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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #1438 - ἑαυτοῦ

Word Origin:
from a reflexive pronoun otherwise obsolete and the genitive case (dative case or accusative case) of (846)
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. himself, herself, itself, themselves
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


ῆς, οῦ, ἑαυτῷ, ῇ, ῷ, ἑαυτόν, ήν, ό, pl. ἑαυτῶν, ἑαυτοῖς, ἑαυτούς άς, ά:

Ion. ἑωυτοῦ SIG 57.44 (Milet., v B. C.), etc.; also ωὑτῆς Herod. 6.84, ωὑτέου Aret. SA 1.7 (Ion. ἑωυ - by contraction of ἕο αὐ -, from which also Att. ἑᾱυ -, freq. written ἑατοῦ in Pap. and Inscrr., as SIG 774.2 (Delph., i B.C.): Att. contr. αὑτοῦ, etc., which is the usual form in Trag., though ἑαυτοῦ, etc., are used (though rarely) when the metre requires, A. Pr. 188 (anap.), al.; in Att. Inscrr. αὑτοῦ prevails after B.C. 300; Cret. ϝιαυτοῦ Kohler-Ziebarth Stadtrecht von Gortyn p.34; Dor. αὐταυτοῦ, αὐσαυτοῦ (q. v.); Thess. εὑτοῦ (dat.), IG 9(2).517.16: ηὑτῶν Schwyzer 251 A 44 (Cos):

I reflex. Pron. of 3rd pers., of himself, herself, itself, etc.; first in Alc. 78, Hdt., and Att. (Hom. has ἕο αὐτοῦ, οἷ αὐτῷ, ἑ αὐτόν): αὐτὸ ἐφ' ἑαυτό (v.l. - τοῦ) itself by itself, absolutely, Pl. Tht. 152b; αὐτὸ ἐφ' αὑτοῦ ib. 160b; ὅταν τὸ ἐφ' ἑαυτὸν ἕκαστος σπεύδῃ Th. 1.141; αὐτὸ καθ' αὑτό Pl. Tht. 157a; αὐτὰ πρὸς αὑτά ib. 154e; ἀφ' ἑαυτῶν, ἑαυτοῦ, of themselves, himself, Th. 5.60, X. Mem. 2.10.3; ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ, v. ἐπί; ἐν ἑαυτῷ γίγνεσθαι, ἐντὸς ἑαυτοῦ γ., v. ἐν, ἐντός; παρ' ἑαυτῷ at his own house, ib. 3.13.3, etc.: esp. with Comp. and Sup., ἐγένοντο ἀμείνονες αὐτοὶ ἑωυτῶν they surpassed themselves, Hdt. 8.86; πλουσιώτεροι ἑαυτῶν continually richer, Th. 1.8; θαρραλεώτεροι αὐτοὶ ἑαυτῶν Pl. Prt. 350a, cf. d; τῇ αὐτὸ ἑωυτοῦ ἐστι μακρότατον at its very greatest length, Hdt. 2.8, cf. 149, 4.85, 198.

II in Att., Trag., and later, αὑτοῦ, etc., is used for the 1st or 2nd pers., as for ἐμαυτοῦ, αὐτὸς καθ' αὑτοῦ τἄρα μηχανορραφῶ A. Ch. 221, cf. S. OT 138, etc.; for σεαυτοῦ, μόρον τὸν αὑτῆς οἶσθα A. Ag. 1297, cf. 1141, Pl. Phd. 101c (v.l.), Ph. Bel. 59.16, etc.: so in pl., τὰ αὑτῶν (= ἡμῶν αὐτῶν) ἐκποριζώμεθα Th. 1.82; δώσομεν ἑαυτούς Epicur. Sent.Vat. 47; ἐφ' ἑαυτοῖς by ourselves, LXX 1 Kings 14:9, cf. PPar. 47.26 (ii B. C.), 2 Corinthians 7:1, etc.; ἑαυτῶν, = ὑμῶν αὐτῶν, PPar. 63.128 (ii B. C.).

III pl., ἑαυτῶν, ἑαυτοῖς, etc., is sts. used for ἀλλήλων, ἀλλήλοις, one another, διάφοροι ἑωυτοῖσι Hdt. 3.49; παρακελευόμενοι ἐν ἑαυτοῖς Th. 4.25, etc.; καθ' αὑτοῖν one against the other, S. Ant. 144 (anap.); πρὸς αὑτούς D. 18.19; περιιόντες αὑτῶν πυνθάνονται Id. 4.10, cf. Pl. Ly. 215b.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, ἑαυτοῦ, etc. or (contracted) αὑτοῦ, αὑτῆς, αὑτοῦ (see p. 87); plural ἑαυτῶν; dative ἑαυτοῖς, ἑαυταῖς, ἑαυτοῖς, etc.; reflexive pronoun of the 3rd person. It is used:

1. of the 3rd person singular and plural, to denote that the agent and the person acted on are the same; as, σῴζειν ἑαυτόν, Matthew 27:42; Mark 15:31; Luke 23:35; ὑψοῦν ἑαυτόν, Matthew 23:12, etc. ἑαυτῷ, ἑαυτόν are also often added to middle verbs: διεμερίσαντο ἑαυτοῖς, John 19:24 ( Xenophon, mem. 1,6, 13 ποιεῖσθαι ἑαυτῷ φίλον); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 38,6; (Buttmann, § 135., 6). Of the phrases into which this pronoun enters we notice the following: ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ, see ἀπό, II:2d. aa.; δἰ ἑαυτοῦ, of itself, i. e. in its own nature, Romans 14:14 ( Tr L text read αὐτοῦ); ἐν ἑαυτῷ, see in διαλογίζεσθαι, λέγειν, εἰπεῖν. Αἰς ἑαυτόν ἔρχεσθαι, to come to oneself, to a better mind, Luke 15:17 ( Diodorus 13,95). Καθ' ἑαυτόν, by oneself, alone: Acts 28:16; James 2:17. Παῥ ἑαυτῷ, by him, i. e. at his home, 1 Corinthians 16:2 ( Xenophon, mem. 3,13, 3). Πρός ἑαυτόν, to himself i. e. to his home, Luke 24:12 ( R G; T omits, WH (but with αὑτόν) reject, L Tr (but the latter with αὐτόν) brackets, the verse); John 20:10 ( T Tr αὐτόν (see αὑτοῦ)); with (cf. our to) himself, i. e. in his own mind, προσεύχεσθαι, Luke 18:11 ( Tdf. omits) ( 2 Maccabees 11:13); in the genitive, joined with a noun, it has the force of a possessive pronoun, as τούς ἑαυτῶν νεκρούς: Matthew 8:22; Luke 9:60.

2. It serves as reflexive also to the 1st and 2nd person, as often in classic Greek, when no ambiguity is thereby occasioned; thus, ἐν ἑαυτοῖς equivalent to ἐν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, Romans 8:23; ἑαυτούς equivalent to ἡμᾶς αὐτούς, 1 Corinthians 11:31; ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ equivalent to ἀπό σεαυτοῦ (read by L Tr WH), John 18:34; ἑαυτόν equivalent to σεαυτόν (read by L T Tr WH), Romans 13:9; ἑαυτοῖς for ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς, Matthew 23:31, etc.; cf. Matthiae, § 489 II.; Winer s Grammar, § 22,5; (Buttmann, § 127,15).

3. It is used frequently in the plural for the reciprocal pronoun ἀλλήλων, ἀλλήλοις, ἀλλήλους, reciprocally, mutually, one another: Matthew 16:7; Matthew 21:38; Mark 10:26 ( Tr marginal reading WH αὐτόν); Mark 16:3>; Luke 20:5; Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 3:13,16; 1 Peter 4:8,10; see Matthine § 489 III.; Kühner, ii., p. 497f; Bernhardy (1829), p. 273; ( Lightfoot on Colossians 3:13).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

There is no decisive instance in the NT of ἑαυτοῦ in the sing. for the 1st or 2nd person : in 1 Corinthians 10:29 ἑαυτοῦ is indef. ";one’s own,"; not ";thine own,"; as AV, RV; and in John 18:34 σεαυτοῦ, and in Romans 13:9, Galatians 5:14 σεαυτόν, are the better readings. But the usage can be illustrated from the illiterate papyri : 1st pers.—BGU I. 86.5 (A.D. 155) συνχωρῶ μετὰ τὴν ἑαντοῦ τελευτὴν τοῖς γεγονόσι α [ὑτ ]ῷ ἐκ τῆς συνούσης αὑτοῦ γυναικός, 2nd pers.—P Tebt I. 18.5 (B.C. 114) φρόντισον ὡς πάντα [τ ]ὰ ἐνοφειλόμενα ἑαυτ ̣ω ̣̑ι. . ἐμ μέτρωι ἔσται τῆι αὐτῆι, ";see that all the debts due to you are in order on that day"; (Edd.), P Oxy II. 295.5 (c. A.D. 35) μὴ σκλύλλε (l. σκύλλε) ε ̣̔ατὴν ἐνπῆναι (l. ἐμφῆναι ?), ";don’t trouble yourself to explain (?)"; (Edd.). For the ordinary use with the 3rd pers. there may be cited P Tebt I. 49.7 (B.C. 113) τ [ ] ἐν τῆι ἑαυτοῦ γῆι ὕδατα κατακέκλυκεν, ";let out the water on his own land,"; as distinguished from Crown land cultivated by a neighbour, BGU I. 45.12 (a complaint of violence—A.D. 203) Στοτόητις. . ἀνὴρ βίαιος. . ἐπῆλθεν αὐτῷ (sc. the complainant’s son), ἐπαγαγὼν σὺν α [ ]τῷ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱόν. Other exx. show a somewhat faded use of the reflexive as in the common phrase in legal papyri, μετὰ κυρίου τοῦ ἑαυτῆς ἀνδρός (ἀδελφοῦ, etc.), where a woman is the principal, or in the interchangeable use of ὁ πατήρ, ὁ ἴδιος πατήρ, and ὁ ἑαυτοῦ πατήρ in sepulchral inscrr., when a son is speaking of his father : see Proleg. p. 87 f., and add the contract where Tryphon arranges to apprentice τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν Θοῶνιν to another weaver (P Oxy II. 275.7—A.D. 66) and the reference in a magical formula to Isis as seeking ἑαυτῆς τὸν ἀδελφὸν κὲ ἄνδρα Ὄσιρειν (ib. VI. 886.8—iii/A.D.).

From ii/B.C. the plural ἑαυτῶν is regularly extended to the 1st and 2nd persons, as frequently in the NT : thus P Par 47.26 (c B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) ἰ καὶ αὑτοὺς δεδώκ ̣αμεν, P Lond 401.6 (B.C. 116–11) (= II. p. 13) ἡμῖν τε καὶ ταῖς ἑαυτ ̣ῶν (= ";our";) ἀδελφαῖς, P Tebt I. 47.30 (B.C. 113) ἵν᾽ ἡμεῖς μὲν κομισώμεθα τὰ ἑαυτῶν, P Par 63.128 (B.C. 165) (= P Petr III. p. 28) περ [ ] ἑαυτῶν κήδεσθε, P Grenf I. 30.9 (B.C. 103) ἐπιμελό [μενο ]ι δὲ καὶ ἑαυτῶν ἵν᾽ ὑγιαίνητε, and the other exx. in Mayser Gr. p. 303.

For ἑαυτῶν = ἀλλήλων we may quote P Grenf II. 25.4 (B.C. 103) ὁμολογία ἣν ἑκόντες συνχωρήσαντες ἔθεντο πρὸς ἑαυτούς, BGU IV. 1157.14 (B.C. 10) τανῦν συνχωροῦμε (ν) πρὸς ἑατοὺς ἐπὶ τοῖσδε, P Oxy II. 260.15 (A.D. 59) μέχρι οὗ ἃ ἔχωμεν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς ἐγ [β ]ιβασθῆι, and ib. I. 115.11 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) παρηγορεῖτε οὖν ἑαυτούς. On the a fortiori argument underlying the use of ἑαυτοῖς for ἀλλήλοις in some of its NT occurrences, see Lightfoot on Colossians 3:18.

The simple ὑμᾶς is substituted for ὑμᾶς αὐτούς (or perhaps rather σεαυτήν) in P Oxy II. 293.16 (A.D. 27) ἐπ ]ι ̣σκοπ [οῦ δ ]ε ̣, ὑμᾶς καὶ [πά ]ντας τοὺ [ς ] ἐν οἴκῳ : cf. P Amh II. 131.18 (early ii/A.D.) ὡς. . ἐχόντων (sc. ἡμῶν) ἐκ τούτου εἰς ἡμᾶς δαπανῆσαι, and see CR xv. p. 441. Sharp (Epict. p. 6) cites an interesting parallel to Luke 15:17 from Epict. iii. i. 15—ὅταν εἰς σαυτὸν ἔλθῃς. For the shortened forms σαυτοῦ (cf. James 2:8 B) and αὑτοῦ, see s.v. αὑτοῦ, and Moulton Gr. ii. § 76.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (339)NAS (280)HCS (307)
1 Corinthians16
2 Corinthians19
1 Thessalonians6
2 Thessalonians4
1 Timothy5
2 Timothy3
1 Peter5
2 Peter1
1 John5
2 John1
1 Corinthians16
2 Corinthians18
1 Thessalonians6
2 Thessalonians3
1 Timothy5
2 Timothy3
1 Peter4
2 Peter1
1 John3
2 John1
1 Corinthians15
2 Corinthians28
1 Thessalonians6
2 Thessalonians4
1 Timothy5
2 Timothy3
1 Peter4
2 Peter1
1 John4
2 John1
List of Word Forms
αυτοίς αυτού αὐτοῦ αυτούς αυτώ αυτών αὐτῶν εαυτα ἑαυτὰ εαυταις εαυταίς ἑαυταῖς εαυτας εαυτάς ἑαυτάς ἑαυτὰς εαυτη εαυτή ἑαυτῇ εαυτην εαυτήν ἑαυτήν ἑαυτὴν εαυτης εαυτής ἑαυτῆς εαυτό εαυτοις εαυτοίς ἑαυτοῖς εαυτον εαυτόν ἑαυτόν ἑαυτὸν εαυτονύ εαυτου εαυτού εαυτόυ ἑαυτοῦ εαυτους εαυτούς ἑαυτούς ἑαυτοὺς εαυτω εαυτώ ἑαυτῷ εαυτων εαυτών ἑαυτῶν τούτου υμάς ψυχὴν auton autôn autōn autō̂n autou autoû eauta eautais eautas eaute eautē eauten eautēn eautes eautēs eauto eautō eautois eauton eautōn eautou eautous heauta heautà heautais heautaîs heautas heautás heautàs heaute heautē heautêi heautē̂i heauten heautēn heautḗn heautḕn heautes heautês heautēs heautē̂s heauto heautō heautôi heautō̂i heautois heautoîs heauton heautón heautòn heautôn heautōn heautō̂n heautou heautoû heautous heautoús heautoùs psuchen psuchēn
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