Old & New Testament Greek
a primary particle of conditionality
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Att. - Ion. and Arc. (for εἰκ, v. infr. 11 ad init.), = Dor. and Aeol. αἰ, αἰκ (q. v.), Cypr. ἤ Inscr.Cypr. 135.10 H., both εἰ and αἰ in : — Particle used interjectionally with imper. and to express a wish, but usu. either in conditions, if, or in indirect questions, whether. In the former use its regular negative is μή; in the latter, οὐ.
INTERJECTIONALLY, in Hom.,
1. come now ! c. imper., εἰ δὲ.. ἄκουσον Il. 9.262; εἰ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ φευγόντων ib. 46; most freq. with ἄγε (q. v.), 1.302, al.
2. in wishes, c. opt., ἀλλ' εἴ τις.. καλέσειεν 10.111, cf. 24.74; so later, εἴ μοι ξυνείη μοῖρα S. OT 863 (lyr.); εἴ μοι γένοιτο φθόγγος ἐν βραχίοσιν E. Hec. 836: more freq. folld. by γάρ, αἲ γὰρ δὴ οὕτως εἴη Il. 4.189, al.; εἰ γὰρ γενοίμην ἀντὶ σοῦ νεκρός E. Hipp. 1410; εἰ γὰρ γένοιτο X. Cyr. 6.1.38; εἰ γὰρ ἐν τούτῳ εἴη Pl. Prt. 310d; of unattained wishes, in Hom. only c. opt., εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼν.. Διὸς πάϊς αἰγιόχοιο εἴην Il. 13.825; Ζεῦ πάτερ, αἰ γὰρ ἐμὸς πόσις εἴη Alcm. 29; later with past tenses of ind., εἰ γάρ μ' ὑπὸ γῆν.. ἧκεν A. Pr. 152 (anap.); εἰ γὰρ τοσαύτην δύναμιν εἶχον ὥστε.. E. Alc. 1072: twice in Od. c. inf. (cf. the use of inf. in commands), αἰ γὰρ τοῖος ἐὼν.. ἐμὸς γαμβρὸς καλέεσθαι 7.311, cf. 24.376. εἴθε, αἴθε, is freq. used in wishes in the above constructions, εἴθε οἱ αὐτῷ Ζεὺς ἀγαθὸν τελέσειεν 2.33; εἴθ' ὣς ἡβώοιμι Il. 7.157; ἰὼ γᾶ, εἴθ' ἔμ' ἐδέξω A. Ag. 1537 (lyr.); εἴθε σοι, ὦ Περίκλεις, τότε συνεγενόμην X. Mem. 1.2.46: later c. inf., γαίης χθαμαλωτέρη εἴθε.. κεῖσθαι AP 9.284 (Crin.). εἰ γάρ, εἴθε are also used with ὤφελον ( ὤφελλον), of past unattained wishes, αἴθ' ὤφελλες στρατοῦ ἄλλου σημαίνειν Il. 14.84; εἰ γὰρ ὤφελον [κατιδεῖν ] Pl. R. 432c. folld. by a clause expressing a consequence of the fulfilment of the wish, αἰ γὰρ τοῦτο.. ἔπος τετελεσμένον εἴη· τῷ κε τάχα γνοίης.. Od. 15.536, cf. 17.496, al.; sts. hard to distinguish from εἰ in conditions (which may be derived from this use), εἴ μοί τι πίθοιο, τό κεν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴη Il. 7.28.
IN CONDITIONS, if:
I with INDIC.,
1 with all tenses (for fut., v. infr. 2), to state a condition, with nothing implied as to its fulfilment, εἰ δ' οὕτω τοῦτ' ἐστίν, ἐμοὶ μέλλει φίλον εἶναι but if this is so, it will be.., Il. 1.564: any form of the Verb may stand in apodosi, εἰ θεοί τι δρῶσιν αἰσχρόν, οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί E. Fr. 292.7; εἰ δοκεῖ, πλέωμεν S. Ph. 526; εἰ Φαῖδρον ἀγνοῶ, καὶ ἐμαυτ οῦ ἐπιλέλησμαι Pl. Phdr. 228a; κάκιστ' ἀπολοίμην, Ξανθίαν εἰ μὴ φιλῶ Ar. Ra. 579, cf. Od. 17.475; εἰ θεοῦ ἦν, οὐκ ἦν αἰσχροκερδής· εἰ δ' αἰσχροκερδής, οὐκ ἦν θεοῦ Pl. R. 408c; εἰ ταῦτα λέγων διαφθείρω τοὺς νέους, ταῦτ' ἂν εἴη βλαβερά Id. Ap. 30b, cf. 25b; εἰ οὗτοι ὀρθῶς ἀπέστησαν, ὑμεῖς ἂν οὐ χρεὼν ἄρχοιτε if these were right in their revolt, (it would follow that) you rule when you have no right, Th. 3.40. to express a general condition, if ever, whenever, sts. with pres., εἴ τις δύο ἢ καὶ πλείους τις ἡμέρας λογίζεται, μάταιός ἐστιν S. Tr. 943: with impf., εἴ τίς τι ἠρώτα ἀπεκρίνοντο Th. 7.10: rarely with aor., D.S. 31.26.1, S.E. P. 1.84; cf. 111.2.
2. with fut. (much less freq. than ἐάν c. subj.), either to express a future supposition emphatically, εἰ φθάσομεν τοὺς πολεμίους κατακαίνοντες οὐδεὶς ἡμῶν ἀποθανεῖται X. Cyr. 7.1.19; εἰ μὴ βοηθήσετε οὐ περιέσται τἀκεῖ Th. 6.91; εἰ αὕτη ἡ πόλις ληφθήσεται, ἔχεται ἡ πᾶσα Σικελία ibid.; in threats or warnings, εἰ μὴ καθέξεις γλῶσσαν ἔσται σοι κακά E. Fr. 5; εἰ τιμωρήσεις Πατρόκλῳ, αὐτὸς ἀποθανῇ Pl. Ap. 28c, cf. D. 28.21: or, to express a present intention or expectation, αἶρε πλῆκτρον εἰ μαχεῖ if you mean to fight, Ar. Av. 759; ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ ἀνήρ.. εἰ ταῦτ' ἀνατεὶ τῇδε κείσεται κράτη S. Ant. 485, cf. Il. 1.61, E. Hec. 863.
3. with historical tenses, implying that the condition is or was unfulfilled. with impf., referring to present time or to continued or repeated action in past time (in Hom. always the latter, Il. 24.715, al.): ταῦτα οὐκ ἂν ἐδύναντο ποιεῖν, εἰ μὴ διαίτῃ μετρίᾳ ἐχρῶντο they would not be able to do this (as they do), if they did not live an abstemious life, X. Cyr. 1.2.16, cf. Pl. R. 489b; οὐκ ἂν νήσων ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν he (Agamemnon) would not have been master of islands, if he had not had also some naval force, Th. 1.9; αἰ δ' ἦχες ἔσλων ἴμερον ἢ κάλων.. αἴδως κεν.. ἦχεν Sapph. 28; εἰ ἦσαν ἄνδρες ἀγαθοὶ.. οὐκ ἄν ποτε ταῦτα ἔπασχον if they had been good men, they would never have suffered as they did, Pl. Grg. 516e, cf. X. Mem. 1.1.5; εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ τάδε ᾔδἐ.. οὐκ ἂν ὑπεξέφυγε if I had known thIsa., Il. 8.366. with aor. referring to past time, εἰ μὴ ἔφυσε θεὸς μέλι.. ἔφασκον γλύσσονα σῦκα πέλεσθαι Xenoph. 38; εἰ μὴ ὑμεῖς ἤλθετε, ἐπορευόμεθα ἂν ἐπὶ βασιλέα had you not come, we should be on our way.., X. An. 2.1.4; καὶ ἴσως ἂν ἀπέθανον, εἰ μὴ ἡ ἀρχὴ διὰ ταχέων κατελύθη Pl. Ap. 32d, cf. Il. 5.680, Od. 4.364, D. 4.5, 27.63: with plpf. in apodosi, εἰ τριάκοντα μόναι μετέπεσον τῶν ψήφων, ἀπεπεφεύγη ἄν Pl. Ap. 36a. rarely with plpf. referring to action finished in past or present time, λοιπὸν δ' ἂν ἦν ἡμῖν ἔτι περὶ τῆς πόλεως διαλεχθῆναι, εἰ μὴ προτέρα τῶν ἄλλων τὴν εἰρήνην ἐπεποίητο if she had not (as she has done) made peace before the rest, Isoc. 5.56, cf. Pl. Ti. 21c.
II with SUB J., εἰ is regularly joined with ἄν ( κε, κεν), cf. ἐάν: Arc. εἰκαν in Tegean Inscrr. of iv B. C. (IG 5(2).3.16, 31, 6.2, SIG 306.34) should be understood as εἰκ ἄν (εἰ: εἰκ = οὐ: οὐκ), since εἰ δ' ἄν is also found in IG 5(2).3.2, 6.45, and εἰκ alone, ib.3.21; but ἄν (κε, κεν) are freq. absent in Hom. as Od. 5.221, 14.373 (and cf. infr. 2), and Lyr., Pi. (who never uses εἰ with ἄν or κε (ν)) P. 4.266, al.; in dialects, αἰ δείλητ' ἀγχωρεῖν IG 9(1).334.6 (Locr., v B. C.), cf. Foed. Dor. ap. Th. 5.79; rarely in Hdt., εἰ μὴ ἀναβῇ 2.13; occasionally in Trag., A. Eu. 234, S. OT 198 (lyr.), etc.; very rarely in Att. Prose, εἰ ξυστῶσιν αἱ πόλεις Th. 6.21; εἴ τι που ἄλσος ἢ τέμενος ἀφειμένον ᾖ Pl. Lg. 761c: in later Prose, εἴ τις θελήσῃ Revelation 11:5; εἰ φονεύῃ Plot. 2.9.9, cf. Procl. Inst. 26.
1 when the apodosis is fut., to express a future condition more distinctly and vividly than εἰ c. opt., but less so than εἰ c. fut. ind. (supr. 1.2a); εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἕρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοί, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ'.. if thou do thus.., thou shalt know, Il. 2.364, cf. 1.128, 3.281, Od. 17.549; ἂν δέ τις ἀνθιστῆται, σὺν ὑμῖν πειρασόμεθα χειροῦσθαι X. An. 7.3.11; ἂν μὴ νῦν ἐθέλωμεν ἐκεῖ πολεμεῖν αὐτῷ, ἐνθάδ' ἴσως ἀναγκασθησόμεθα τοῦτο ποιεῖν if we be not now willing, D. 4.50, cf. X. Cyr. 5.3.27: folld. by imper., ἢν εἰρήνης δοκῆτε δεῖσθαι, ἄνευ ὅπλων ἥκετε ib. 3.2.13, cf. 5.4.30.
2. when the apodosis is present, denoting customary or repeated action, to express a general condition, if ever, ἤν ποτε δασμὸς ἵκηται, σοὶ τὸ γέρας πολὺ μεῖζον (sc. ἐστί) whenever a division comes, your prize is (always) greater, Il. 1.166; ἢν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death come near, E. Alc. 671; with ἄν omitted, εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον.. καταπέψῃ ἀλλά.. ἔχει κότον Il. 1.81. with Rhet. present in apodosis, ἐὰν μὴ οἱ φιλόσοφοι βασιλεύσωσιν, οὐκ ἔστι κακῶν παῦλα there is (i.e. can be, will be) no rest.., Pl. R. 473d.
III with OPTATIVE (never with ἄν in early Gr., later ἐάν c. opt., Dam. Pr. 114, al.),
1 to express a future condition less definitely than ἐάν c. subj., usu. with opt. with ἄν in apod., ἦ κεν γηθήσαι Πρίαμος Πριάμοιό τε παῖδες.. εἰ σφῶιν τάδε πάντα πυθοίατο μαρναμένοιιν surely they would exult, if they should hear.., Il. 1.255, cf. 7.28, Od. 3.223; εἴης φορητὸς οὐκ ἄν, εἰ πράσσοις καλῶς A. Pr. 979; οὐδὲ γὰρ ἄν με ἐπαινοίη, εἰ ἐξελαύνοιμι τοὺς εὐεργέτας X. An. 7.7.11; οἶκος δ' αὐτός, εἰ φθογγὴν λάβοι, σαφέστατ' ἂν λέξειεν A. Ag. 37, etc.: fut. opt. is f.l. in Pl. Tht. 164a: with pres. ind. in apod., Xenoph. 34.3, Democr. 253: with fut. ind., Meliss. 5. in Hom.sts. with pres. opt., to express an unfulfilled present condition, εἰ μὲν νῦν ἐπὶ ἄλλῳ ἀεθλεύοιμεν, ἦ τ' ἂν ἐγὼ τὰ πρῶτα φεροίμην if we were now contending, etc., Il. 23.274: rarely in Trag., εἰ μὴ κνίζοι (= εἰ μὴ ἔκνιζε) E. Med. 568; also εἰ ἀναγκαῖον εἴη ἀδικεῖν ἢ ἀδικεῖσθαι, ἑλοίμην ἂν μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθαι Pl. Grg. 469c.
2. when the apodosis is past, denoting customary or repeated action, to express a general condition in past time (corresponding to use of subj. in present time, supr. 11.2); once in Hom., εἴ τίς με.. ἐνίπτοι, ἀλλὰ σὺ τόν γ'.. κατέρυκες Il. 24.768; εἰ δέ τινας θορυβουμένους αἴσθοιτο.., κατασβεννύναι τὴν ταραχὴν ἐπειρᾶτο if he should see (whenever he saw) any troops in confusion, he (always) tried, X. Cyr. 5.3.55, cf. An. 4.5.13, Mem. 4.2.40; εἴ τις ἀντείποι, εὐθὺς ἐτεθνήκει if any one made objection, he was a dead man at once, Th. 8.66; ἀλλ' εἴ τι μὴ φέροιμεν, ὤτρυνεν φέρειν E. Alc. 755. For εἰ c. ind. in this sense v. supr. 1.1: ind. and opt. are found in same sentence, ἐμίσει, οὐκ εἴ τις κακῶς πάσχων ἠμύνετο, ἀλλ' εἴ τις εὐεργετούμενος ἀχάριστος φαίνοιτο X. Ages. 11.3.
3. in oratio obliqua after past tenses, representing ἐάν c. subj. or εἰ with a primary (never an historical) tense of the ind. in oratio recta, ἐλογίζοντο ὡς, εἰ μὴ μάχοιντο, ἀποστήσοιντο αἱ πόλεις (representing ἐὰν μὴ μαχώμεθα, ἀποστήσονται) X. HG 6.4.6, cf. D. 21.104, X. HG 5.2.2; ἔλεγεν ὅτι, εἰ βλαβερὰ πεπραχὼς εἴη, δίκαιος εἴη ζημιοῦσθαι (representing εἰ βλαβερὰ πέπραχε, δίκαιός ἐστι) ib. 32, cf. An. 6.6.25; εἰ δέ τινα φεύγοντα λήψοιτο, προηγόρευεν ὅτι ὡς πολεμίψ χρήσοιτο (representing εἴ τινα λήψομαι, χρήσομαι) Id. Cyr. 3.1.3; also, where oratio obliqua is implied in the leading clause, οὐκ ἦν τοῦ πολέμου πέρας Φιλίππῳ, εἰ μὴ Θηβαίους.. ἐχθροὺς ποιήσειε τῇ πόλει, i.e. Philip thought there would be no end to the war, un less he should make.. (his thought having been ἐὰν μὴ ποιήσω), D. 18.145; ἐβούλοντο γὰρ σφίσιν, εἴ τινα λάβοιεν, ὑπάρχειν ἀντὶ τῶν ἔνδον, ἢν ἄρα τύχωσί τινες ἐζωγρημένοι Th. 2.5.
4. c. opt. with ἄν, only when the clause serves as apodosis as well as protasis, cf. Pl. Prt. 329b, D. 4.18, X. Mem. 1.5.3 (v. ἄν A. 111. d). c. INF., in oratio obliqua, only in Hdt., εἰ γὰρ δὴ δεῖν πάντως περιθεῖναι ἄλλῳ τέῳ τὴν βασιληΐην, [ἔφη] δικαιότερον εἶναι κτλ. 1.129; εἰ εἶναι τοῦτο μὴ φίλον 2.64, cf. 172, 3.105, 108. after Verbs denoting wonder, delight, indignation, disappointment, contentment, and similar emotions, εἰ c. ind. is used instead of ὅτι, to express the object of the feeling in a hypothetical form, θαυμάζω εἰ μηδεὶς ὑμῶν μήτ' ἐνθυμεῖται μήτ' ὀργίζεται, ὁρῶν.. I wonder that no one of you is either concerned or angry when he sees.., D. 4.43; οὐκ ἀγαπᾷ εἰ μὴ δίκην δέδωκεν, ἀλλ' εἰ μὴ καὶ χρυσῷ στεφάνῳ στεφανωθήσεται ἀγανακτεῖ Aeschin. 3.147: after past tenses, ἐθαύμασε δ' εἰ μὴ φανερόν ἐστιν X. Mem. 1.1.13; δεινὸν εἰσῄει, εἰ μὴ.. δόξει D. 19.33; ἐθαύμαζον εἴ τι ἕξει τις χρήσασθαι τῷ λόγῳ Pl. Phd. 95a; οὐδὲ ᾐσχύνθη εἰ.. ἐπάγει D. 21.105: in oratio obliqua (expressed or implied) c. opt., ἐπεῖπεν ὡς δεινὸν (sc. εἴη) εἰ.. μεγαλόψυχος γένοιτο Aeschin. 2.157; ᾤκτιρον εἰ ἁλώσοιντο X. An. 1.4.7; ἐθαύμαζε δ' εἴ τις ἀρετὴν ἐπαγγελλόμενος ἀργύριον πράττοιτο he wondered that any one should demand money, Id. Mem. 1.2.7; ἔχαιρον ἀγαπῶν εἴ τις ἐάσοι I rejoiced, being content if any one should let it pass, Pl. R. 450a: — in this use the neg. οὐ is also found, ἀγανακτῶ εἰ ὁ Φίλιππος ἁρπάζων οὐ λυπεῖ D. 8.55; δεινὸν ἂν εἴη εἰ οἱ ἐκείνων ξύμμαχοι οὐκ ἀπεροῦσιν Th. 1.121; τέρας λέγεις, εἰ οὐκ ἂν δύναιντο λαθεῖν Pl. Men. 91d, etc. in citing a fact as a ground of argument or appeal, as surely as, since, εἴ ποτ' ἔην γε if there was [as there was], i.e. as sure as there was such an one, Il. 3.180, al.; εἰ τότε κοῦρος ἔα, νῦν αὖτέ με γῆρας ὀπάζει 4.321; πολλοὺς γὰρ οἶκε εἶναι εὐπετέστερον διαβάλλειν ἢ ἕνα, εἰ Κλεομένεα μὲν μοῦνον οὐκ οἷός τε ἐγένετο διαβαλεῖν, τρεῖς δὲ μυριάδας Ἀθηναίων ἐποίησε τοῦτο it seems easier to deceive many than one, if (as was the fact, i.e. since) he was not able.., Hdt. 5.97, cf. 1.60,al.
1 with apodosis implied in the context, εἰ having the force of in case, supposing that, πρὸς τὴν πόλιν, εἰ ἐπιβοηθοῖεν, ἐχώρουν they marched towards the city [so as to meet the citizens], in case they should rush out, Th. 6.100; ἱκέται πρὸς σὲ δεῦρ' ἀφίγμεθα, εἴ τινα πόλιν φράσειας ἡμῖν εὔερον we have come hither to you, in case you should tell us of some fleecy city (i.e. that we might hear of it), Ar. Av. 120; παρέζεο καὶ λαβὲ γούνων, αἴ κέν πως ἐθέλῃσιν ἐπὶ Τρώεσσιν ἀρῆξαι sit by him and grasp his knees [so as to persuade him], in case he be willing to help the Trojans, Il. 1.408, cf. 66, Od. 1.94, 3.92; ἄκουσον καὶ ἐμοῦ, ἐάν σοι ἔτι ταὐτὰ δοκῇ hear me also [that you may assent], in case the same opinion please you, Pl. R. 358b; ἰδὲ δή, ἐάν σοι ὅπερ ἐμοὶ συνδοκῇ look now, in case you approve what I do, ib. 434a.
2. with apodosis suppressed for rhetorical reasons, εἴ περ γάρ κ' ἐθέλῃσιν Ὀλύμπιος.. στυφελίξαι if he wish to thrust him away, [he will do so], Il. 1.580; εἰ μὲν δώσουσι γέρας — · εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώωσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι if they shall give me a prize, [well and good]; but if they give not, then I will take one for myself, 1.135, cf. 6.150, Ar. Pl. 468; καὶ ἢν μὲν ξυμβῇ ἡ πεῖρα — · εἰ δὲ μή.. and if the attempt succeed, [well]; otherwise.., Th. 3.3, cf. Pl. Prt. 325d.
3. with the Verb of the protasis omitted, chiefly in the following expressions: εἰ μή except, οὐδὲν ἄλλο σιτέονται, εἰ μὴ ἰχθῦς μοῦνον Hdt. 1.200; μὰ τὼ θεώ, εἰ μὴ Κρίτυλλά γ' [εἰμί ] — nay, if I'm not Critylla! i.e. I am, Ar. Th. 898; εἰ μὴ ὅσον except only, ἐγὼ μέν μιν οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ ὅσον γραφῇ Hdt. 2.73, cf. 1.45, 2.20; εἰ μὴ εἰ Th. 1.17, Pl. Grg. 480b, etc.; εἰ μή τι οὖν, ἀλλὰ σμικρόν γέ μοι τῆς ἀρχῆς χάλασον if nothing else, yet.., Id. Men. 86e; ironical, εἰ μὴ ἄρα ἡ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά ἐστιν X. Mem. 1.2.8; εἰ μή πέρ γε τὸν ὑοσκύαμον χρήματα εἶναι φήσομεν Id. Oec. 1.13. εἰ δὲ μή but if not, i.e. otherwise, προηγόρευε τοῖς Λαμψακηνοῖσι μετιέναι Μιλτιάδεα, εἰ δὲ μή, σφέας πίτυος τρόπον ἀπείλεε ἐκτρίψειν Hdt. 6.37, cf. 56; after μάλιστα μέν, Th. 1.32, 35, etc.: — after a preceding neg., μὴ τύπτ'· εἰ δὲ μή, σαυτόν ποτ' αἰτιάσει don't beat me; otherwise, you will have yourself to blame, Ar. Nu. 1433; ὦ Κῦρε, μὴ οὕτω λέγε· εἰ δὲ μή, οὐ θαρροῦντά με ἕξεις X. Cyr. 3.1.35; οὔτ' ἐν τῷ ὕδατι τὰ ὅπλα ἦν ἔχειν· εἰ δὲ μή Id. An. 4.3.6, cf. Th. 1.28, 131, Pl. Phd. 91c. εἰ δέ sts. stands for
Thayer's Expanded Definition
[εἰ, : and are frequent interchanged in N. T. spelling. This is due partly to itacism, partly to the endeavor to mark the iota sound as long or short. See the remarks on this subject in WH s Appendix, p. 152 f (cf. Introductory § 399); Tdf Proleg., p. 83 f; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word . The use of iota for is noticed under the word Iota; instances in which is substituted for iota are the folling: WH; T Tr WH; T; T; L T Tr WH; L T Tr WH; L; T WH; WH; T Tr WH; Rec.st; T Tr WH; T WH; T WH; T WH; T WH, so Tr in John 1:47 (48); L T Tr WH; L T Tr WH; Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; T WH, so Tr except in Mark 2:14; T WH, so Tr except in Acts 4:36; T WH; T Tr WH; T Tr WH; T WH, so Tr in Matthew 12:41; L T Tr WH; T WH; T Tr WH; WH; L T Tr WH ( R G); T Tr WH; L; T Tr WH; T WH; WH; T; T WH; T WH; WH; T Tr WH; WH; WH; T WH.) , is first a conditional particle, if (Latin si); secondly, an interrogative particle, whether, (Latin an, Numbers , ne).
I. Conditional (on the difference between it and , see , I:1b.) is connected, according to the variety of conditions, with various tenses and moods; viz.
1. with the indicative of all tenses, when anything is simply and generally assumed to be, or to be done, or to have been done, or to be about to be, ( Winer s Grammar, § 41b., 2; cf. 42,2; (Buttmann, 220 (190))).
a. with the present indicative . following in the apodosis by the present indicative: Matthew 19:10 ( ... ); Matthew 11:14>; Romans 7:16,20; Romans 8:25; Romans 14:15; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:18; Galatians 5:18; Hebrews 12:8; James 2:8f, etc. . followed by an imperative in the apodosis — either the present, as ( Matthew 19:17 L Tr text WH text); Mark 4:23; Mark 7:16 R G L; John 15:18; Acts 13:15; Acts 25:5; 1 Corinthians 7:12,15; James 3:14, etc.; or the aorist, as Matthew 5:29,30; Matthew 8:31; Matthew 19:17 ( R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading); Mark 9:22 (cf. Buttmann, 55 (48)); Luke 22:67 (Luke 22:66>); 1 Corinthians 7:9. . followed by the future in the apodosis: 1 Corinthians 16:31>; Acts 5:39 L T Tr WH; Acts 19:39>; Romans 8:11,13; 2 Corinthians 11:30, etc. . followed by the perfect or the aorist in the apodosis, where it is declared that, if this or that Isaiah , something else has or has not occurred: Matthew 12:26,28; Luke 11:20; 1 Corinthians 15:16; Galatians 2:21; Romans 4:14; 2 Peter 2:20. . followed by the imperfect, either with or without , where in the protasis something is simply assumed to be, but the apodosis shows that what has been assumed cannot be the case. Three passages falling under this head have a doubtful or disputed text: ( T Tr WH, for the R G L ) , etc. Luke 17:6; ... ( T Tr, for R G L WH ) ... , Hebrews 11:15 (where by the present tense the writer refers to the language of the Jewish Fathers as at present corded in the sacred Scriptures; cf. Luke 17:14); ( G L T Tr WH, for R ) ... (( WH text .) R L add ), John 8:39; Alexander Buttmann (1873) in Studien und Kritiken for 1858, p. 474ff (N. T. Gram. § 139,26; but cf. Meyer on Luke , the passage cited). But 2 Corinthians 11:4 ... ... G T Tr WH marginal reading ( L WH text) must not be referred to this head; here Paul in the protasis supposes something which actually occurred, in the apodosis censures a thing which actually occurred viz. the readiness with which his readers gave ear continually (this is indicated by the imperfect) to false teachers. On the difficulty of the passage cf. Holsten in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1874, p. 1ff; (cf. also Buttmann, 226 (195); but Winer's Grammar, 306 (287) and Meyer at the passage). . with a question as the apodosis: Matthew 6:23; John 5:47; John 7:23; John 8:46; 1 Peter 2:20.
b. with the future indicative: Matthew 26:33; James 2:11 R G; 1 Peter 2:20.
c. with the perfect indicative: John 11:12; Acts 16:15; Romans 6:5; Romans 11:6 (where after supply from what precedes), 2 Corinthians 2:5; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 7:14.
d. with the aorist indicative — followed by the present in the apodosis, Luke 19:8; Romans 4:2; Romans 15:27; followed by a question in the apodosis, Luke 16:11,12; John 18:23; 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 9:11; followed by the aorist in the apodosis, Revelation 20:15; by the Impv. in the apodosis, John 18:23; John 20:15; Romans 11:17; 1 Timothy 5:9,10; Philemon 1:18; by the future in the apodosis, John 13:32; John 15:20; Hebrews 12:25 (where supply in the apodosis).
2. Not infrequently, when a conclusion is drawn from something that is quite certain, with the indicative is used argumentatively so as to be equivalent in sense to (cf. the use of German wenn) (cf. Winer's Grammar, 448 (418)): Matthew 12:28; Luke 23:31; John 7:4; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:5; Romans 8:31; Romans 11:6,12; Colossians 2:20; Colossians 3:1, etc.
3. When it is said what would have been, or what would be now or in the future, if something else were or had been, is used with the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist indicative; in the apodosis it is followed in direct discourse by with the imperfect or the pluperfect or the aorist; sometimes is omitted, (on the causes of the omission, see Buttmann, § 139,27); sometimes the apodosis is made a question (cf. Winer s Grammar, 304 f (285f)).
a. with the imperfect, followed in the apodosis by with the imperfect: Matthew 23:30; Luke 7:39 ( , , if this man were a prophet, he would know); John 5:46; John 8:42; John 9:41; John 15:19; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Galatians 1:10; Hebrews 8:4,7 (if ... were, etc., there would not be sought, etc., viz. in the O. T. passage quoted Hebrews 8:8); by a question in the apodosis: 1 Corinthians 12:19; Hebrews 7:11; by with the aorist, where the Latin uses the pluperfect subjunctive: John 11:32 if thou hadst been here, , my brother would not have died (when he did (cf. below); Buttmann, § 139,25 regards the imperfect in protasis as expressing duration)); John 4:10; John 18:30 ( , , we would not have delivered him to thee); Acts 18:14; by with the pluperfect: John 11:21 ( ... , would not have died (and be now dead; cf. Winer s Grammar, 304 (285) and see above; but L T Tr text WH read the aorist here also)); 1 John 2:19.
b. with the pluperfect, followed in the apodosis by with the pluperfect or the aorist, in the sense of the Latin pluperfect subjunctive: Matthew 12:7 ( , if ye had understood, i. e., if ye knew, , ye would not have condemned the guiltless); Matthew 24:43 and Luke 12:39 ( , if he had perceived, i. e., if he knew, , he would have watched, namely, before the thief had approached ( Tr text WH omit in Luke , the passage cited)); John 4:10; John 8:19; John 14:7 ( R G L). c:. with the aorist in the same sense as the Latin pluperfect subjunctive: ... , if a law had been given, righteousness would in truth come from the law, Galatians 3:21; , if Joshua had given them rest, , he would not be speaking, namely, in the passage quoted, Hebrews 4:8; apodosis without , John 15:22, see I:3, p. 33f.
4. As in classic Greek, with the indicative is often joined to verbs expressing wonder, surprise, or other strong emotion (where might have been expected), when the thing spoken of is either not quite certain, or, although certain, yet in accordance with the well-known Greek urbanity is represented as not quite free from doubt ( Matthiae, ii., p. 1474 f; Kühner, ii., p. 887f; ( Jelf, § 804,9); Winer s Grammar, § 60,6; (Buttmann, § 139,52]). Thus, it is joined — to the verb, : , , for the matter had not yet been investigated; hence, it is added , ( R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ) , Mark 15:44; , (the thing is certain) 1 John 3:13; to the phrase : Acts 26:8 (with preceding, Lucian, dial. mort. 13,1); to and : Mark 9:42 and Luke 17:2 ( Matthew 18:6 has , ); Matthew 26:24 and Mark 14:21; to : 1 Corinthians 9:11 (on which see 8 below); 2 Corinthians 11:15; , ( ), how would I if (i. e., that) it were already kindled (but it has not yet been kindled), Luke 12:49 (others besides, but cf. Meyer at the passage; (so B. 1. e.; cf. Winer s Grammar, 448 (418); see , 1e. . at the end); Sirach 23:14 , ; (in addition to the other interpretations noticed by Winer's and Meyer the passages cited mention may be made of that which takes as subjunctive: what am I to choose if (as I may well assume) it has already been kindled; cf. Green, 'Critical Notes' at the passage)).
5. Contrary to Greek usage, in imitation of the Hebrew אִם, , with the indicative is so used in oaths and asseverations that by aposiopesis the formula of imprecation (constituting the apodosis) is suppressed ( Winer s Grammar, § 55 at the end; Buttmann, § 149,4): , ... (fully expressed, 'may God punish me, if it shall be given,' i. e. it shall by no means be given), Mark 8:12; , (fully, 'let my name no longer be Jehovah, if they shall enter,' etc.), Hebrews 3:11; Hebrews 4:3, from Psalm 94:11<10> (Psalm 95:11>) the Sept. (Hebrew אִם, Genesis 14:23; Numbers 14:30; 1 Samuel 14:45, etc.; we have the full expression in 1 Samuel 3:17; Song of Solomon 2:7, etc.).
6. Sometimes, as in classic Greek, after a protasis with and the indicative, the apodosis is suppressed on account of mental agitation and left to be supplied by the reader or the hearer from the context (cf. Winer's Grammar, 599f (557)): (namely, (but here L Tr WH adopt the imperative in place of the infinitive; yet cf. Buttmann, 396 (339))), Luke 22:42; , supply in place of an apodosis the question what then? Acts 23:9 (the apodosis added in Rec., is spurious); ... , namely, , Luke 19:42 ( Buttmann, 396 (339)].
7. The conditional is joined with the optative, to indicate that the condition is merely thought of or stated as a possibility (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 491ff; Winer s Grammar, 293 f (275f); Buttmann, § 139,24). No example of this construction is found in the Gospels; very few in the rest of the N. T.
a. universally, in short intercalated clauses: , if it so chance, it may be (see 2), 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:37; , 1 Peter 3:17 ( Rec. .
b. where it indicates that something may occur repeatedly (cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 492 f): , 1 Peter 3:14 (cf. Winer s Grammar, as above).
c. where the condition represents the mind and judgment of others: ( R G ), ( WH text (which see)) , into which bay (or rather 'upon which beach'; see ) they determined to run the ship, if they could; as though the navigators had said among themselves, , , Acts 27:39; so also , if they think they have anything against me, Acts 24:19.
8. with the subjunctive, when it is assumed that something may take place, but whether it will in reality is unknown before the event, in order to make the event seem to be more certain than if were used (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 500ff; Winer s Grammar, 294 f (276f); Buttmann, § 139,22): ... , 1 Corinthians 9:11 Tdf. editions 2,7 (Lachmann marginal reading; others, ); (the Sept. Genesis 43:3 f; Sirach 22:26; 4 Maccabees 6:20). But see III. below, under , , , ... , .
II. Interrogative, whether. "The conditional particle gets this force if a question is asked about anything, whether it is or is not Song of Solomon , and that about which the question is put is uttered as it were conditionally" (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 508; ( Winer s Grammar, § 57, I; Alexander Buttmann (1873) 248ff (214ff); 254 f (218f)).
1. As in Greek writings in an indirect question after verbs of seeing, asking, deliberating, knowing, saying, etc.
a. with the present indicative: as , (properly, according to the conditional force of the particle, 'if there is (i. e. has appeared, been given; cf. , I:2) a Holy Spirit, we did not even hear'), Acts 19:2; , , Matthew 27:49; Mark 15:36; ( T WH L marginal reading ), , Luke 14:31; , , Matthew 26:63; ( ( WH marginal reading ) ... , 2 Corinthians 2:9 (see WH. Introductory § 404)); after , John 9:25; after , Acts 4:19; ((?), ), 2 Corinthians 13:5.
b. with the future indicative (cf. Winer s Grammar, 300 (282); Buttmann, § 139,61b.): , , Acts 8:22; , ... , 1 Corinthians 7:16; , ( Tdf. ), Mark 3:2 and in Luke 6:7 ( R G WH marginal reading); (namely, to see), , Mark 11:13.
c. with the aorist indicative: , , whether I baptized, 1 Corinthians 1:16; , ( L Tr text WH text ) , whether he were long dead, Mark 15:44; , ... , Acts 5:8.
d. with the subjunctive aorist (cf. Buttmann, 255f (220); Winer's Grammar, 298f (280f)): , , I press on (namely, or , trying to see), whether I may also lay hold, Philippians 3:12. So si is used in Latin, e. g. Nepos, vit. Hann. 8 Hannibal ... African accessit in finibus Cyrenaeorum (namely, experturus), si forte Carthaginienses ad bellum possent induci Caesar b. g. 1,8, 4 si perrumpere possent, conati; add Caesar b. g. 2,9, 1. Cf. Kühner, ii., p. 1032 f; ( Jelf, § 877b.).
2. Contrary to the usage of Greek authors, like the Hebrew אִם and the interrogative he (ה), it is used in the Sept. and the N. T. (especially by Luke) also in direct questions (cf. the colloquial use of the German ob; e. g. ob icb wohl thun soll?); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 57,1; Buttmann, 248 (214), and, in opposition to those who have striven to absolve the sacred writers from this misuse of the particle (especially Fritzsche and Meyer (see the latter's note on Matthew 12:10 and Luke 13:23; he quotes with approval the language of Ast (Platonic Lexicon, vol. i. 601), ' dubitanter interrogat, ita ut interrogatio videatur directa esse)), cf. Lipsius, Paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, p. 30ff: — , , ; Luke 13:23; , ( T Tr WH); Luke 22:49; , ... ; Acts 1:6; cf. besides, Matthew 12:10; Matthew 19:3; Mark 8:23 (according to the reading of ( Tdf. 2,7) Tr (marginal reading WH text) for R G L T Tr text WH marginal reading ); Acts 19:2, etc. ( Genesis 17:17; Genesis 43:6; 1 Samuel 10:24, etc.; in the O. T. Apocrypha, 2 Maccabees 7:7 2 Maccabees 15:3; 4 Maccabees 18:17 from Ezekiel 37:3 the Sept.; Tobit 5:5).
III. with other particles and with the indefinite pronoun , .
1. , see , 1.
2. , see , 3c.
3. , a. but if also, so that belongs to some word that follows: Luke 11:18 (but if Satan also).
b. but though, but even if, so that belongs to : 1 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Corinthians 5:16 ( R G; others omit ); 2 Corinthians 11:6; see 6 below.
4. , but if not; if it is or were otherwise, ( Buttmann, 393 (336f), cf. 345 (297); Winer's Grammar, as below): John 14:2 ( , namely, ), John 14:11 ( namely, , i. e. my words). As in these passages so generally the phrase stands where a word or clause must be repeated in thought from what immediately precedes; it thus has the force of the Latin alioquin, otherwise, or else, ( Winer's Grammar, 583 (543)): Revelation 2:5,16; also after negative declarations, Mark 2:21 f; cf. Matthiae, § 617b.
5. , see , 3d.
6. , a. iif even, if also, (cf. , 3a., (and 7 below)): 1 Corinthians 7:21 (cf. Meyer at the passage; Lightfoot on Philemon , p. 324); 2 Corinthians 11:15.
b. though, although: Luke 11:8; 2 Corinthians 4:16; 2 Corinthians 7:8,12; Philippians 2:17; Colossians 2:5 ( ); Hebrews 6:9; with the optative, 1 Peter 3:14; see I:7b. above.
7. , even if: Mark 14:29 ( T Tr WH ); 1 Peter 3:1; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 519 (who says, "In the conditional particle has the greater force; in the conjunctive particle . Hence, is used of what is only assumed to be true; , on the other hand, of what is as it is said to be." Bäumlein (Griech. Partikeln, p. 151) says, "In the naturally belongs to the conditional clause and is taken up into it, if even; in the combination the belongs to the consequent clause, even if. Sometimes however the difference disappears." Krüger (sec. 65,5, 15): "with , the leading clause is regarded as holding under every condition, even the one stated, which appears to be the most extreme; with the condition, which may also come to pass, is regarded as a matter of indifference in reference to the leading clause;" Sauppe (on Demosthenes, Ol. 2 § 20) is very explicit: " and both indicate that something conflicts with what is expressed in the leading clause, but that that is (or is done) notwithstanding. Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.10>
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
conjunctive particle, used in conditions and in indirect questions.
I. Conditional, if;
1. c. indic., expressing a general assumption;
(a) pres.: seq. indic. pres., Matthew 11:14, Romans 8:25, al.; seq. imperat., Mark 4:23; Mark 9:22, John 15:18, 1 Corinthians 7:9, al.; seq. fut. indic., Luke 16:31, Romans 8:11, al.; seq. pf. or aor., with negation in apodosis, Matthew 12:26, Romans 4:14, al.; similarly, seq. impf., Luke 17:6, John 8:39; seq. quæst., Matthew 6:23 John 5:47; John 7:23; John 8:46, 1 Peter 2:20;
(b) fut.: Matthew 26:33, 1 Peter 2:20;
(c) pf.: John 11:12, Romans 6:5, al.;
(d) aor.: Luke 16:11; Luke 19:8, John 13:32; John 18:23, Revelation 20:15, al.
2. Where the assumption is certain = ἐπεί : Matthew 12:28, John 7:4, Romans 5:17, al.
3. Of an unfulfilled condition, c. indic. impf., aor. or plpf., seq. ἄν , c. imp. or aor. (see ἄν , I, i).
4. C. indic., after verbs denoting wonder, etc., sometimes, but not always, coupled with an element of doubt: Mark 15:44, 1 John 3:13, al.
5. C. indic., as in LXX (Numbers 14:30, 1 Samuel 14:45, al. = Heb. H518), in oaths, with the formula of imprecation understood in a suppressed apodosis (WM, 627; Burton, § 272): Mark 8:12, Hebrews 3:11 (LXX) Hebrews 4:3 (LXX),
6. Rarely (cl.) c. optat., to express a merely possible condition: Acts 24:19; Acts 27:39, 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Peter 3:14; 1 Peter 3:17
II. Interrogative, if, whether.
1. As in cl., in indir. questions after verbs of seeing, asking, knowing, saying, etc: c. indic. Pres., Matthew 26:63, Mark 15:36, Acts 19:2, 2 Corinthians 13:5, al.; fut., Mark 3:2, Acts 8:22, al.; aor., Mark 15:44, 1 Corinthians 1:16, al.; c. subjc. aor. (M, Pr., 194), Philippians 3:12.
2. As in LXX (= Heb. H518 and interrog. הֲ , Genesis 17:17, al.; v. W M, 639 f.; Viteau, i, 22), in direct questions: Mark 8:23 (Tr., WH, txt.), Luke 13:23; Luke 22:49, Acts 19:2, al.
III. With other particles.
1. εἰ ἄρα , εἴγε , εἰ δὲ μήγ s, see ἄρα , γε .
2. εἰ δὲ καί , but if also: Luke 11:18; but even of, 1 Corinthians 4:7, 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Corinthians 11:6.
3. εἰ δὲ μή , but if not, but if otherwise: Mark 2:21-22, John 14:2, Revelation 2:5, al.
4. εἰ καί , if even, if also, although: Mark 14:29, Luke 11:8, 1 Corinthians 7:21, 2 Corinthians 4:16, Philippians 2:17, al.
5. καί εἰ , even if see καί .
6. εἰ μή , if not, unless, except, but only: Matthew 24:22, Mark 2:26; Mark 6:5, John 9:33, 1 Corinthians 7:17 (only), Galatians 1:19 (cf. ἐὰν μή , 216; v. Hort., Ja., xvi); ἐκτὸς εἰ μή , pleonastic (Bl., § 65, 6), 1 Corinthians 14:5; 1 Corinthians 15:2, 1 Timothy 5:19..
7. εἰ μήν = cl. ἦ μήν (M, Pr., 46), in oaths, surely (Ezekiel 33:27, al.): Hebrews 6:14.
8. εἴ πως , if haply: Acts 27:12, Romans 1:10.
9. εἴτε . . . εἴτε , whether . . . or: Romans 12:6-8, 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 13:8, al.
εἴ -περ , see εἰ
εἴ -ιτως , see εἰ
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (291)||NAS (389)||HCS (469)
|KJV (291)||NAS (389)||HCS (469)
List of Word Forms
Ει Εἰ Εἴ εις ἔτι Ei Eí eti éti
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