῄσκειν Hdt. 7.134, cf. 172, 9.72, E. Alc. 18, 645, etc.; π. τοῦ θανόντος . . ἔθεσθ' ἐπιστροφήν S. OT 134; διακινδυνεῦσαι π. βασιλέως X. Cyr. 8.8.4; βουλεύεσθαι, πράττειν π. τινός, ib. 1.6.42, 4.5.44, cf. Mem. 2.4.7; π. τοξευμάτων as a defence against arrows, Id. An. 7.8.18: hence also, for, on behalf of, instead of, ἀγρυπνῆσαι π. τινῶν ib. 7.6.36, cf. Leg.Gort. 1.43; of an advocate, π. τῶνδε φωνεῖν S. OT 10, cf. OC 811; ὄτι δέ κ' αὐτὸς π. Ειαυτοῦ [ἀμάρτῃ ] whatever offence he commits of his own volition, Kohler-Ziebarth Stadtrecht von Gortyn p.34 .

4. π. ὁδοῦ ἐγένοντο further on the road, i.e. forwards, onward, Il. 4.382, cf. Ael. NA 3.16, 7.29 (v. φροῦδος ): also to denote distance, π. πολλοῦ τῆς πόλεως D.H. 9.35; π. τριάκοντα σταδίων at a distance of 30 stades, Str. 8.6.24 .

5. π. ἠοῦς, π. ἑσπέρης τοῦ βωμοῦ, east wards, west wards of. ., IG 7.235.45 (Orop., iv B.C. ).

II of Time, before, π. γάμοιο Od. 15.524; ἠῶθι π. 5.469; π. ὃ τοῦ ἐνόησεν one before the other, Il. 10.224; more freq. in later writers, π. τῶν Τρωικῶν Th. 1.3, cf. 1.1; π. τοῦ θανεῖν S. Ant. 883; π. τοῦ θανάτου Pl. Phd. 57a; π. τοῦ λοιμοῦ Id. Smp. 201d; π. δείπνου X. Cyr. 5.5.39; π. ἡμέρας ib. 4.5.14; π. τοῦ χρῆσθαι before one uses it, Id. Mem. 2.6.6; π. μοίρας τῆς ἐμῆς before my doom, A. Ag. 1266; π. τῆς εἱμαρμένης Antipho 1.21; π. τοῦ καθήκοντος χρόνου Aeschin. 3.126, cf. 124; π. πολλοῦ long before, Hdt. 7.130, etc.; π. μικροῦ, π. ὀλίγου, Plu. Pomp. 73, App. BC 2.116; ὀλίγον π. τούτων Th. 2.8; τὸ π. τοῦ (v.l. cross τούτου ) ib. 15; π. τοῦ (sts. written προτοῦ ) A. Ag. 1204, Hdt. 1.122, 5.83, Ar. Th. 418, Pl. Smp. 173a; ὁ π. τοῦ χρόνος A. Eu. 462, Th. 2.58, etc.; π. τοῦ ἤ, = cross πρὶν ἤ, IG 7.2225.22 ( Thisbe ); οἱ π. ἡμῶν γενόμενοι Isoc. 13.19; οἱ π. ἐμοῦ Th. 1.97 .

2. in later writers freq. with Numerals, π. τριάκοντα ἡμερῶν thirty days before, Ael. NA 5.52; π. μιᾶς ἡμέρας Plu. Caes. 63; π. ἐνιαυτοῦ Id. 2.147e; π. δυεῖν ἡμερῶν ἢ ἐτελεύτα Id. Sull. 37: freq. c. dupl. gen., π. δύο ἐτῶν τοῦ σεισμοῦ, π. δύο ὡρῶν τῆς ἐπιβολῆς, LXX Amos 1:1, Dsc. 1.64; π. ἓξ ἡμερῶν τοῦ πάσχα, π. μιᾶς ἡμέρας τῶν γενεθλίων, Ev.John 12:1, Plu. 2.717d; π. πολλοῦ τῆς ἑορτῆς Luc. Sat. 14 . in rendering Roman dates, τῇ π. μιᾶς Νωνῶν Ὀκτωβρίων, = pridie Non. Oct., Plu. 2.203a, etc.

III in other relations:

1 of Preference, before, rather than, κέρδος αἰνῆσαι π. δίκας to praise sleight before right, Pi. P. 4.140, cf. Pl. R. 361e; πᾶν δὴ βουλόμενοι σφίσι εἶναι π. τῆς παρεούσης λύπης anything before, rather than, their actual trouble, Hdt. 7.152 (so, in order to avoid, π. τοῦ δεινοτάτου D. 54.19 ); πᾶν π. τοῦ δουλεῦσαι ἐπεξελθεῖν Th. 5.100, cf. 4.59; ἑλέσθαι, αἱρεῖσθαι, or κρῖναί τι π. τινός to choose one before another, Id. 5.36, Pl. R. 366b, Phlb. 57e; π. πολλοῦ ποιήσασθαι to esteem above much, i.e. very highly, Isoc. 5.138; π. πολλῶν χρημάτων τιμήσασθαί τι Th. 1.33, cf. 6.10; π. ἄλλων more than others, Pl. Mx. 249e (v.l.), cf. A. Th. 1002; δυσδαίμων . . π. πασᾶν γυναικῶν ib. 927 (codd., lyr.); π. πάντων θεῶν τῇ Ἑστίᾳ πρώτῃ προθύειν Pl. Cra. 401d: after a Comp. it is redundant, ἡ τυραννὶς π. ἐλευθερίης ἀσπαστότερον Hdt. 1.62, cf. 6.12, Pl. Ap. 28d, Cri. 54b, Phd. 99a; for after ἄλλος, οὐδεὶς ἄλλος π. σεῦ Hdt. 3.85, cf. 7.3 .

2. of Cause or Motive, for, from, π. φόβοιο for fear, Il. 17.667; ἀθλεύων π. ἄνακτος toiling before the face of, i.e. in his service, 24.734; π. τῶνδε there fore, S. El. 495 (lyr.).

POSITION: words may be put between π. and its case, Il. 23.115; but it does not follow its case, exc. after Ep. forms in -θι, Ἰλιόθι πρό, οὐρανόθι πρό, ἠῶθι πρό (v. supr.). πρό, abs. as ADV.: I of Place, before, opp. ἐπί ( after ), Il. 13.799, 800; before, in front, 15.360; forth, forward, ἐκ δ' ἄγαγε π. φόωσδε 19.118; χωρεῖν π. δόμων to come forth from, S. Tr. 960 (lyr.); ἄγειν τινὰ π. δόμων E. Hec. 59 (anap.); γῆν π. γῆς ἐλαύνομαι I am driven on from one land to another, A. Pr. 682; διώκειν γῆν π. γῆς Ar. Ach. 235 .

II of Time, before, πρό οἱ εἴπομεν Od. 1.37; earlier, τά τ' ἐσσόμενα π. τ' ἐόντα Hes. Th. 32, 38 .

III when joined with other Preps., ἀποπρό, διαπρό, ἐπιπρό, περιπρό, προπρό, it strengthens the first Prep., or adds to it the notion of forward, forth. πρό IN COMPO S. I with Substs., to denote 1 position before or in front, πρόδομος, προάστιον, πρόθυρον, προπύλαια, etc.

2. priority of rank, πρόεδρος, προεδρία, etc.: also priority of order, προάγων, πρόλογος, προοίμιον, προπάτωρ, etc.

3. standing in another's place, πρόμαντις, πρόξενος.

II with Adjs., to denote

1 proximity, πρόχειρος; and readiness, πρόθυμος, πρόφρων.

2. away (cf. 111.3 infr.), προθέλυμνος, πρόρριζος.

3. prematureness, πρόμοιρος, πρόωρος.

4. intensity, πρόπας, πρόπαρ, προπάροιθε; so also πρόκακος, πρόπαλαι.

III with Verbs,

1 of Place, before, forwards, προβαίνω, προβάλλω, προτίθημι, etc.: also, before, in defence, προκινδυνεύω, προμάχομαι, etc.

2. forth, προέλκω, προφέρω. publicly, προγράφω, προειπεῖν, πρόκειμαι.

3. away, προδίδωμι, προϊάλλω, προϊάπτω, προΐημι, προλείπω, προρέω, προτέμνω, προτρέπομαι, προφεύγω, προχέω.

4. in preference, προαιροῦμαι, προτιμάω, etc.

5. before, beforehand, προαισθάνομαι, προγίγνομαι, προκαταλαμβάνω, etc.; of fore sight, προνοέω, προοράω. Etymology: cf. Lat. προ -, Slav. pro-, Skt. pra-, etc., in compounds.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 πρό, a preposition followed by the genitive (Latin pro) (from Homer down), the Sept. chiefly for לִפְנֵי, before; used a. of place: πρό τῶν θυρῶν, τῆς θύρας, etc., Acts 5:23 R G; Acts 12:6,14; 14:13>; James 5:9; by a Hebraism, πρό προσώπου with the genitive of a person before (the face of) one (who is following) ( Buttmann, 319 (274)): Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 1:76; Luke 7:27; Luke 9:52; Luke 10:1 ( Malachi 3:1; Zechariah 14:20; Deuteronomy 3:18).

b. of Time: πρό τούτων τῶν ἡμερῶν, Acts 5:36; Acts 21:38; (πρό τοῦ πάσχα, John 11:55); according to a later Greek idiom, πρό ἕξ ἡμερῶν τοῦ πάσχα, properly, before six days reckoning from the Passover, which is equivalent to ἕξ ἡμέρας πρό τοῦ πάσχα, on the sixth day before the Passover, John 12:1 (πρό δύο ἐτῶν τοῦ σεισμοῦ, Amos 1:1; πρό μιᾶς ἡμέρας τῆς Μαρδοχαϊκῆς ἡμέρας, 2 Maccabees 15:36; examples from secular writings are cited by Winer s Grammar, 557 (518); (cf. Buttmann, § 131,11); from ecclesiastical writings by Hilgenfeld, Die Evangelien etc., pp. 298,302; also his Paschastreit der alten Kirche, p. 221 f; (cf. Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word πρό, 1,2)); (πρό τῆς ἑορτῆς, John 13:1); πρό καιροῦ, Matthew 8:29; 1 Corinthians 4:5; τῶν αἰώνων, 1 Corinthians 2:7; παντός τοῦ αἰῶνος, Jude 1:25 L T Tr WH; ἐτῶν δεκατεσσάρων, ( fourteen years ago), 2 Corinthians 12:2; add, 2 Timothy 1:9; 2 Timothy 4:21; Titus 1:2; τοῦ ἀρίστου, Luke 11:38; κατακλυσμοῦ, Matthew 24:38; πρό τῆς μεταθέσεως, Hebrews 11:5; πρό καταβολῆς κόσμου, John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20; πρό πάντων, prior to all created things, Colossians 1:17; (πρό τούτων πάντων (Rev. ἁπάντων), Luke 21:12); by a Hebraism, πρό προσώπου with the genitive of a thing is used of time for the simple πρό ( Winer s Grammar, § 65,4b.; (Buttmann, 319 (274))), Acts 13:24 ((literally, before the face of his entering in)). πρό with the genitive of a person: John 5:7; John 10:8 (not Tdf.); Romans 16:7; οἱ πρό τίνος, those that existed before one, Matthew 5:12; with a predicate nominative added, Galatians 1:17. πρό with the genitive of an infinitive that has the article, Latin ante quam ( before, before that) followed by a finite verb ( Buttmann, § 140,11; Winer's Grammar, 329 (309)): Matthew 6:8; Luke 2:21; Luke 22:15; John 1:48 (49); John 13:19; 17:5>; Acts 23:15; Galatians 2:12; Galatians 3:23.

c. of superiority or pre-eminence ( Winer's Grammar, 372 (349)): πρό πάντων, above all things, James 5:12; 1 Peter 4:8.

d. In Composition, πρό marks α. place: προαύλιον; motion forward (Latin porro), προβαίνω, προβάλλω, etc.; before another who follows, in advance, προάγω, πρόδρομος, προπέρμπω, προτρέχω, etc.; in public view, openly, πρόδηλος, πρόκειμαι. β. time: before this, previously, προαμαρτάνω; in reference to the time of an occurrence, beforehand, in advance, προβλέπω, προγινώσκω, προθέσμιος, πρωρίζω, etc. γ. superiority or preference: προαιρέομαι. (Cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 658.)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πρό ,

prep. c. gen.,

[in LXX chiefly for H6440;]

before;

(a) of place: ; ; , ; Papyri προσώπου (= Heb. H6440, , Ma 3:1, al.; Bl., § 40, 9), , , ; ; ; , ;

(b) of time: ; , ; , ; ; , ; , ; , , , ; , , , , ; Papyri ἐτῶν δεκατεσσάρων , fourteen years ago, ; Papyri προσώπου (v. supr.), ; c. gen. pers., , ; , , ; c. gen. art. inf. (= πρίν ; M, Pr., 100; Bl., § 69, 7), ; , ; ; , , ; ; as in late writers (resembling a Latin idiom but independent of it; B1., § 40, 5; M, Pr., 100 f.; of. Am , and for other exx., Soph., Lex., s.v.), πρὸ ἓξ ἡμέρας τοῦ πάσχα , on the sixth day before the Passover, ;

(c) of preference: Papyri πάντων , , ;

(d) in compos.,

(α ) c. subst., of position before: προαύλιον , πρόδρομος ; priority of rank or order, προπάτωρ ; anticipation, πρόγνωσις , πρόνοια ;

(β ) c. adj., intensity, πρόδηλος ;

(γ ) c. verb., of place, προάγω , προβαίνω ; of preference, τροαιρέομαι .

 

 

 

 


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

";a worshipper."; For this word in John 4:23, Deissmann (LAE, p. 99) following Cremer (Addenda p. 1120) cites from pre-Christian Greek an inscr. from Apamea in Syria (Waddington 3,2720a) containing a decree drawn up in the interests of ";the worshippers that come up";—τοῖς ἀνιοῦσει (ἀνιοῦσι, Cremer) προσκυνηταῖς. The word is again found in the iii/A.D. inscr. from the same district C1G IV. 4474.51.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
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