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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #1344 - δικαιόω

Word Origin:
from (1342)
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. to render righteous or such he ought to be
  2. to show, exhibit, evince, one to be righteous, such as he is and wishes himself to be considered
  3. to declare, pronounce, one to be just, righteous, or such as he ought to be
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 974 ‑ בָּחַן (baw‑khan');   2135 ‑ זָכָה (zaw‑kaw');   6663 ‑ צָדַק (tsaw‑dak');   7378 ‑ רוּב (reeb, roob);   8199 ‑ שָׁפַט (shaw‑fat');  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

δῐκαι-όω, Ion. impf. ἐδικαίευν Hdt. 1.100: fut. -ώσω Orac. ap. eund. 5.92. β, Th. 5.26; -ώσομαι Id. 3.40: aor. ἐδικαίωσα Id. 2.71: Pass., fut. -ωθήσομαι LXX Si. 18.2: aor. ἐδικαιώθην A. Ag. 393 (lyr.): pf. δεδικαίωμαι LXX Ezekiel 21:13(18).

I set right, νόμος.. δικαιῶν τὸ βιαιότατον Pi. Fr. 169.3; δικαιωθείς proved, tested, A. l. c.

II hold or deem right, claim or demand as a right, c. inf., Hdt. 1.89, 133, Hp. Fract. 31; δεινά με δικαιοῖ δρᾶν S. OT 640, cf. 575; δικαιοῦντες μὴ ἀφαιρεθῆναι αὐτήν Th. 2.41: with inf. omitted, οὕτω δ. (sc. γενέσθαι) Hdt. 9.42; δίκας δ. (sc. γενέσθαι) ib. 93; ὅποι ποτὲ θεὸς δικαιοῖ S. Ph. 781; οὐκ ὀρθῶς δ. Th. 5.26; pronounce judgement, Id. 2.71: c. inf., ἐδικαίωσεν ἀποδοῦναι ἡμᾶς τὸ κεφάλαιον PRyl. 119.14 (i A. D.); consent, δουλεύειν Hdt. 2.172, cf. 6.86; οὐκ ἐδικαίου οὐδένα οἱ ἐσαγγεῖλαι he would not allow.. Id. 3.118: Pass., τὸ δικαιωθὲν ὑπό τινος that which is ordained, D.H. 10.1.

III do a man right or justice: hence,

1 chastise, punish, Hdt. 1.100: Pass., Id. 3.29, Pl. Lg. 934b, D.C. Fr. 57.47; pass sentence on, ὑμᾶς αὐτοὺς δικαιώσεσθε Th. 3.40.

2. Pass., also, have right done one, opp. ἀδικεῖσθαι, Arist. EN 1136a18.

3. pronounce and treat as righteous, justify, vindicate, LXX Exodus 23:7, Jeremiah 3:11; ἑαυτούς Luke 16:15, etc.: freq. in Pass., ib. 7.35, etc.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 δικαιόω, δικαίῳ; future δικαιώσω; 1aorist ἐδικαίωσα; passive (present δικαιοῦμαι); perfect δεδικαίωμαι; 1aorist ἐδικαιωθην; future δικαιωθήσομαι; (δίκαιος); the Sept. for צִדֵּק and הִצְדִּיק;

1. properly, (according to the analogy of other verbs ending in , as τυφλόω, δουλόω) to make δίκαιος; to render righteous or such as he ought to be; ( Vulg. justifico); but this meaning is extremely rare, if not altogether doubtful; ἐδικαίωσα τήν καρδίαν μου stands for לְבָבִי זִכִּיתִי in Psalm 72:13 (Psalm 73:13>) (unless I have shown my heart to be upright be preferred as the rendering of the Greek there).

2. τινα, to show, exhibit, evince, one to be righteous, such as he is and wishes himself to be considered ( Ezekiel 16:51 f; τήν ψυχήν αὐτοῦ, Jeremiah 3:11, and, probably, δικαιοῦν δίκαιον, Isaiah 53:11): σοφία ἐδικαιώθη ἀπό τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς, the wisdom taught and exemplified by John the Baptist, and by Jesus, gained from its disciples (i. e. from their life, character, and deeds) the benefit of being shown to be righteous, i. e. true and divine (cf. Buttmann, 322 (277); others interpret, was acknowledged to be righteous on the part of (nearly, equivalent to, by) her children; cf. Buttmann, 325 (280); see ἀπό, II:2d. bb.), Luke 7:35; Matthew 11:19 (here T Tr text WH read ἔργων, i. e. by her works); passive, of Christ: ἐδικαιώθη ἐν πνεύματι, evinced to be righteous as to his spiritual (divine ((?) cf. e. g. Ellicott at the passage or Meyer on Romans 1:4)) nature, 1 Timothy 3:16; of God: ὅπως δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου, Romans 3:4 from Psalm 50:6 (Psalm 51:6>) (κύριος μόνος δικαιωθήσεται, Sirach 18:2); passive used reflexively, to show oneself righteous: of men, Revelation 22:11 Rec.; (τί δικαιωθῶμεν; Genesis 44:16).

3. τινα, to declare, pronounce, one to be just, righteous, or such as he ought to be, (cf. ὁμοιόω to declare to be like, liken, i. e. compare; ὁσιόω, Wisdom of Solomon 6:11; ἀξιόω, which never means to make worthy, but to judge worthy, to declare worthy, to treat as worthy; see also κοινόω, 2b.);

a. with the negative idea predominant, to declare guiltless one accused or who may be accused, acquitted of a charge or reproach, ( Deuteronomy 25:1; Sirach 13:22 (21), etc.; an unjust judge is said δικαιοῦν τόν ἀσεβῆ in Exodus 23:7; Isaiah 5:23): ἑαυτόν, Luke 10:29; passive οὐ δεδικαίωμαι, namely, with God, 1 Corinthians 4:4; pregnantly with ἀπό τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν added, to be declared innocent and therefore to be absolved from the charge of sins (cf. Buttmann, 322 (277)), Acts 13:38 (39) (so ἀπό ἁμαρτίας, Sirach 26:29; simply, to be absolved, namely, from the payment of a vow, Sirach 18:22 (21)); hence, figuratively, by a usage not met with elsewhere, to be freed, ἀπό τῆς ἁμαρτίας, from its dominion, Romans 6:7, where cf. Fritzsche or ((less fully) Meyer).

b. with the positive idea predominant, to Judges , declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable, (God is said δικαιοῦν δίκαιον, 1 Kings 8:32): ἑαυτόν, Luke 16:15; ἐδικαίωσαν τόν Θεόν, declared God to be righteous, i. e. by receiving the baptism declared that it had been prescribed by God rightly, Luke 7:29; passive by God, Romans 2:13; ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, got his reputation for righteousness (namely, with his countrymen (but see Meyer (edited by Weiss) at the passage)) by works, Romans 4:2; ἐκ τῶν λόγων, by thy words, in contrast with καταδικάζεσθαι, namely, by God, Matthew 12:37. Especially is it so used, in the technical phraseology of Paul, respecting God who judges and declares such men as put faith in Christ to be righteous and acceptable to him, and accordingly fit to receive the pardon of their sins and eternal life (see δικαιοσύνη, 1c.): thus absolutely, δικαιοῦν τινα, Romans 3:26; Romans 4:5; Romans 8:30,33 (namely, ἡμᾶς, opposed to ἐγκάλειν); with the addition of ἐκ ( in consequence of) πίστεως, Romans 3:30; Galatians 3:8; of διά τῆς πίστεως, Romans 3:30; men are said δικαιοῦσθαι, δικαιωθῆναι, τῇ χάριτι τοῦ Θεοῦ, Titus 3:7; δωρεάν τῇ χάριτι τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 3:24 πίστει, Romans 3:28; ἐκ πίστεως, by means of faith, Romans 5:1; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:24; ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ Χριστοῦ (as the meritorious cause of their acceptance, as the old theologians say, faith being the apprehending or subjective cause), Romans 5:9; ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ καί ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν, by confessing the name of the Lord (which implies faith in him, Romans 10:10, cf. 2 Corinthians 4:13), and by the Spirit of God (which has awakened faith in the soul), 1 Corinthians 6:11; ἐν Χριστῷ through Christ, Galatians 2:17; Acts 13:39; it is vehemently denied by Paul, that a man δικαιοῦται ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, Galatians 2:16 — with the addition ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, i. e. of God, Romans 3:20, cf. Romans 3:28; Romans 4:2, (see δικαιοσύνην, 1c. under the end) — a statement which is affirmed by James in James 2:21,24> f (though he says simply ἐξ ἔργων δικαιοῦται, significantly omitting νόμου); to the same purport Paul denies that a man δικαιοῦται ἐν νόμῳ, in obeying the law, or by keeping it, Galatians 5:4; with the addition, παρά τῷ Θεῷ, in the sight of God, Galatians 3:11. Luke 18:14 teaches that a man δικαιοῦται by deep sorrow for his sins, which so humbles him that he hopes for salvation only from divine grace. The Pauline conceptions of δίκαιος, δικαιοσύνη, δικαιόω, are elucidated especially by Winzer, De vocabulis δίκαιος, etc., in Ep. ad Romans , Lipsius 1831; Usteri, Paulin. Lehrbegriff, p. 86f edition 4etc.; Neander, Gesch. der Pfianzung as above with ii., p. 567ff et passim, edition 3 (Robinson's translation of edition 4, pp. 382ff, 417ff); Baur, Paulus, p. 572ff ((Zeller's) edition 2, vol. ii 145-183; English translation, vol. ii, p. 134ff); Rauwenhoff Disquisitio etc., Lugd. Bat. 1852; Lipsius, Die paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, Lpz. 1853; Schmid, Biblical Theologie des N. T., p. 562ff edition 2 (p. 558ff edition 4; English translation, p. 495f); Ernesti, Vom Ursprung der Sunde as above with i., p. 152ff; Messner, Lehre der Apostel, p. 256ff (summary by S. R. Asbury in Bib. Sacr. for 1870, p. 140f); Jul. Kostlin in the Jahrbb. fur deutsche Theol. 1856 fasc. 1, p. 85ff; Wieseler, Commentar u. d. Br. an d. Galater, pp. 176ff (see in Schaff's Lange's Romans , p. 122 f); Kahnis, Lutherische Dogmatik, Bd. i., p. 592ff; Philippi, Dogmatik, v. 1, p. 208ff; Weiss, Biblical Theol. des N. T. § 65; Ritschl, Die christl. Lehre v. d. Versohnung u. Rechtf. ii. 318ff; Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, p. 172ff (English translation, vol. i., p. 171ff; but especially Dr. James Morison, Critical Exposition of the Third Chapter of the Epistle to the Romans , pp. 163-198. On the patristic usage see Reithmayr, Galaterbrief, p. 177f; Cremer, Worterbuch, 4te Aufl., p. 285; Suicer, Thesaurus under the word). In classic Greek δικαιόω (Ionic δικαιέω, Herodotus) is:

1. equivalent to δίκαιον νομίζω, to deem right or fair: τί, often followed by the infinitive; to choose what is right and fair, hence, universally, to choose, desire, decide: Herodotus, Sophocles, Thucydides, others.

2. with the accusative of person, τό δίκαιον ποιῶ τινα to do one justice, in a bad sense, viz. to condemn, punish, one: Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, others; hence, δικαιοῦσθαι, to have justice done oneself, to suffer justice, be treated rightly, opposed to ἀδικεῖσθαι, Aristotle, eth. Nic. 5,9, 11, p. 1136{a}, 18ff (In like manner the German rechtfertigen in its early forensic use bore a bad sense, viz. to try judicially (so for ἀνακρίνειν, Acts 12:19 Luther), then condemn; execute judgment, especially put to death.)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

δικαιόω is used in a general sense ";think or deem right"; in P Giss I. 47.16 (time of Hadrian) with reference to a girdle (παραζώνιον) of which a man reports—ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ ̣ὲ ἐδικαίωσα ἀγοράσαι ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι δυνάμενον, ";I did not think it right to purchase it, seeing that it is liable to be rejected."; In P Ryl II. 119.14 (A.D. 54–67) the reference is to awarding a verdict in the courts : ἐδικαίωσεν ἀποδοῦναι ἡμᾶς τὸ κεφάλαιον καὶ ἀνακομίσασθαι τὴν ὑποθήκην, ";he decided that we should repay the capital sum and recover the mortgage,"; etc. The case was before a δικαιοδότης, and the verb gives an interesting contemporary illustration of Paul’s usage. From the same century comes P Tebt II. 444 τὰ δ [ιὰ ] τῆς συνγραφῆς δετακιομένα κεφάλαι (l. δεδικαιωμένα κεφάλαια), ";the sums fixed [declared just] by the contract."; The spelling may be taken as evidence that the word was good vernacular! Add the fragmentary P Oxy III. 653 (A.D. 162–3), where the Praefect refers to a trial before the Chiliarch—ὃν μεταπέμπειν δικα ̣[ιο ]υ ̣̑μεν. For the force of ἐδικαιώθη in 1 Timothy 3:16 Dibelius (HZNT ad l.) compares the use of the verb in the mystery-religions, e.g. Reitzenstein Poimandres 13.9 (p. 343) ὁ βαθμὸς οὗτος, ὦ τέκνον, δικαιοσύνης ἐστὶν ἕδρασμα. χωρὶς γὰρ κρίσεως ἰδὲ πῶς τὴν ἀδικίαν ἐξήλασεν. ἐδικαιώθημεν, ὦ τέκνον, ἀδικίας ἀπούσης, where δικαιοῦσθαι refers to ";die Wesensänderung, die im Mysterium mit dem Mysten vergeht (nahezu = ἐθεώθημεν)."; So ";Christus ward der Sphäre der ἀδικία entrückt, in die Himmelswelt emporgehoben, erhöht und vergottet.";


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (40)NAS (39)HCS (39)
1 Corinthians2
1 Timothy1
1 Corinthians2
1 Timothy1
1 Corinthians2
1 Timothy1
List of Word Forms
δεδικαιωμαι δεδικαίωμαι δεδικαιωμένα δεδικαιωμενος δεδικαιωμένος δεδικαιωται δεδικαίωται δικαιοι δικαιοί δικαιοῖ δικαιουμενοι δικαιούμενοι δικαιούν δικαιουντα δικαιούντα δικαιοῦντα δικαιουντες δικαιούντες δικαιοῦντες δικαιουσθαι δικαιούσθαι δικαιοῦσθαι δικαιουσθε δικαιούσθε δικαιοῦσθε δικαιουται δικαιούται δικαιοῦται Δικαιωθεντες Δικαιωθέντες δικαιωθή δικαιωθηναι δικαιωθήναι δικαιωθήναί δικαιωθῆναι δικαιωθης δικαιωθής δικαιωθῇς δικαιωθησεται δικαιωθήσεται δικαιωθηση δικαιωθήση δικαιωθήσῃ δικαιωθησονται δικαιωθήσονται δικαιωθήτωσαν δικαιωθωμεν δικαιωθώμεν δικαιωθῶμεν δικαιων δικαιών δικαιῶν δικαιωσαι δικαιώσαι δικαιώσαί δικαιῶσαι δικαιώσας δικαιώσατε δικαιωσει δικαιώσει δικαιώσεις δικαιώσουσι δικαιώσω δικαιώσωσι εδικαιωθη εδικαιώθη ἐδικαιώθη εδικαιωθητε εδικαιώθητε ἐδικαιώθητε εδικαίωσα εδικαιωσαν εδικαίωσαν ἐδικαίωσαν εδικαίωσας εδικαίωσε εδικαιωσεν εδικαίωσεν ἐδικαίωσεν dedikaiomai dedikaiōmai dedikaíomai dedikaíōmai dedikaiomenos dedikaioménos dedikaiōmenos dedikaiōménos dedikaiotai dedikaiōtai dedikaíotai dedikaíōtai dikaioi dikaioî dikaion dikaiôn dikaiōn dikaiō̂n dikaiosai dikaiôsai dikaiōsai dikaiō̂sai dikaiosei dikaiōsei dikaiṓsei dikaiothêis dikaiōthē̂is dikaiothenai dikaiothênai dikaiōthēnai dikaiōthē̂nai Dikaiothentes Dikaiothéntes Dikaiōthentes Dikaiōthéntes dikaiothes dikaiōthēs dikaiothese dikaiōthēsē dikaiothḗsei dikaiōthḗsēi dikaiothesetai dikaiothḗsetai dikaiōthēsetai dikaiōthḗsetai dikaiothesontai dikaiothḗsontai dikaiōthēsontai dikaiōthḗsontai dikaiothomen dikaiothômen dikaiōthōmen dikaiōthō̂men dikaioumenoi dikaioúmenoi dikaiounta dikaioûnta dikaiountes dikaioûntes dikaiousthai dikaioûsthai dikaiousthe dikaioûsthe dikaioutai dikaioûtai edikaiosan edikaiōsan edikaíosan edikaíōsan edikaiosen edikaiōsen edikaíosen edikaíōsen edikaiothe edikaiōthē edikaiṓthe edikaiṓthē edikaiothete edikaiōthēte edikaiṓthete edikaiṓthēte
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