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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #2193 - ἕως

Word Origin:
of uncertain affinity
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. till, until
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


(B), εἵως, ἧος (v. sub fin.), Dor. ἇς, Aeol. ἆς (qq.v.), Boeot. ἇς IG 7.3303, al., and ἅως ib.2228, 3315. Relat. Particle, expressing the point of Time up to which an action goes, with reference to the end of the action, until, till; or to its continuance, while:

I until, till,

1 with Ind., of a fact in past time, θῦνε διὰ προμάχων, ἧος φίλον ὤλεσε θυμόν Il. 11.342, cf. Od. 5.123; ἕ. ἀπώλεσέν τε καὐτὸς ἐξαπώλετο S. Fr. 236, cf. A. Pers. 428, Pl. Chrm. 155c, etc.; for πρίν, μὴ πρότερον ἀπελθεῖν ἕως ἀποκατέστησε τὰ πράγματα D.S. 27.4: with impf. with ἄν in apodosi, of an unaccomplished action, ἡδέως ἂν Καλλικλεῖ διελεγόμην, ἕ. ἀπέδωκα I would have gone on conversing till I had.., Pl. Grg. 506b, cf. Cra. 396c.

2. ἕ. ἄν or κε with Subj. (mostly of aor.), of an event at an uncertain future time, μαχήσομαι.. ἧός κε τέλος πολέμοιο κιχείω till I find, Il. 3.291, cf. 24.183, A. Pr. 810, etc.: ἄν is sts. omitted in Trag., ἕ. μάθῃς S. Aj. 555; ἕ. κληθῇ Id. Tr. 148; ἕ. ἀνῇ τὸ πῆμα Id. Ph. 764: so freq. in later Gr., UPZ 18.10 (ii B. C.), PGrenf. 2.38.16 (i B. C.), Mark 14:32, Vett. Val. 68.18, etc.; ἕ. οὗ γένηται Gem. 8.32.

3. ἕ. with Opt. (mostly of aor.), relating to an event future in relation to past time, ὦρσε.. Βορέην, ἧος ὃ Φαιήκεσσι.. μιγείη caused it to blow, till he should reach.., Od. 5.386, cf. 9.376, Ar. Ra. 766, Pl. Phd. 59d; ἕως δέοι βοηθεῖν Th. 3.102, cf. Lys. 13.25: ἄν or κε is added to the Opt. (not to ἕως), if the event is represented as conditional, ἕ. κ' ἀπὸ πάντα δοθείη till (if possible) all things should be given back, Od. 2.78; οὐκ [ἂν] ἀποκρίναιο, ἕ. ἂν σκέψαιο Pl. Phd. 101d, cf. S. Tr. 687 codd., Isoc. 17.15, IG 22.1328 (ii B.C.). in orat. obliq., ἔδωκεν.. ἕ. ἀνὴρ εἶναι δοκιμασθείην D. 27.5. by assimilation to an opt. with ἄν, [λόγον] ἂν διδοίης ἕ. ἔλθοις Pl. Phd. 101d.

4. c. subj. or opt., expressing purpose, in order that, Od. 4.800, 6.80, 19.367; πορεύου εἰς Διονυσιάδα.. ἕως τὸν ἐκεῖ ἐλαιῶνα ποτίσῃς PFay. 118.12 (ii A. D.); σπούδασον ἕως οὗ ἀγοράσῃ κτλ. POxy. 113.25 (ii A. D.); χρυσίον ἐδανισάμην ἕως ὅτε δυνηθῶ ἀγοράσαι ib. 130.13 (vi A. D.).

5. with Inf. in orat. obliq., ἐντειλάμενος διεκπλέειν ἕ... ἀπικνέεσθαι Hdt. 4.42: otherwise only in later Gr., ἕ. ἐλθεῖν ἐς.. LXX Genesis 10:19, cf. PLond. 1.131r251 (i A. D.), D.H. 9.4 (v.l.), Anon. ap. Suid.s.v. ἰλυσπώμενον.

6. with Advbs. of Time and Place, ἕ. ὅτε till the time when, c. ind., v.l. for ἔστε in X. Cyr. 5.1.25; ἕ. οὗ, f.l. for ἐς οὗ, Hdt. 2.143: freq. in later Gr., Gem.l.c., Matthew 1:25, etc.; ἕ. ὅτου ib. 5.25, etc.; ἕ. πότε; how long ? ib. 17.17, John 10:24; ἕ. τότε LXX Nehemiah 2:16; ἕ. ὀψέ till late, f.l.for ἐς ὀψέ, Th. 3.108; ἕ. ἄρτι 1 John 2:9; ἕ. ὧδε as far as this place, Luke 23:5. with Preps., of Time, ἕ. πρὸς καλὸν ἑῷον ἀστέρα AP 5.200; of Place, ἕ. εἰς τὸν χάρακα Plb. 1.11.14; ἕ. πρὸς τὸν Καύκασον D.S. 2.43; ἕ. ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν Acts 17:14.

II as Pr,

1 of Time, c. gen., until, ἕως τοῦ ἀποτεῖσαι until he has made payment, Lexap. Aeschin. 1.42, cf. LXX Genesis 3:19, etc.; ἕ. τελειώσεως Epicur. Ephesians 2 p.38U.; ἕ. ὡρισμένων χρόνων Phld. D. 1.7; ἕ. τινός for a time, Parth. 9.2, etc.; ἕ. τοῦ νῦν Matthew 24:21; ἕ. Ἰωάννου ib. 11.13. of Place, ἕ. τοῦ γενέσθαι.. up to the point where.. Arist. PA 668b2, cf. HA 630b27, Plb. 9.36.1; as far as, ἕ. Σάρδεων Ath.Mitt. 44.25 (Samos, iii B.C.); ἕ. τοῦ Ἀρσινοΐτου νομοῦ PTeb. 33.5 (ii B.C.); ἕ. Φοινίκης Acts 11:19 : so c. gen. pers., ἦλθον ἕ. αὐτοῦ Luke 4:42, cf. LXX 4 Ki. 4.22. of Number or Degree, ἕ. τριῶν πλοίων Docum. ap. D. 18.106; διδόναι ἕ. ταλάντων ἑκατόν LXX 1 Esdras 8:19(21); οὐκ ἔστιν ἕ. ἑνός ib. Psalms 13:3; οὐκ ἔχομεν ἕ. τῆς τροφῆς τῶν κτηνῶν PTeb. 56.7 (ii B.C.); ἐᾶτε ἕ. τούτου Luke 22:51; μαχοῦμαι ἕ. ζωῆς καὶ θανάτου OGI 266.29 (Pergam., iii B.C.); ἕ. μέθης Corn. ND 30.

2. rarely c. acc., ἕ. πρωΐ LXX Jd. 19.25; ἕ. μεσημβρίαν PLond. 1.131r346, 515 (i A.D.); ἕ. τὸ βωμῷ down to the word "" βωμῷ "", Sch. Pi. O. 6.111.

III while, so long as, c. ind., ἧος ἐνὶ Τροίῃ πολεμίζομεν Od. 13.315, cf. 17.358, 390; ἕ. δ' ἔτ' ἔμφρων εἰμί A. Ch. 1026, cf. Pers. 710 (troch.); ἕ. ἔτι ἐλπὶς [ἦν ] Th. 8.40; ἕ. ἔτινέος εἶ Pl. Prm. 135d: in this sense answered in apodosi by τῆος, Od. 4.90, Il. 20.41; by τόφρα, Od. 12.327, Il. 18.15; by τόφρα δέ, 10.507; by δέ alone, 1.193, Od. 4.120 codd. ἕ. ἄν c. subj., when the whole action is future, οὔ μοι.. ἐλπίς, ἕ. ἂν αἴθῃ πῦρ A. Ag. 1435; λέγειν τε χρὴ καὶ ἐρωτᾶν, ἕως ἂν ἐῶσιν Pl. Phd. 85b; οὐδὲν ἔστ' αὐτῷ βεβαίως ἔχειν ἕ. ἂν ὑμεῖς δημοκρατῆσθε D. 10.13. ἕως c. opt. in a Conditional relative clause, φήσομεν μηδὲν ἂν μεῖζον μηδὲ ἔλαττον γενέσθαι ἕ. ἴσον εἴη αὐτὸ ἐαυτῷ Pl. Tht. 155a. in Hom. sts. Demonstr.,= τέως, for a time, ἧος μὲν.. ὄρνυον· αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ.. Il. 12.141; ἧος μὲν ἀπείλει.. · ἀλλ' ὅτε δὴ.. 13.143, cf. 17.727, 730, Od. 2.148; ἧος μὲν.. ἕποντο.. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ.. Il. 15.277; all that time, Od. 3.126, cf. Hdt. 8.74. (ἕως, as iambus, only once in Hom., Od. 2.78; as a monosyll., Il. 17.727, dub.l. in Od. 2.148; when the first syllable is to be long codd. Hom. have εἵως or ἕως (never εἷος or ἧος, Ludwich WkP 1890.512, exc. ειος v.l. (PFay. 160) in Il. 20.41), 3.291, 11.342, al.; εἵως (or ἕως) is found even when the metre requires a trochee, 1.193, al.; comparison of Dor. ἇς (from Αος) with Att. - Ion. ἕως points to early Ion. Ηος (cf. Skt. yâvat 'as great as, as long as, until') and this should prob. be restored in Hom.; cf. τέως.)

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἕως, a particle marking a limit, and

I. as a conjunction signifying

1. the temporal terminus ad quem, till, until (Latin donee, usque dum); as in the best writings a. with an preterite indicative, where something is spoken of which continued up to a certain time: Matthew 2:9 (ἕως ... ἔστη (ἐστάθη L T Tr WH)); Matthew 24:39> ( 1 Maccabees 10:50; Wisdom of Solomon 10:14, etc.).

b. with ἄν and the aorist subjunctive (equivalent to the Latin future perfect), where it is left doubtful when that will take place till which it is said a thing will continue (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 42,5): ἴσθι ἐκεῖ, ἕως ἄν εἴπω σοι, Matthew 2:13; add, Matthew 5:18; 10:11; 22:44>; Mark 6:10; Mark 12:36; Luke 17:8; Luke 20:43; Acts 2:55; Hebrews 1:13; after a negative sentence: Matthew 5:18,26; Matthew 10:23 ( T WH omit ἄν); Matthew 12:20; 16:28; 23:39; 24:34>; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27; Luke 21:32; 1 Corinthians 4:5; with the aorist subjunctive without the addition of ἄν: Mark 6:45 R G; Mark 14:32> (here Tr marginal reading future); Luke 15:4; (Luke 12:59> T Tr WH; Luke 22:34> L T Tr WH); 2 Thessalonians 2:7; Hebrews 10:13; Revelation 6:11 ( Rec. ἕως οὗ); οὐκ ἀνἔζησαν ἕως τελεσθῇ τά χίλια ἔτη, did not live again till the thousand years had been finished ( elapsi fuerint), Revelation 20:5 Rec. Cf. Winer s Grammar, § 41b. 3.

c. more rarely used with the present indicative where the aorist subjunctive might have been expected ( Winer s Grammar, as above; Buttmann, 231 (199)): so four times ἕως ἔρχομαι, Luke 19:13 (where L T Tr WH ἐν for ἕως, but cf. Bleek at the passage); John 21:22; 1 Timothy 4:13; ἕως ἀπολύει, Mark 6:45 L T Tr WH, for R G ἀπολύσῃ (the indicative being due to a blending of direct and indirect discourse; as in Plutarch, Lycurgus 29,3 δεῖν οὖν ἐκείνους ἐμμένειν τοῖς καθεστωσι νόμοις ... ἕως ἐπανεισιν).

d. once with the future indicative, according to an improbable reading in Luke 13:35: ἕως ἥξει Tdf., ἕως ἄν ἥξει Lachmann, for R G ἕως ἄν ἥξῃ; (but WH (omitting ἄν ἥξῃ ὅτε) read ἕως εἴπητε; Tr omits ἄν and brackets ἥξῃ ὅτε; cf. Buttmann, 231 f (199f)).

2. as in Greek writings from Homer down, as long as, while, followed by the indicative in all tenses — in the N. T. only in the present: ἕως ἡμέρα ἐστιν, John 9:4 ( Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ὡς); ἕως ( L T Tr WH ὡς) τό φῶς ἔχετε, John 12:35f (ἕως ἔτι φῶς ἐστιν, Plato, Phaedo, p. 89c.); ( Mark 6:45 (cf.

c. above)).

II. By a usage chiefly later it gets the force of an adverb, Latin usque ad; and

1. used of a temporal terminus ad quem, until (unto);

a. like a preposition, with a genitive of time ( Winer s Grammar, § 54,6; Buttmann, 319 (274)): ἕως αἰῶνος, Luke 1:55 Griesbach ( Ezekiel 25:15 Alex.; 1 Chronicles 17:16; Sirach 16:26, Fritzsche; Sirach 24:9>, etc.); τῆς ἡμέρας, Matthew 26:29; Matthew 27:64: Luke 1:80; Acts 1:22 ( Tdf. ἄχρι); Romans 11:8, etc.; ὥρας, Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44; τῆς πεντηκοστῆς, 1 Corinthians 16:8; τέλους, 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:13; τῆς σήμερον namely, ἡμέρας, Matthew 27:8; τοῦ νῦν, Matthew 24:21; Mark 13:19 ( 1 Maccabees 2:33); χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων a widow (who had attained) even unto eighty-four years, Luke 2:37 L T Tr WH; before the names of illustrious men by which a period of time is marked: Matthew 1:17; Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16 (where T Tr WH μέχρι); Acts 13:20; before the names of events: Matthew 1:17 (ἕως μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος); Matthew 2:15; 23:35; 28:20>; Luke 11:51; James 5:7; ἕως τοῦ ἐλθεῖν, Acts 8:40 ( Buttmann, 266 (228); cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44,6; Judith 1:10 Judith 11:19, etc.).

b. with the genitive of the neuter relative pronoun οὗ or ὅτου it gets the force of a conjunction, until, till (the time when); α. ἕως οὗ (first in Herodotus 2,143; but after that only in later authors, as Plutarch, et al. ( Winer s Grammar, 296 (278) note; Buttmann, 230f (199))): followed by the indicative, Matthew 1:25 ( WH brackets οὗ); Matthew 13:33>; Luke 13:21; Acts 21:26 (see Buttmann); followed by the subjunctive aorist, equivalent to Latin future perfect, Matthew 14:22; Matthew 26:36 (where WH brackets οὗ and Lachmann has ἕως οὗ ἄν); Luke 12:50 ( Rec.; Luke 15:8 Tr WH); Luke 24:49; Acts 25:21; 2 Peter 1:19; after a negative sentence, Matthew 17:9; Luke 12:59 ( R G L; Luke 22:18 Tr WH); John 13:38; Acts 23:12,14, 21. β. ἕως ὅτου, αα. until, till (the time when): followed by the indicative, John 9:18; followed by the subjunctive (without ἄν), Luke 13:8; Luke 15:8 ( R G L T); after a negation, Luke 22:16,18 ( R G L T). ββ. as long as, whilst ( Song of Solomon 1:12), followed by the present indicative, Matthew 5:25 (see ἄχρι, 1d. at the end).

c. before adverbs of time (rarely so in the earlier and more elegant writings, as ἕως ὀψέ, Thucydides 3,108; (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 54,6 at the end; Buttmann, 320 (275))): ἕως ἄρτι, up to this time, until now ( Vig. ed. Herm., p. 388), Matthew 11:12; John 2:10; John 5:17; John 16:24; 1 John 2:9; 1 Corinthians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 15:6; ἕως πότε; how long? Matthew 17:17; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; John 10:24; Revelation 6:10 ( Psalm 12:2 f (Psalm 13:2> f); 2 Samuel 2:26; 1 Maccabees 6:22); ἕως σήμερον, 2 Corinthians 3:15.

2. according to a usage dating from Aristotle down, employed of the local terminus ad quem, unto, as far as, even to;

a. like a preposition, with a genitive of place ( Winer s Grammar, § 54,6; Buttmann, 319 (274)): ἕως ᾅδου, ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Matthew 11:23; Luke 10:15; add, Matthew 24:31; Matthew 26:58; Mark 13:27; Luke 2:15; Luke 4:29; Acts 1:8; Acts 11:19,22; Acts 17:15; Acts 23:23; 2 Corinthians 12:2; with the genitive of person, to the place where one is: Luke 4:42; Acts 9:38 (ἕως ὑπερβορεων, Aelian v. h. 3,18).

b. with adverbs of place ( Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann, as in c. above): ἕως ἄνω, John 2:7; ἕως ἔσω, Mark 14:54; ἕως κάτω, Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; ἕως ὧδε, Luke 23:5 (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 66,1c.).

c. with prepositions: ἕως ἔξω τῆς πόλεως, Acts 21:5; ἕως εἰς, Luke 24:50 ( R G L marginal reading, but L text T Tr WH ἕως πρός as far as to ( Polybius 3,82, 6; 12,17, 4; Genesis 38:1)); Polybius 1:11,14; Aelian v. h. 12,22.

3. of the limit (terminus)of quantity; with an adverb of number: ἕως ἑπτάκις, Matthew 18:21; with numerals: Matthew 22:26 (ἕως τῶν ἑπτά); cf. Matthew 20:8; John 8:9 ( Rec.); Acts 8:10; Hebrews 8:11; οὐκ ἐστιν ἕως ἑνός, there is not so much as one, Romans 3:12 from Psalm 13:1 (Psalm 14:1>).

4. of the limit of measurement: ἕως ἡμίσους, Mark 6:23; Esther 5:3,6 Alex.

5. of the end or limit in acting and suffering: ἕως τούτου, Luke 22:51 (see ἐάω, 2); ἕως τοῦ θερισμοῦ, Matthew 13:30 L Tr WH text; ἕως θανάτου, even to death, so that I almost die, Mark 14:34; Matthew 26:38 ( Sirach 4:28 Sirach 31:13 ( Sirach 34:13); Sirach 37:2>; 4 Maccabees 14:19).

[ζ Zeta, on its substitution for sigma ς see Sigma.]

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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For ἕως as a conjunction followed by ἄν and the aor. subj., as in Matthew 2:13 al., cf. P Petr II. 40 (a).28 (iii/B.C.) ἕως ἂν ὑγιαίνοντας ὑμᾶς ἴδωμεν, P Oxy VIII. 1124.7 (A.D. 26) ]ω ̣[ς ἂν τὸ ἀ ]πότακτο [ν ] κομίσηται. Ἄν is omitted in such passages as P Grenf II. 38.16 (mid. i/B.C.) γράψον μοι περὶ τοῦ μὴ λογεύιν, ἕως καταβῆις, P Oxy III. 531.6 (ii/A.D.) ἕως ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ πρὸς σὲ παραγένομαι (l.ωμαι), ib. VIII. 1125.15 (ii/A.D.) ἕως τὰ ὀφειλόμενα κομίσωνται : cf. Mark 14:32 al., and on the NT usage generally see further Blass Gr. p. 219, also Proleg. p. 168 f. In P Oxy VIII. 1159.21 (late iii/A.D.) ἔασ [ο ]ν δὲ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς τὰ σύν [ερ ]γα ἕως πέμψω τὰ ἀναλώματα, ";leave the tools with them until I send the expenses"; (Ed.), we may perhaps have the fut. ind., as in Luke 13:35 AD, but the aor. subj. is more probable. In P Fay 118.12 (A.D. 110) πορεύου εἰς Διονυσιάδα. . ἕως τὸν ἐκῖ ἐλαιῶνα ποτίσῃς, ἕως appears to have a final force (= ὡς).

For the later prepositional usage of ἕως with gen. of place, see P Tebt I. 33.5 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) ἀνάπλουν ἕως τοῦ Ἀρσι (νοιτου) νο (μοῦ) ἐπὶ θεωρίαν ποιούμενος, ";making the voyage as far as the Arsinoite nome to see the sights,"; and with gen. of time see BGU IV. 1128.8 (B.C. 14) ἕως τοῦ προκ (ειμένου) χρό (νου) and OGIS 90.16 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἕως τοῦ πρώτου ἔτους ἐπὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ = ";usque ad primum Ptolemaei Philopatoris annum"; (Ed.) : cf. also ib. 226.29 (iii/B.C.) μαχοῦμαι [ὑπὲρ α ]ὐτοῦ καὶ —[ν ] πραγμάτων τῶν ἐκείνου ἕως ζωῆς καὶ θανά [του (cf. Mark 14:34), with the editor’s note. With ἕως τούτου in Luke 22:51, cf. P Tebt I. 56.7 (late ii/B.C.) οὐκ ἔχομεν ἕως τῆς τροφῆς τ ̣ω ̣̑ν κτηνῶν ἡμῶν, ";we have not so much as food for our cattle"; (Edd.), and with ἕως τοῦ νῦν in Matthew 24:21, cf. BGU IV. 1197.8 (B.C. 4) οἱ σοι ] π ̣ρ ̣ο ̣ς ̣ [τ ]άται ἕως τοῦ ν ̣υ ̣ͅν ̣ ̣[πὸ ] τοῦ ἐννεακαιδεκ [άτου ] ἔτους [Κα ]ίσαρος οὐκ ἔδωκαν ἡμῖν. The supposed ";Hebraism"; in ἕως πότε (Mark 9:19) is discussed by Moulton in Cambridge Biblical Essays, p. 473 f.


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