Old & New Testament Greek
probably from a primary verb eiro (to join)
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
‑ בֶּטַח (beh'‑takh)
‑ הָלַךְ (haw‑lak')
‑ לֶקַח (leh'‑kakh)
‑ צַח (tsakh)
‑ שַׁלְוָה (shal‑vaw')
‑ שָׁלֹם (shaw‑lome', shaw‑lome')
‑ שָׁקַט (shaw‑kat')
(v. infr.), ἡ,
I peace, Od. 24.486, etc.; ἐπ' εἰρήνης in time of peace, Il. 2.797; ἔθηκε πᾶσιν εἰ. φίλοις A. Pers. 769; εἰ. τἀκεῖθεν τέκνοις on that side they have peace, have naught to fear, E. Med. 1004; εἰ. γίγνεται peace is made, Hdt. 1.74: hence later, a peace, treaty of peace, ἡ βασιλέως εἰ. IG 22.103.24, etc.; εἰ. ποιεῖν 'Αρμενίοις καὶ Χαλδαίοις make peace between.., X. Cyr. 3.2.12; εἰ. ποιεῖσθαι And. 3.8, Aeschin. 2.77; εἰ. κατεργάζεσθαι, πράττειν, And. 3.8, 17; διαπράξασθαι X. HG 6.3.4; εἰρήνης δεῖσθαι ib. 2.2.13; εἰρήνην δέχεσθαι to accept it, ib. 22; λαβεῖν And. 3.7; εἰ. ἄγειν keep peace, be at peace, Ar. Av. 386, etc.; πρὸς ἀλλήλους Pl. R. 465b; εἰ. ἄγειν (v.l. ἔχειν) enjoy peace, X. An. 2.6.6; λύειν break it, D. 18.71; πολλὴ εἰ. τινὸς γίγνεται profound peace, Pl. R. 329c; ἐν εἰρήνῃ λέγειν, τὸν βίον διάγειν, Id. Smp. 189b, R. 372d; πόλεμον εἰρήνης χάριν [αἱρεῖσθαι ] Arist. Pol. 1333a35; εἰρήνης ἄρξας, = εἰρηναρχήσας, IGRom. 3.784, cf. 452.
II the goddess of peace, daughter of Zeus and Themis, Hes. Th. 902, cf. Pi. O. 13.7, B. Fr. 3.1, IG 3.170, Plu. Cim. 13, etc.
III Pythag. name for three, Theol.Ar. 16; for six, ib.37. Hebraism in LXX, ἐρωτῆσαί τινα εἰς εἰρήνην greet a person, inquire after their health, Jd. 18.15, 1 Samuel 17:22; ἐρ. τινὰ τὰ εἰς εἰ. ib. 10.4; so ἐπερωτᾶν εἰς εἰ. τοῦ πολέμου 2 Samuel 11:7; in salutations, εἰ. σοι; 2 Kings 4:26, cf. Luke 24:36, al.; εἰ. ἡ εἴσοδός σου 1 Kings 2:13. (ϝειράνα IG 5(1).1509 (Sparta, iv B. C., dub.); ἰράνα ib.4.917 (Epid.), 12(3).29.12 (Telos); cf. Boeot. πολέμω καἰράνας ib.7.2407, but Cret. πολέμω χ[ἰ]ρήνας GDI 5018.5; εἰρήνα Pi.l.c., B.l.c., SIG 241.80 (Delph., iv B. C.), later εἰράνα IG 5(1).935.14 (ii B. C.).)
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, , (apparently from , to join; (others from equivalent to ; Etym. Magn.
, p. 892; Lob. Path. Proleg., p. 194; Benfey, Wurzellex. ii., p. 7)), the Sept.
chiefly for שָׁלום
; (from Homer
1. a state of national tranquility; exemption from the rage and havoc of war: Revelation 6:4; , Acts 24:2 (3); ( WH text omits ) , things that look toward peace, as an armistice, conditions for the restoration of peace Luke 14:32; , Acts 12:20; , of the church free from persecutions, Acts 9:31.
2. peace between individuals, i. e. harmony, concord: Matthew 10:34; Luke 12:51; Acts 7:26; Romans 14:17; 1 Corinthians 7:15; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 2:17; Ephesians 4:3; equivalent to the anthor of peace, Ephesians 2:14 (cf. Buttmann, 125 (109)); , where harmony prevails, in a peaceful mind, James 3:18; , way leading to peace, a course of life promoting harmony, Romans 3:17 (from Isaiah 59:8); , in a mild and friendly spirit, Hebrews 11:31; , to promote concord, James 3:18; to effect it, Ephesians 2:15; , 1 Peter 3:11; , 2 Timothy 2:22; with added, Hebrews 12:14; , Romans 14:19 (cf. Buttmann, 95 (83); Winer s Grammar, 109 (103 f)). Specifically, good order, opposed to , 1 Corinthians 14:33.
3. after the Hebrew שָׁלום, security, safety, prosperity, felicity, (because peace and harmony make and keep things safe and prosperous): Luke 19:42; Hebrews 7:2; , opposed to , 1 Thessalonians 5:3; , , his goods are secure from hostile attack, Luke 11:21; , Mark 5:34, and Luke 7:50; Luke 8:48, a formula of wishing well, blessing, addressed by the Hebrews to departing friends (לְשָׁלום לֵך 1 Samuel 1:17; 1 Samuel 20:42, etc.; properly, depart into a place or state of peace; (cf. Buttmann, 184 (160))); , Acts 16:36, and , James 2:16, go in peace, i. e. may happiness attend you; , to dismiss one with good wishes, Acts 15:33; , with my wish fulfilled, and therefore happy, Luke 2:29 (see , 2a.); free from danger, safe, 1 Corinthians 16:11 (others take it of inward peace or of harmony; cf. Meyer at the passage). The Hebrews in invoking blessings on a man called out לְך שָׁלום ( Judges 6:23; Daniel 10:19); from this is to be derived the explanation of those expressions which refer apparently to the Messianic blessings (see 4below): , let peace, blessedness, come to this household, Luke 10:5; , worthy of peace (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 34,3 N. 2; Buttmann, 161 f (141)), Luke 10:6; , let the peace which ye wish it come upon it, i. e. be its lot, Matthew 10:13; to the same purport , Luke 10:6; , let your peace return to you, because it could not rest upon it, i. e. let it be just as if ye had not uttered the wish, Matthew 10:13.
4. Specifically, the Messiah's peace: Luke 2:14; , the way that leads to peace (salvation), Luke 1:79; , peace, salvation, is prepared for us in heaven, Luke 19:38; , Acts 10:36.
5. according to a conception distinctly peculiar to Christianity, "the tranquil state of a soul assured of its salvation through Christ, and so fearing nothing from God and content with its earthly lot, of whatsoerer sort that is": Romans 8:6; namely, ; is used of those who, assured of salvation, tranquilly await the return of Christ and the transformation of all things which will accompany that event, 2 Peter 3:14; ( ... , Romans 15:13 (where L marginal reading )); (opposed to ), John 16:33; , with God, Romans 5:1, ( , Plato, rep. 5, p. 465b.; cf. Diodorus 21,12; cf. Meyer on Romans , the passage cited; Winer's Grammar, 186 (175); 406 (379))); , Romans 10:15 ( R G Tr marginal reading in brackets); , Ephesians 6:15; in the expression ., John 14:27, in which Christ, with allusion to the usual Jewish formula at leave-taking (see 3above), says that he not merely wishes, but gives peace; , which comes, from Christ, Colossians 3:15 ( Rec. ; , Philippians 4:7 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 186 (175)). Comprehensively, of every kind of peace (blessing), yet with a predominance apparently of the notion of peace with God, is used — in the salutations of Christ after his resurrection, (לָכֶם שָׁלום, Luke 24:36 ( T omits; WH reject the clause); John 20:19,21, 26; in the phrases , the Lord who is the author and promoter of peace, 2 Thessalonians 3:16; Romans 15:33; Romans 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:1; Philippians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Hebrews 13:20; in the salutations at the beginning and the close of the apostolic Epistles: Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 1:3; Galatians 6:16; Ephesians 1:2; Ephesians 6:23; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:16; 1 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:2; Titus 1:4; ( Philemon 1:3); 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 5:14; 2 Peter 1:2; 2 John 1:3; 3 John 1:15 (14); ( Jude 1:2); Revelation 1:4. Cf. Kling in Herzog iv., p. 596f under the words Friede mit Gott; Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T. § 83b.; (Otto in the Jahrbb. fur deutsch. Theol. for 1867, p. 678ff; cf. Winer's Grammar, 549 (511)).
6. of the blessed state of devout and upright men after death ( Wisdom of Solomon 3:3): Romans 2:10.<1> 1>
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
εἰρήνη , -ης , ἡ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H7965;]
1. of public peace, freedom from war: Luke 14:32, Acts 12:20; Acts 24:2; of the church, Acts 9:31.
2. Of peace between persons, concord, agreement: Matthew 10:34, Luke 12:51, Romans 14:17, 1 Corinthians 7:15, Galatians 5:22, James 3:18; ζητεῖν εἰ ., 1 Peter 3:11; διώκειν , 2 Timothy 2:22; ib. seq. μετὰ -πάντων , Hebrews 12:14; by meton., of him who brings peace, Ephesians 2:14.
3. As in LXX (= Heb. H7965, Aram. שְׁלָם ), of a state of security and safety: John 16:33, Romans 2:10, 1 Thessalonians 5:3; whence the formulæ, ὕπαγε (πορεύου ) εἰς εἰ ., Mark 5:34, Luke 7:50 (cf. 1 Samuel 1:17, al.; H7965 H1980); εἰ . ὑμῖν (H7965), John 20:19; John 20:21; John 20:26; ἀπολύειν ἐν εἰ , Luke 2:29, cf. 1 Corinthians 16:11; ἡ εἰ . ὑμῶν , Matthew 10:13 Luke 10:6; υἱὸς εἰρήνης , ib.
4. Of spiritual peace, the peace of Christ's kingdom (DCG, ii, 330 f.): Luke 1:79; Luke 2:14, John 16:3 Romans 2:10; Romans 5:1; Romans 8:6, al.; ὁ κύριος τῆς εἰ ., 2 Thessalonians 3:16; ὁ θεὸς τῆς εἰ , Romans 15:33; Romans 16:20, 2 Corinthians 13:11, al.; in epistolary salutations, Romans 1:7, 1 Corinthians 1:3, Galatians 1:3, 1 Thessalonians 1:1, 1 Peter 1:2, 2 John 1:3, Revelation 1:4, al. (v. Cremer, 244).
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
P Strass I. 5.8 (A.D. 262) ἀνάξια [τ ]η ̣̑ς ὑπὸ σοῦ πᾶσιν ἡμῖν πρυτανευομένης ̣ εἰρή [ν ]ης ὁ πρεσβύτης παθών, P Goodsp Cairo 15.4 (A.D. 362) τὰ τετολμημένα εἰς ἐμὲ ἐν τοιαύτῃ πρ [υ ]τα [ν ]ευομένῃ εἰρήνῃ τοῦ δεσπότου [ἡ ]μῶν βασιλέως Φλαουίου Ἰουλιανοῦ αἰωνίου Ἀ [γο ]ύστου, ";the things perpetrated against me in the tranquillity enjoyed under our lord king Flavius Julianus, eternal Augustus"; (Ed.). P Oxy I. 64.2 (iii/iv A.D.) shows an order for arrest addressed ἐπιστάτῃ εἰρήνης κώμης Τήεως : cf. ib. XII. 1507.3 (iii/A.D.), ib. 1559.3 (A.D. 341) ἐπόπτῃ εἰρήνης Ὀξυρυγχίτου, and Preisigke 4636 (iii/A.D.) a list of police officials including εἰρηνοφύλακες. P Oxy I. 41.27 (iii/iv A.D.) εἰρήνη πόλεως (voc.), addressed to a strategus, is worth quoting in connexion with Ephesians 2:14. From Christian sources we may quote Ramsay C. and B. ii. p. 720 No. 655 (prob. iii/A.D.) εἰρήν [η ] πάσῃ τῇ ἀδελ [φότητ ]ι from the dedication of a κοιμητήριον, and the commendatory letter P Oxy VIII. 1162.9 (iv/A.D.) σ ̣υ ̣ν ̣δέξασθαι αὐτὸν ἐν ἰρήνῃ For Εἰρήνη as a proper name see P Petr III. 30.4, BGU I. 115.6 (A.D. 189), and the letter of consolation P Oxy I. 115.1 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96).
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
List of Word Forms
ειρη΄νην ειρηνη ειρήνη εἰρήνη εἰρήνῃ ειρηνην ειρήνην εἰρήνην ειρηνης ειρήνης εἰρήνης eirene eirēnē eirḗne eirḗnē eirḗnei eirḗnēi eirenen eirēnēn eirḗnen eirḗnēn eirenes eirēnēs eirḗnes eirḗnēs
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