Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Entry for Strong's #473 - ἀντί
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
A primary particle; opposite, that is, instead or because of (rarely in addition to): - for, in the room of. Often used in composition to denote contrast, requital, substitution, correspondence, etc.
in exchange for, in place of, instead of, one after another.
Frequency Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Thayer's Expanded Definition
ἀντί (before ὤν, ἀνθ'; elsewhere neglecting elision) a preposition followed by the genitive (answering to the Latin ante and the German prefixes ant-, ent-), in the use of which the N. T. writings coincide with the Greek ( Winer's Grammar, 364 (341));
1. properly, it seems to have signified over against, opposite to, before, in a local sense (Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram., p. 412; (cf. Curtius, § 204)). Hence,
2. indicating exchange, succession, for, instead of, in place of (something).
a. universally, instead of: ἀντί ἰχθύος ὄφιν, Luke 11:11; ἀντί περιβολαίου to serve as a covering, 1 Corinthians 11:15; ἀντί τοῦ λέγειν, James 4:15 (ἀντί τοῦ with the infinitive often in Greek writings ( Winer s Grammar, 329 (309); Buttmann, 263 (226))).
b. of that for which anything is given, received, endured: Matthew 5:38; Matthew 17:27 (to release me and thyself from obligation); Hebrews 12:2 (to obtain the joy; cf. Bleek, Lünemann, or Delitzsch at the passage); of the price of sale (or purchase): Hebrews 12:16; λύτρον ἀντί πολλῶν, Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45. Then c. of recompense: κακόν ἀντί κακοῦ ἀποδιδόναι, Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9,( Wisdom of Solomon 11:16 (15)). ἀνθ' ὧν equivalent to ἀντί τούτων, ὅτι for that, because: Luke 1:20; Luke 19:44; Acts 12:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:10 (also in secular authors (examples in Wetstein (1752) on Luke 1:20); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 710; ( Winer s Grammar, 364 (342), cf. 162 (153); Buttmann, 105 (92)); Hebrew אֲשֶׁר תַּחַת, Deuteronomy 21:14; 2 Kings 22:17).
d. of the cause: ἀνθ' ὧν wherefore, Luke 12:3; ἀντί τούτου for this cause, Ephesians 5:31.
e. of succession to the place of another: Ἀρχέλαος βασιλεύει ἀντί Ἡρῴδου in place of Herod, Matthew 2:22 ( 1 Kings 11:44; Herodotus 1,108; Xenophon, an. 1,1, 4). χάριν ἀντί χάριτος grace in the place of grace, grace succeeding grace perpetually, i. e. the richest abundance of grace, John 1:16 ( Theognis, verse 344 ἀντ' ἀνιων ἀνιας (yet cf. the context verse 342 (vss. 780,778, Welcker edition); more appropriate are the references to Philo, i. 254, Mang. edition (de poster. Caini § 43, vol. ii. 39, Richter edition), and Chrysostom de sacerdot. l. 6c. 13 § 622)).
3. As a prefix, it denotes a. opposite, over against: ἀντιπεραι, ἀντιπαρέρχεσθαι.
b. the mutual efficiency of two: ἀντιβάλλειν, ἀντικάλειν, ἀντιλοιδόρειν.
c. requital: ἀντιμισθία, ἀνταποδίδωμι.
d. hostile opposition: ἀντίχριστος.
e. official substitution instead of: ἀνθύπατος.
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
(the ι is elided only in ἀνθ᾽ ὧν ), prep. c. gen. (cf. MM, VGT, s.v.);
1. prop, in local sense, over against, opposite, hence;
2. instead of, in place of, for (Hom., etc.): Matthew 5:38; Matthew 17:27, Luke 11:11, 1 Corinthians 11:15, Hebrews 12:2; c. artic. inf. (cl.), James 4:15; of succession, Matthew 2:22; χάριν ἀ . χάριτος , John 1:16 (M, Pr., 100); of price in exchange, Hebrews 12:16; λύτρον ἀ . πολλῶν , Matthew 20:28, Mark 10:45 (M, Pr., 105); of requital, Romans 12:17, 1 Thessalonians 5:16, 1 Peter 3:9 (cf. Wisdom of Solomon 11:15); ἀνθ᾽ ὧν , because, Luke 1:20; Luke 19:44, Acts 12:23, 2 Thessalonians 2:10 (cl., LXX for H834 H8478); id. therefore (cl., LXX), Luke 12:3; ἀ . τούτου (LXX for H3651 H5291)Ephesians 5:31. As a prefix, ἀντι - (before vowels ἀντ -, ἀνθ᾽ -), denotes
(a) over against, ἀντιπέραν ;
(b) co-operation, ἀντιβάλλειν ;
(c) requital, ἀντιμισθία ;
(d) opposition, ἀντίχριστος ;
(e) substitution, ἀνθύπατος .
Compounds of ἀ . usually govern dat. (B1., § 37, 7).†
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
The primitive local force, surviving in ἔναντι and the Latin cognate ante, and conspicuous in the old Cretan dialect, leaves traces in the Κοινή : there is an interesting discussion of its provenance in Wackernagel’s pamphlet, Helltnistica (Göttingen, 1907), p. 5 f. Its solitary appearance in an Attic inscr., and in one passage of the ";Halbattiker"; Xenophon, make quite natural such an abnormality in the Κοινή as P Par 1.406 (the astronomical treatise of Eudoxus) ὅταν ἡ σελήνη τῷ ἡλίῳ ἐπισκοτήσ [ῃ ] ἀντὶ τῆς ὄψεως ὴμῶν. Closely akin is the temporal use in Syll 616.43 (dialect of Cos, iii/B.C.) ἁγνεύεσθαι. . ἀντὶ νυκτός, ";ea ipsa nocte"; : so Dittenberger, who compares 438.45 (Delphi, before B.C. 400) ἀντὶ ϝ έτεος, and Hesychius ";ἀντέτους · τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἔτους."; This may be seen still in P Lond 1171.9 (B.C. 8) (= III. p. 177) τιμ (ῆς) οἴνου ἀντὶ τῆς ε ̄ τῶν ἐπαγομένων ";to cost of wine for the 5th of the intercalary days."; By far the commonest meaning of ἀντί is the simple ";instead of."; P Tebt II. 343.24 (ii/A.D.) ὥστε ἀντὶ ἐλαιῶνο [ς ] φ [ο (ρίμου)] ἄρουραι κτλ. ";making 26/63/4 arourae converted from productive oliveyard"; (Edd.). P Giss I. 47.10 (ii/A.D.) a corslet bought for 360 dr. ἀντὶ πλείονος, ";under its value."; P Rein 74 (B.C. 141?) ἀντ᾽ έλευθέρου δοῦλο [ς ] γενέσθαι. P Oxy VIII. 1119.20 (A.D. 254) ἑτέρους ἀντ᾽ αὐτῶν. P Hib I. 170 (B.C. 247) ἵνα μὴ ἀντὶ φιλίας ἔχθραν [ποώ ]μεθα. P Tebt II. 302.5 (A.D. 71–2) τυγχάνομεν μερισθ ]ε ̣ν ̣τες ἐκ τοῦ δημοσ [ί ]ου ἀντὶ συντάξεως κτλ. ";instead of a subvention"; (Edd.). This shades into ";in exchange for"; or ";in return for"; : Calder 455 (c. mid. iii/A.D.) τόνδε σε Μυγδονίη Διονύσιον ἀντὶ β [ί ]ου πολλῶν καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης στέμμα, ";thy statue here, a Dionysius (in marble), M. (erected, thus honouring thee with) a crown in return for guarding the life of many and for preserving the peace"; (Ed.). Preisigke 6.23 (A.D. 216)—the writer begs to have the stipulated 7 artabae of wheat ἀντὶ πλειόνων τῶν κλεπέντων. BGU III. 822.12 (iii/A.D.) ὀφείλ [ι ] γάρ μοι ἀντὶ χαλκὸν τῶν ἐνοικίων. Kuhring p. 29 remarks that ὑπέρ has mostly superseded ἀντί.The formula ἀνθ᾽ οὗ with names, as Ἑρμίας ἀνθ᾽ οὗ Ἑρμῆς [ὁ καὶ Εὐδα ]ίμων, BGU IV. 1062.1 (A.D. 236–7), has raised some discussion : see note and reff. There—Crönert took it as ";adoptive son of,"; Viereck (following Wilcken) makes it = ὁ καί. In that case what are we to make of P Lond 1170.727 (iii/A.D.) (= III. p. 102) Ἑκύσεως ἀνθ᾽ οὗ Ἑκύσεως, ";Smith alias Smith";? For ἀνθ᾽ ὧν ";wherefore"; or ";because"; we may quote OGIS 90.35 (the Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἀνθ᾽ ὧν δεδώκασιν αὐτῶι οἱ θεοὶ ὑγίειαν κτλ., similarly 56.19 (the Canopus inscr. of Ptolemy III. B.C. 247–21), P Leid Di. 21 (mid. ii/B.C.) σοὶ δὲ γίνοιτο, ἀνθ᾽ ὧν (= because) πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ὁσίως διάκ [ει ]σαι καὶ τῶν ἱεροδούλων. . . ἀντιλαμβάνῃ, ἐπαφροδίσια χάρις μορφή κτλ. In P Tebt I. 120.43 (i/B.C.) Πακύσι ἀνθ᾽ ὧ (ν) κέχρη (κε) τιμῆ (ς) κτλ., ἀντί has the ordinary commercial sense. P Ryl II. 159.18 (A.D. 31–2) . . ἀνθ᾽ ὧ ̣ν ἔλαβ ̣ε ̣ παρὰ τῆς Τα [χόιτος. . . . . τοῖς δέο ]υσι καιροῖς ";in return for the . . . which he received from T. at the proper times."; The supplement depends on the parallel document P Oxy III. 504.17 (early ii/A.D.), and is seen to be no instance of the conjunctional phrase ἀνθ ὧν.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
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List of Word Forms
ανθ ανθ' ἀνθ' αντ' αντι αντί ἀντὶ αυτής anth anth' anti antì