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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #80 - ἀδελφός

Transliteration
adelphós
Phonetics
ad-el-fos'  
Word Origin
from (1) (as a connective particle) and delphus (the womb)
Parts of Speech
Noun Masculine
TDNT
1:144,22
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. a brother, whether born of the same two parents or only of the same father or mother
  2. having the same national ancestor, belonging to the same people, or countryman
  3. any fellow or man
  4. a fellow believer, united to another by the bond of affection
  5. an associate in employment or office
  6. brethren in Christ
    1. his brothers by blood
    2. all men
    3. apostles
    4. Christians, as those who are exalted to the same heavenly place
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 251 ‑ אָח (awkh);  376 ‑ אִישׁ (eesh);  1730 ‑ דֹּד (dode, dode);  1733 ‑ דּוֹדָה (do‑daw');  2992 ‑ יָבַם (yaw‑bam');  2993 ‑ יָבָם (yaw‑bawm');  2994 ‑ יְבָמָה (yeb‑ay'‑meth);  3547 ‑ כָּהַן (kaw‑han');  7453 ‑ רֵיעַ (ray'‑ah, ray'‑ah);  
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (346) NAS (173) HCS (342)
Matthew 31
Mark 17
Luke 20
John 14
Acts 56
Romans 19
1 Corinthians 35
2 Corinthians 12
Galatians 11
Ephesians 3
Philippians 9
Colossians 5
1 Thessalonians 18
2 Thessalonians 8
1 Timothy 3
2 Timothy 1
Philemon 4
Hebrews 10
James 17
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 2
1 John 14
3 John 3
Jude 1
Revelation 5
Matthew 31
Mark 17
Luke 20
John 14
Acts 56
Romans 18
1 Corinthians 36
2 Corinthians 12
Galatians 11
Ephesians 2
Philippians 9
Colossians 5
1 Thessalonians 18
2 Thessalonians 8
1 Timothy 3
2 Timothy 1
Philemon 4
Hebrews 10
James 17
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 2
1 John 13
3 John 3
Jude 1
Revelation 5
Matthew 39
Mark 20
Luke 24
John 14
Acts 57
Romans 19
1 Corinthians 38
2 Corinthians 12
Galatians 11
Ephesians 2
Philippians 9
Colossians 5
1 Thessalonians 19
2 Thessalonians 9
1 Timothy 3
2 Timothy 1
Philemon 4
Hebrews 10
James 19
1 Peter 1
2 Peter 2
1 John 15
3 John 3
Jude 1
Revelation 5
BYZ TIS TR
N-APM 38
N-ASM 42
N-DPM 17
N-DSM 13
N-GPM 20
N-GSM 17
N-NPM 39
N-NSM 43
N-VPM 110
N-VSM 6
N-APM 39
N-ASM 41
N-DPM 17
N-DSM 14
N-GPM 21
N-GSM 17
N-NPM 39
N-NSM 43
N-VPM 98
N-VSM 6
N-APM 39
N-ASM 42
N-DPM 17
N-DSM 13
N-GPM 20
N-GSM 17
N-NPM 39
N-NSM 43
N-VPM 110
N-VSM 6
NA WH
N-APM 38
N-ASM 40
N-DPM 17
N-DSM 14
N-GPM 20
N-GSM 17
N-NPM 38
N-NSM 43
N-VPM 94
N-VSM 5
T-ASM 1
T-GPM 1
T-NPM 1
V-PAI-2S 1
V-PMI-3S 1
N-APM 41
N-ASM 46
N-DPM 18
N-DSM 14
N-GPM 23
N-GSM 20
N-NPM 43
N-NSM 45
N-VPM 138
N-VSM 6


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἀδελφοìς

ἀδελφός [], ( - copul., δελφύς, Arist. HA 510b13; cf. ἀγάστωρ) properly, son of the same mother: I as Subst., ἀδελφός, ὁ, voc. ἄδελφε; , Ion., and Lyr. ἀδελφεός (gen. -ειοῦ in Hom. is for -εόο), Cret. ἀδελφιός, ἀδευφιός, Leg.Gort. 2.21, Mon.Ant. 18.319: brother, Hom., etc.; ἀδελφοί brother and sister, E. El. 536; so of the Ptolemies, θεοὶ ἀδελφοί Herod. 1.30, OGI 50.2 (iii B. C.), etc.; ἀπ' ἀμφοτέρων ἀδελφεός Hdt. 7.97: prov., χαλεποὶ πόλεμοι ἀδελφῶν E. Fr. 975: metaph., ἀ. γέγονα σειρήνων LXX Job 30:29.

2. kinsman, ib. Genesis 13:8, al.; tribesman, Exodus 2:11, al.

3. colleague, associate, PTeb. 1.12, IG 12 (9).906.19 (Chalcis); member of a college, ib.14.956.

4. term of address, used by kings, OGI 138.3 (Philae), J. AJ 13.2.2, etc.; generally, LXX Ju. 7.30; esp. in letters, PPar. 48 (ii B. C.), etc.: as a term of affection, applicable by wife to husband, LXX To. 10.12, PLond. 1.42.1 (ii B. C.), etc.

5. brother (as a fellow Christian), Matthew 12:50, Acts 9:30, al.; of other religious communities, e.g. Serapeum, PPar. 42.1 (ii B. C.), cf. PTaur. 1.1.20.

6. metaph., of things, fellow, ἀνὴρ τῷ ἀ. προσκολληθήσεται, of Leviathan's scales, LXX Job 41:8. II Adj., ἀδελφός, ή, όν, brotherly or sisterly, A. Th. 811, etc.; φύσιν ἀ. ἔχοντες, of Hephaistos and Athena, Pl. Criti. 109c.

2. generally, of anything double, twin, in pairs, X. Mem. 2.3.19: also, akin, cognate, μαθήματα Archyt. 1; ἀ. νόμοις Pl. Lg. 683a: mostly c. gen., ἀδελφὰ τῶνδε S. Ant. 192; ἡ δὲ μωρία μάλιστ' ἀ. τῆς πονηρίας ἔφυ Id. Fr. 925; freq. in Pl., Phd. 108b, Cra. 418e, al., cf. Hyp. Epit. 35: c. dat., ἀδελφὰ τούτοισι S. OC 1262, cf. Pl. Smp. 210b.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἀδελφός, (οῦ, (from copulative and δελφύς, from the same womb; cf. ἀγάστωρ) (from Homer down);

1. a brother (whether born of the same two parents, or only of the same father or the same mother): Matthew 1:2; Matthew 4:18, and often. That 'the brethren of Jesus,' Matthew 12:46,47 (but WH only in marginal reading); Matthew 13:55> f; Mark 6:3 (in the last two passages also sisters); Luke 8:19; John 2:12; John 7:3; Acts 1:14; Galatians 1:19; 1 Corinthians 9:5, are neither sons of Joseph by a wife married before Mary (which is the account in the Apocryphal Gospels (cf. Thilo, Cod. Apocr. N. T. i. 362 f)), nor cousins, the children of Alphaeus or Cleophas (i. e. Clopas) and Mary a sister of the mother of Jesus (the current opinion among the doctors of the church since Jerome and Augustine (cf. Lightfoot's Commentary on Galatians , diss. ii.)), according to that use of language by which ἀδελφός like the Hebrew אָח denotes any blood-relation or kinsman ( Genesis 14:16; 1 Samuel 20:29; 2 Kings 10:13; 1 Chronicles 23:2, etc.), but own brothers, born after Jesus, is clear principally from Matthew 1:25 (only in R G); Luke 2:7 — where, had Mary borne no other children after Jesus, instead of υἱόν πρωτότοκον, the expression υἱόν μονογενῆ would have been used, as well as from Acts 1:14, cf. John 7:5, where the Lord's brethren are distinguished from the apostles. See further on this point under Ἰάκωβος, 3. (Cf. B. D. under the word ; Andrews, Life of our Lord, pp. 104-116; Bib. Sacr. for 1864, pp. 855-869; for 1869, pp. 745-758; Laurent, N. T. Studien, pp. 153-193; McClellan, note on Matthew 13:55.)

2. according to a Hebrew use of אָח ( Exodus 2:11; Exodus 4:18, etc.), hardly to be met with in secular authors, having the same national ancestor, belonging to the same people, countryman; so the Jews (as the σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ, υἱοί Ἰσραήλ, cf. Acts 13:26; (in Deuteronomy 15:3 opposed to ἀλλότριος, cf. Acts 17:15; Acts 15:12; Philo de septen. § 9 at the beginning)) are called ἀδελφοί: Matthew 5:47; Acts 3:22 ( Deuteronomy 18:15); Acts 7:23; 22:5; 28:15,21>; Romans 9:3; in address, Acts 2:29; Acts 3:17; Acts 23:1; Hebrews 7:5.

3. just as in Leviticus 19:17 the word אָח is used interchangeably with רֵַעַ (but, as Leviticus 19:16,18 show, in speaking of Israelites), so in the sayings of Christ, Matthew 5:22,24; Matthew 7:3 ff, ἀδελφός is used for πλησίον to denote (as appears from Luke 10:29 ff) any fellow-man — as having one and the same father with others, viz. God ( Hebrews 2:11), and as descended from the same first ancestor ( Acts 17:26); cf. Epictetus diss. 1,13, 3.

4. a fellow-believer, united to another by the bond of affection; so most frequently of Christians, constituting as it were but a single family: Matthew 23:8; John 21:23; Acts 6:3 (Lachmann omits); Acts 9:30; 11:1>; Galatians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Philippians 1:14, etc.; in courteous address, Romans 1:13; Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 John 2:7 Rec., and often elsewhere; yet in the phraseology of John it has reference to the new life unto which men are begotten again by the efficiency of a common father, even God: 1 John 2:9 ff; 1 John 3:10,14>; etc., cf. 1 John 5:1.

5. an associate in employment or office: 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 2:13(12); Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 1:1.

6. brethren of Christ is used of,

a. his brothers by blood; see 1above.

b. all men: Matthew 25:40 (Lachmann brackets); Hebrews 2:11 f (others refer these examples to d.)

c. apostles: Matthew 28:10; John 20:17.

d. Christians, as those who are destined to be exalted to the same heavenly δόξα (which see, III:4b.) which he enjoys: Romans 8:29.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἀδελφός , -οῦ ,

(< - copul, δελφύς , womb), in cl., a brother, born of the same parent or parents.

[In LXX (Hort, Ja., 102 f.), for H251;]

1. lit, of a brother (Genesis 4:2, al.).

2. Of a neighbour (Leviticus 19:17).

3. Of a member of the same nation (Exodus 2:14, Deuteronomy 15:3). In NT in each of these senses

(1. Matthew 1:2, al.;)

(2. Matthew 7:3;)

(3. Romans 9:3) and also,

4. of a fellow-Christian: 1 Corinthians 1:1, Acts 9:30. This usage finds illustration in Papyri, where . is used of members of a pagan religious community (M, Th., I, 1:4; MM, VGT, s.v.). The ἀδελφοὶ τ . Κυρίου (Matthew 12:46-49 Matthew 13:55 Matthew 28:10, Mark 3:31-34, Luke 8:19-21, John 2:12 John 7:3; John 7:5; John 7:10 John 20:17, Acts 1:14, 1 Corinthians 9:5) may have been sons of Joseph and Mary (Mayor, Ja., Intr. vi ff.; DB, i, 320 ff.) or of Joseph by a former marriage (Lft., Gal., 252 ff.; DCG, i, 232 ff.), but the view of Jerome, which makes . equivalent to ἀνεψιός , is inconsistent with Greek usage. (Cremer, 66.)


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For the literal and the more general derived sense we may quote Syll 474.10 ἀδελφοὶ οἷς κοινὰ τὰ πατρῷα, and 276.26 διὰ τὸ Μεσσαλιήτας εἶναι ἡμῖν ἀδελ [φούς ]. In P Lond 421 (B.C. 168) ( = I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) Ἰσίας Ἡφαιστίωνι τῶι ἀδελφῶ [ι χαί (ρειν)], it seems probable that Isias is addressing her husband, not brother : see Kenyon’s note ad l. where Letronne’s statement that the Ptolemies called their wives ἀδελφαί even where they were not actually so is quoted. Witkowski Epp..2 p. 61 maintains this against Wilcken, quoting Wilamowitz (Gr. Lesebuch I. p. 397), and noting that Isias says ἡ μήτηρ σου, showing that Isias and Hephaestion were not children of the same mother. Cf. also P Par 45 and 48 (ii/B.C.) where men address with τῷ ἀδελφῷ χαίρειν men who are no relation to them. For the use of ἀδελφοί to denote members of the same religious community cf. P Tor I. 1i. 20 (ii/B.C.) where the members of a society which had to perform a part of the ceremony of embalming bodies are described as ἀδελφῶν τῶν τὰς λειτουργίας ἐν ταῖς νεκρίαις παρεχομένων, and in P Par 42.1 etc. (ii/B.C.) the same designation is applied to the ";fellows"; of a religious corporation established in the Serapeum of Memphis. In P Tebt I. 12 (B.C. 118) Crönert assumes that one town clerk addresses another as ἀδελφός : Grenfell and Hunt take it literally—see their introduction. Crönert quotes also Syll 607 (iii/iv A.D.), where it is used between two δεκάπρωτοι, and OGIS 257.2 (B.C. 109), where one king so addresses another. In this last case the kings were the sons of sisters, but Dittenberger warns us against taking ἀδελφός as used loosely for ἀνεψιός. He refers to OGIS 138.3 (ii/B.C.), where Ptolemy Euergetes II. addresses as ";brother"; one Lochus, who in other inscriptions is συγγενής —";our trusty and well-beloved cousin,"; as an English king would have put it. Ἀδελφέ as a term of address may be illustrated by P Flor II. 228 (iii/A.D.), where Palas thrice calls Heroninus ἀδελφέ : in four other letters to him, from about the same time, he only calls him φίλτατος. So P Tebt II. 314.12 (ii/A.D.) ἔρρωσό μοι ἄδελφε, in a letter addressed at the beginning τῷ ] τιμιωτάτῳ. (The voc. survives in Pontic MGr ἄδελφε —elsewhere ἀδερφέ ́—says Thumb.) A clear case is BGU IV. 1209.2 (B.C. 23), where Tryphon addresses τῶι ἀδελφῶι, and goes on to write of his correspondent’s late brother as his own former friend : τοῦ εὐκλήρου ἀδελφοῦ σου ἡμῶν δὲ φίλου γενομένου Πετεχῶντος. Ἀδελφός as a title of address is discussed in Rhein. Mus. N.F. lv. p. 170. From the Christian papyri we may note P Grenf II. 73.2 (late iii/A.D.) ( = Selections p. 117) Ἀπόλλωνι πρεσβυτέρῳ ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ ἐν Κ (υρί)ῳ χαίρειν, P. Lond 417.1 f. (c. A.D. 346) ( = II. p. 299, Selections p. 123) τῷ δεσπότῃ μου καὶ ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ Ἀβιννέῳ πραι (ποσίτῳ), and P Iand 11.9 (iii/iv A.D.) τῷ κυρίῳ μου ἀδελφῷ Πέτρῳ (cf. Wilcken, Archiv vi. p. 295). For the Christian use of the word see Harnack Mission and Expansion of Christianity.2 I. p. 405 ff. On ἀδελφός ";improperly"; used in the LXX, see a note by Hort The Epistle of St. James, p. 102 f.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
Αδελφε αδελφέ Ἀδελφέ αδελφοι αδελφοί ἀδελφοί ἀδελφοὶ αδελφοις αδελφοίς ἀδελφοῖς αδελφον αδελφόν ἀδελφόν ἀδελφὸν αδελφος αδελφός ἀδελφός ἀδελφὸς αδελφου αδελφού αδελφόυ ἀδελφοῦ αδελφους αδελφούς άδελφους ἀδελφούς ἀδελφοὺς αδελφω αδελφώ ἀδελφῷ αδελφων αδελφών ἀδελφῶν Adelphe Adelphé adelpho adelphō adelphoi adelphoí adelphoì adelphôi adelphō̂i adelphois adelphoîs adelphon adelphón adelphòn adelphôn adelphōn adelphō̂n adelphos adelphós adelphòs adelphou adelphoû adelphous adelphoús adelphoùs

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Tuesday, June 27th, 2017
the Week of Proper 7 / Ordinary 12
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