Old & New Testament Greek
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
‑ עֹלָם (o‑lawm', o‑lawm')
αἰώνιος, ον, also α, ον Pl. Ti. 37d, Hebrews 9:12 : —
1. lasting for an age (αἰών 11), perpetual, eternal (but dist. fr. ἀΐδιος, Plot. 3.7.3), μέθη Pl. R. 363d; ἀνώλεθρον.. ἀλλ' οὐκ αἰώνιον Id. Lg. 904a, cf. Epicur. Sent. 28; αἰ. κατὰ ψυχὴν ὄχλησις Id. Nat. 131 G.; κακά, δεινά, Phld. Herc. 1251.18, D. 1.13; αἰ. ἀμοιβαῖς βασανισθησόμενοι ib.19; τοῦ αἰ. θεοῦ Romans 16:26, Ti.Locr. 96c; οὐ χρονίη μοῦνον.. ἀλλ' αἰωνίη Aret. CA 1.5; αἰ. διαθήκη, νόμιμον, πρόσταγμα, LXX Genesis 9:16, Ex. 27.21, To. 1.6; ζωή Matthew 25:46, Porph. Abst. 4.20; κόλασις Matt. l.c., Olymp. in Grg. p.278J.; πρὸ χρόνων αἰ. 2 Timothy 1:9 : opp. πρόσκαιρος, 2 Corinthians 4:18.
2. holding an office or title for life, perpetual, γυμνασίαρχος CPHerm. 62.
3. = Lat. saecularis, Phleg. Macr. 4.
4. Adv. -ίως eternally, νοῦς ἀκίνητος αἰ. πάντα ὤν Procl. Inst. 172, cf. Simp. in Epict. p.77D.; perpetually, μισεῖν Sch. E. Alc. 338.
5. αἰώνιον, τό, = ἀείζωον τὸ μέγα, Ps.- Dsc. 4.88.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, , and (in 2 Thessalonians 2:16
; Hebrews 9:12
; Numbers 25:13
, Tim., p. 38b. (see below); Diodorus
1:1; (cf. WH
s Appendix, p. 157; Winer
s Grammar, 69 (67); Buttmann
, 26 (23))) , , ();
1. without beginning or end, that which always has been and always will be: , Romans 16:26 ( , 2 Maccabees 1:25); , Hebrews 9:14.
2. without beginning: , Romans 16:25; , 2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 1:2; , a gospel whose subject-matter is eternal, i. e., the saving purpose of God adopted from eternity, Revelation 14:6.
3. without end, never to cease, everlasting: 2 Corinthians 4:18 (opposed to ); , joined to thee forever as a sharer of the same eternal life, Philcmon 1:15; , 2 Corinthians 4:17; , 2 Peter 1:11; , 2 Timothy 2:10; 1 Peter 5:10; (see , 2b.); , Hebrews 9:15; , Hebrews 9:12; , 2 Thessalonians 2:16; , abodes to be occupied forever, Luke 16:9 (the habitations of the blessed in heaven are referred to, cf. John 14:2 (also, dabo eis tabernacula aeterna, quae praeparaveram illis, 4Esdras (Fritzsche, 5 Esdr.) [2 Esdras 2:11>]); similarly Hades is called , Tobit 3:6, cf. Ecclesiastes 12:5); , Hebrews 5:9; (so Mark 16 ( WH) in the (rejected) 'Shorter Conclusion'). Opposite ideas are: , Matthew 25:46; , Hebrews 6:2; , Mark 3:29 ( Rec. (but L T WH Tr text ; in Acta Thom. § 47, p. 227 Tdf., , it has been plausibly conjectured we should read , (cf. Hebrews 9:12))); (Lachmann text , 2 Thessalonians 1:9 ( 4 Maccabees 10:15); , Matthew 25:41 ( 4 Maccabees 12:12 , ). (Of the examples of from Philo (with whom it is less common than , which see, of which there are some fifty instances) the following are noteworthy: de mut. nora. § 2; de caritate § 17; fragment in Mang. 2:667 at the end (Richter 6:229 middle); cf. de praem, et poen. § 12. Other examples are de alleg, leg. iii., § 70; de poster. Caini § 35; quod deus immut. § 30; quis rer. div. her. § 58; de congressu quaer, erud. § 19; de secular sec 38; de somn. ii. § 43; de Josepho § 24; quod omn. prob. book § 4, § 18; de ebrietate § 32; de Abrah. § 10; : de secular § 15; () : de plantat. § 2, § 18 (twice), § 20 (twice); de mundo § 2. from Josephus: Antiquities 7,14, 5; 12,7, 3; 15,10, 5; b. j. 1,33, 2; 6,2, I; Antiquities 4,6, 5; b. j. 3,8, 5, .: Antiquities 1,13, 4; 6,14, 4; 10,11, 7; 15,11, 1; (of God), Antiquities 8,4, 2; , b. j. 6,9, 4. SYNONYMS: , : covers the complete philosophic idea — without beginning and without end; also either without beginning or without end; as respects the past, it is applied to what has existed time out of mind. (from Plato on) gives prominence to the immeasurableness of eternity (while such words as continuous, unintermitted, perpetual, lasting to the end, are not so applicable to an abstract term, like ); accordingly is especially adapted to supersensuous things, see the N. T. Cf. Tim. Locr. 96c. etc.; Plato, Tim. 37d. (and Stallbaum at the passage); 38b. c.; legg. x., p. 904a. , . Cf. also Plato's (Tim. 38b.; 39e.). Schmidt, chapter 45.
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT
Without pronouncing any opinion on the special meaning which theologians have found for this word, we must note that outside the NT, in the vernacular as in the classical Greek (see Grimm-Thayer), it never loses the sense of perpetuus (cf. Deissmann BS p. 363, LAE p. 368). It is a standing epithet of the Emperor’s power : thus Cagnat IV. 144.3 τ.αἰ.οἶκον of Tiberius, BGU I. 176 τοῦ αἰωνίου κόσμου of Hadrian. From the beginning of iii/A.D. we have BGU II. 362iv. 11 ff. ὑπὲρ σωτηριῶν καὶ αἰω [νίου ] διαμο [νῆ ]ς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Αὐτοκρά [τορος ] Σεουή [ρου Ἀ ]ντωνίνου. Two examples from iv/A.D. may be quoted addressed to the Emperor Galerius and his colleagues : ὑμετέρῳ θείῳ καὶ αἰωνίῳ [νεύματι ], and [ὑπὲρ ] τῆς αἰωνίου καὶ ἀφθάρτου βασιλείας ὑμῶν, OGIS 56920, 24. Ultimately it becomes a direct epithet of the Emperor himself, taking up the succession of the Ptolemaic αἰων ́όβιος (see above under αἰών sub fin.). The earliest example of this use we have noted is BGU IV. 1062.27 (A.D. 236), where it is applied to Maximus : so in P Grenf II. 6727, a year later. (In both the word is said to be very faint.) P Lond 2339 ( = II. p. 273) παρὰ τῆς θιότητος τῶν δεσποτῶν ἡμῶν αἰωνίων Αὐγούστων, referring to Constantius and Constans, is the precursor of a multitude of examples of the epithet as applied to the Christian Emperors. The first volume of the Leipzig Papyri alone has twenty-seven instances of the imperial epithet, all late in iv/A.D. Even in BGU I. 303.2 (A.D. 586) and ib. 309.4 (A.D. 602) we have still τοῦ αἰωνίου Αὐγούστου (Maurice). In Syll 757.12 (i/A.D.—see under αἰών) note θείας φύσεως ἐργάτης αἰωνίου (of Time). Syll 740.18 (iii/A.D.) joins it with ἀναφαίρετον. P Grenf II. 7111 (iii/A.D.) ὁμολογῶ χαρίζεσθαι ὑμῖν χάριτι αἰωνίᾳ καὶ ἀναφαιρέτῳ is a good example of the meaning perpetuus; and from a much earlier date (i/B.C.) we may select OGIS 383.8 f. (a passage in the spirit of Job 19:24) : Ἀντίοχος. . . ἐπὶ καθωσιωμένων βάσεων ἀσύλοις γράμμασιν ἔργα χάριτος ἰδίας εἰς χρόνον ἀνέγραψεν αἰώνιον. Add BGU II. 531ii. 20 (ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δὲ ἀστοχήσῃς [αἰω ]γίαν μοι λοίπην (i.e. λύπην) [π ]αρέχιν μέλλις. In his Index to OGIS Dittenberger gives fourteen instances of the word.
The etymological note on αἰών in Grimm-Thayer, though less antiquated than usual, suggests the addition of a statement on that side. Αἰέν is the old locative of αἰών as αἰές is of αἰώς (acc. αἰῶ in Aeschylus), and αἰεί, ἀεί of *αἰ ϝ όν (Lat. aevum), three collateral declensions from the same root. In the Sanskrit āyu and its Zend equivalent the idea of life, and especially long life, predominates. So with the Germanic cognates (Gothic aiws). The word, whose root it is of course futile to dig for, is a primitive inheritance from Indo-Germanic days, when it may have meant ";long life"; or ";old age";—perhaps the least abstract idea we can find for it in the prehistoric period, so as to account for its derivatives.
In general, the word depicts that of which the horizon is not in view, whether the horizon be at an infinite distance, as in Catullus’ poignant lines—
Nobis cum semel occidit brevis lux,
Nox est perpetua una dormienda,
or whether it lies no farther than the span of a Cæsar’s life.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
List of Word Forms
αιωνια αιωνία αιώνια αἰώνια αιώνιαι αιωνιαν αιωνίαν αιώνιαν αἰωνίαν αιωνίας αιώνιοι αιωνιοις αιωνίοις αἰωνίοις αιωνιον αιώνιον αἰώνιον αιωνιος αιώνιος αιώνιός αἰώνιος αἰώνιός αιωνιου αιωνίου αἰωνίου αιωνιους αιωνίους αἰωνίους αιωνίω αιωνιων αιωνίων αἰωνίων αιώνος αιωνόυ aionia aiōnia aiṓnia aionian aionían aiōnian aiōnían aioniois aioníois aiōniois aiōníois aionion aioníon aiōnion aiōniōn aiōníōn aiṓnion aionios aiōnios aiṓnios aiṓniós aioniou aioníou aiōniou aiōníou aionious aioníous aiōnious aiōníous
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