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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #2537 - καινός

Word Origin:
of uncertain affinity
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. new
    1. as respects form
      1. recently made, fresh, recent, unused, unworn
    2. as respects substance
      1. of a new kind, unprecedented, novel, uncommon, unheard of
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 312 ‑ אַחֵר (akh‑air');   2319 ‑ חָדָשׁ (khaw‑dawsh');  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

καινός, ή, όν,


1. new, fresh, ἔργα οὔτ' ὦν κ. οὔτε παλαιά Hdt. 9.26; κ. ὁμιλία A. Eu. 406; κ. λόγους φέρειν to bring news, Id. Ch. 659; τίδ' ἐστὶ κ.; S. OC 722, cf. Ph. 52; τὰ κ. τοῖς πάλαι τεκμαίρεται Id. OT 916; θυτῆρα καινῷ καινὸν ἐν πεπλώματι Id. Tr. 613; ἢ βούλεσθε περι[]όντες πυνθάνεσθαι, λέγεταί τι κ.;"" D. 4.10; γένοιτ' ἄν τι -ότερον ἤ.. ibid.; ἐκ καινῆς (sc. ἀρχῆς) anew, afresh, Th. 3.92, Thphr. CP 5.1.11, Jahresh. 23 Beibl. 91 (Pamphyl., i A. D.), etc. (also ἐκ καινοῦ CPR 244.14 (iii A. D.)); esp. of new dramas, τραγῳδῶν γιγνομένων καινῶν Aeschin. 3.34; briefly τραγῳδοῖς κ. at the representation of the new tragedies, Docum. ap. D. 18.54; τραγῳδῶν τῇ κ. [ ἐπιδείξει ] ib.55; καινῇ κωμῳδῶν, τραγῳδῶν, CIG 2759iii (Aphrodisias); but κ. κωμῳδία, τραγῳδία, of a new style of drama, IG 7.1773 (Thebes, ii A.D.).

2. newly-made, κύλικες, τριήρης, ὀθόνια, οἶνος, SIG 1026.26 (Cos, iv/iii B. C.), IG 22.1623.289, PLond. 2.402v12 (ii B. C.), Ostr. 1142.4 (iii A. D.).

3. Adv. -νῶς newly, afresh, Alex. 240.4.

II newly-invented, novel, καινότεραι τέχναι Batr. 116; κ. προσφέρειν σοφά E. Med. 298; ἔνθα τι κ. ἐλέχθη Philox. 3.23; οὐκ ἀείδω τὰ παλαιά, καινὰ γὰρ ἀμὰ κρείσσω Tim. Fr. 21; κ. θεοί strange gods, Pl. Euthphr. 3b; κ. δαιμόνια Id. Ap. 24c; κ. τινες σοφισταί Id. Euthd. 271b; κ. καὶ ἄτοπα ὀνόματα Id. R. 405d; καινὰ ἐπιμηχανᾶσθαι innovations, X. Cyr. 8.8.16; οὐδὲν -ότερον εἰσέφερε τῶν ἄλλων he introduced as little of anything new as others, Id. Mem. 1.1.3, cf. Pl. Phd. 115b; πεπόνθαμεν -ότατον D. 35.26; τὸ κ. τοῦ πολέμου prob. f.l. for κενόν (v. κενός), Th. 3.30; οὐ καινόν nothing to be surprised at, Hp. Int. 17; τὸ -ότατον what is strangest, parenthetically, Luc. Nigr. 22, al.; εἰ Χρὴ -ότατα μᾶλλον ἢ κακουργότατα εἰπεῖν Antipho 2.4.2. Adv., μὴ σὺ -νῶς μοι λάλει in new, strange style, Alex. 144, cf. Pl. Phdr. 267b: Comp. -οτέρως, νοῆσαι περί τινος Arist. Cael. 308b31; without precedent, -νῶς κατακριθῆναι OGI 669.46,49 (Egypt, i A. D.).

III κ. ἄνθρωπος, = Lat. novus homo, Plu. Cat.Ma. 1; πράγματακ., = res novae, Id. Cic. 14, cf. 2.212c.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 καινός, καινή, καινόν (from Aeschylus and Herodotus down); the Sept. for חָדָשׁ; new, i. e.

a. as respects form; recently made, fresh, recent, unused, unworn (opposed to παλαιός old, antiquated): as ἀσκός, Matthew 9:11; Mark 2:22 ( T omits; Tr WH brackets the clause); Luke 5:38 ἱμάτιον, Luke 5:36; πλήρωμα, Mark 2:21; μνημεῖον, Matthew 27:60; with ἐν οὐδέπω οὐδείς ἐτέθη added, John 19:41; καινά καί παλαιά, Matthew 13:52; new, which as recently made is superior to what it succeeds: διαθήκη, Matthew 26:28 ( T WH omit καινά); Mark 14:24 R L; Luke 22:20 ( WH reject the passage); 1 Corinthians 11:25; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Hebrews 8:8,13; Hebrews 9:15 ( Jeremiah 38:31 (Jeremiah 31:31>)); καινοί οὐρανοί, καινή γῆ, 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1 ( Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22); Ἱερουσαλήμ (see Ἱεροσόλυμα, at the end), Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2; ἄνθρωπος (see the word, 1f.), Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:24 (καρδία, πνεῦμα, Ezekiel 18:31; Ezekiel 36:26); καινά πάντα ποιῶ, I bring all things into a new and better condition, Revelation 21:5; γέννημα τῆς ἀμπέλου, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25.

b. as respects substance; of a new kind; unprecedented, novel, uncommon, unheard of (ἑτέρα καί καινά δαιμόνια, Xenophon, mem. 1,1, 1): διδαχή, Mark 1:27; Acts 17:19; ἐντολή, given now for the first time, John 13:34; 1 John 2:7; 2 John 1:5; ὄνομα, with the added explanation οὐδείς οἶδεν (ἔγνω Rec.), Revelation 2:17 ( Isaiah 62:2; Isaiah 65:15); ᾠδή, Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3 ( Psalm 143:9 (Psalm 144:9>); ὕμνος, Isaiah 42:10; ᾆσμα, Psalm 32:3 (Psalm 33:3>); Psalm 39:4> (Psalm 40:4>), etc.); λέγειν τί καί ( L T Tr WH) ἀκούειν καινότερον, Acts 17:21 ( newer namely, than that which is already; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 244 (228f))); κτίσις, Galatians 6:15; καινά τά πάντα, all things are new, previously non-existent, begin to be far different from what they were before, 2 Corinthians 5:17 ( L T Tr WH omit τά πάντα); μηκέτι οὔσης τῆς ἀνομίας, καινων δέ γεγονότων πάντων ὑπό κυρίου, the Epistle of Barnabas 15,7 [ET]. γλῶσσαι (see γλῶσσα, 2): Mark 16:17 ( Tr text WH text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets καινων) [ SYNONYMS: καινός, νέος: νέος denotes the new primarily in reference to time, the young, recent; καινός denotes the new primarily in reference to quality, the fresh, unworn; 'νέος ad tempus refertur, καινός ad rem;' see Trench, § lx.; Tittmann i., p. 59f; Green, 'Critical Note' on Matthew 9:17 (where the words occur together). The same distinction, in the main, holds in classic usage; cf. Schmidt ii., chapter 47.]

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission.
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

καινός , - , -όν ,

[in LXX (Ezekiel 11:19, al.) for H2319, exc. Isaiah 65:15 (H312);]

of that which is unused or unaccustomed, new in respect to form or quality, fresh, unused, novel: opp. to παλαιός , ἀρχαῖος , Matthew 9:17; Matthew 13:52, Mark 2:21-22 Luke 5:36; Luke 5:38, 2 Corinthians 5:17, Ephesians 4:24; πλήρωμα , Mark 2:21; μνημεῖον , Matthew 27:60, John 19:41; διαθήκη (T, WH, R, txt., omit), Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6, Hebrews 8:8 (LXX), Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 9:15; οὐρανοί , γῆ , 2 Peter 3:13, Revelation 21:1 (LXX) Ἰερουσαλήμ , Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2; ἄνθρωπος , Ephesians 2:15 (cf. Ezekiel 18:31); πάντα , Revelation 21:5; γέννημα τ . ἀμπέλου , Matthew 26:29, Mark 14:25; διδαχή , Mark 1:27, Acts 17:19; ἐντολή , John 13:34, 1 John 2:7-8, 2 John 1:5; ὄνομα , Revelation 2:17 (LXX); ᾠδή , Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3 (of. Psalms 144:9); κτίσις , 2 Corinthians 5:17, Galatians 6:15; γλῶσσαι , Mark 16:17; compar., Acts 17:21.†

SYN.: νέος G3501, "the new primarily in reference to time, the young, recent; κ . . the new primarily in reference to quality, the fresh, unworn". Cf. Tr., Syn., § lx (the distinction, however, is less marked in late Gk.; cf. Hebrews 12:24 with He, ll. c. supr., and v. MM, Exp., xv).

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

Papyrus usage hardly tends to sharpen the distinction between καινός and νέος. In P Petr III. 80i. 5 (Ptol.) a town named Ptolemais is Πτ. ἡ καινή, while in ib. 72(b).16 it is Πτ. ἡ νέα. P Petr III. 37(a)i. 18 (Ptol.) has χῶμα καινόν contrasted with .21 χῶμα παλαιόν : ib. 46(1).17 has π ̣ρ ̣ο ̣ς ̣, τ ̣α ̣, θ ̣εμέλια τῆς καινῆς καταλύσεως, ";new quarters."; Ostr 1142.4 (beginning iii/A.D.) gives us οἶνος καινός to contrast with οἶνος νέος in Mark 2:22. P Amh II. 64.2 (A.D. 107) περὶ δαπάνης εἰς τὸ ἐκ καινῆς κατασκευαζόμενον βαλανεῖον, ";concerning expenditure on the baths which were being refitted"; (Edd.) : so P Oxy IV. 707i. 7 (c. A.D. 136) οἰκοδομή ]σω τροχὸν ἐκ καινῆς, ";a new wheel,"; PTebt II. 342.16 (late ii/A.D.) τὸ κατασκευασθ (ὲν) ἐκ καινῆς ἐν Σομολ () κεραμεῖον. Two inventories P Tebt II. 405.8 (iii/A.D.), 406.17 (c. A.D. 266) have κόβ (= φ)ινος καινός, ";a new basket,"; and κολόβιον λινοῦν δ [ ]σημον καινόν, ";a new linen shirt with two stripes"; : it may be doubted whether stress is to be laid on their being hitherto unused, though perhaps they were of ancient manufacture. See also P Hib I. 54.26 (c. B.C. 245) κέραμον κα ̣[ι ]νόν, P Lond 402 verso.12 (B.C. 152 or 141) (= II. p. 11) ὀθόνια καινά, P Fay 121.5 (c. A.D. 100) ζυγόδεσμον καινόν, and CP Herm I. 86.10 καινοῦ νομίσματο [ς : cf..18. In P Heid 6.10 (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 126) the writer addresses a Christian ";brother"; as δεσπότην καὶ κενὸν (l. καινὸν) (π) [τ ]ρω [να. Τὰ καινότερον (like τὰ πάλαι, etc.), unless it is a mere mistake for τι, is the phrase for ";news"; in BGU III. 821.4 (ii/A.D.) ἀνέβ ̣η εἰ [ς τ ]ὴν πόλιν, ἵνα εἰδ [ ] τὰ καινότερον, followed by .6 ὅταν ἦν (= , as often) τι καιτότερον, εὐθέως σοι δηλ [ ]σω : cf. Acts 17:21. For the subst. καινισμός see P Lond 354.16 (c. B.C. 10) (= II. p. 165) ἀποστάσεως καινισμὸν παραλογιεῖσθαι, and for the verb καινίζω see P Tor II. 7.18 μὴ προσέχειν τοῖς ἐπὶ χρειῶν τεταγμένοις και (νί)ζειν τι, and Wünsch AF 5.27 (iii/A.D.) ὁρκίζω σε. . τὸν ποιοῦντα ἔκτρομον τὴν [γ ]ῆν ἅπασ (αν καὶ) καινίζοντα πάντας τοὺς κατοικοῦντας (cf. Wisdom of Solomon 7:27).

In MGr καινός is ";literary"; : the New Testament in Pallis’ edition is ἡ νέα διαθήκη, which shows how νέος has gained ground at the expense of its rival.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (44)NAS (42)HCS (42)
1 Corinthians1
2 Corinthians2
2 Peter1
1 John2
2 John1
1 Corinthians1
2 Corinthians2
2 Peter1
1 John2
2 John1
1 Corinthians1
2 Corinthians3
2 Peter2
1 John2
2 John1
List of Word Forms
καινα καινά καινὰ καιναις καιναίς καιναῖς καινη καινή καινὴ καινην καινήν καινὴν καινης καινής καινῆς καινοί καινοίς καινον καινόν καινὸν καινός καινοτερον καινότερον καινου καινού καινοῦ καινους καινούς καινοὺς καινω καινώ καινῷ καινών kaina kainá kainà kainais kainaîs kaine kainē kainḗ kainḕ kainen kainēn kainḗn kainḕn kaines kainês kainēs kainē̂s kaino kainō kainôi kainō̂i kainon kainón kainòn kainoteron kainóteron kainou kainoû kainous kainoús kainoùs

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