ver. 2.0.15.05.05
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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #2596 - κατά

Transliteration:
katá
Phonetics:
kat-ah'  
Word Origin:
a primary particle
Parts of Speech:
Preposition
TDNT:
None
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. down from, through out
  2. according to, toward, along
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

κατά

[ κᾰτᾰ ], poet. καταί acc. to A.D. Synt. 309.28, found in Compds., as καταιβάτης: Pr with gen. or acc.:

downwards. WITH GEN.,

I denoting motion from above, down from, βῆ δὲ κατ' Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων, κατ' Ἰδαίων ὀρέων, βαλέειν κ. πέτρης, Il. 22.187, 16.677, Od. 14.399; κατ' οὐρανοῦ εἰλήλουθας Il. 6.128; καθ' ἵππων ἀΐξαντε ib. 232; δάκρυα.. κ. βλεφάρων Χαμάδις ῥέε 17.438; ἵεις σαυτὸν κ. τοῦ τείχους Ar. V. 355; ἁλόμενοι κ. τῆς πέτρας X. An. 4.2.17; κ. τῶν πετρῶν ὦσαι Pl. Phdr. 229c; κ. κρημνῶν ῥιφέντες Id. Lg. 944a: for κατ' ἄκρης v. ἄκρα: Μοῖσα κ. στόματος Χέε νέκταρ Theoc. 7.82 (but perh. in sense 11.1).

II denoting downward motion,

1 down upon or over, κ. Χθονὸς ὄμματα πήξας Il. 3.217; of the dying, κατὰ.. ὀφθαλμῶν κέχυτ' ἀχλύς a cloud settled upon the eyes, 5.696, cf. 20.321; τὸν δὲ κατ' ὀφθαλμῶν.. νὺξ ἐκάλυψεν 13.580; φᾶρος κὰκ κεφαλῆς εἴρυσσε down over.., Od. 8.85; [ κόπρος ] κ. σπείους κέχυτο.. πολλή 9.330; ὕδωρ κ. Χειρός, v. Χείρ; μύρον κ. τῆς κεφαλῆς καταχέαντες Pl. R. 398a; νάρκη μου κ. τῆς Χειρὸς καταχεῖται Ar. V. 713; κ. τῆς τραπέζης καταπάσας τέφραν Id. Nu. 177; ξαίνειν κ. τοῦ νώτου πολλὰς [ πληγάς ] D. 19.197; ἐσκεδασμένοι κ. τῆς Χώρας Plb. 1.17.10; οἱ κ. νώτου πονοῦντες Id. 3.19.7; ῥόπαλον ἤλασα κὰκ κεφαλῆς Theoc. 25.256; κ. κόρρης παίειν, = ἐπὶ κόρρης, Luc. Cat. 12, al. Geom., along, upon, πίπτειν κατ' [ εὐθείας ] Archim. Sph.Cyl. 1 Def. 2; αἱ γωνίαι κ. κύκλων περιφερειῶν ἐνεχθήσονται will move on.., ib.1.23, al., cf. Aristarch.Sam. 1.

2. down into, νέκταρ στάξε κ. ῥινῶν Il. 19.39; of a dart, κ. γαίης ᾤχετο 13.504, etc.; ἔθηκε κατ' ὄχθης μείλινον ἔγχος 21.172; ψυχὴ κ. Χθονὸς ᾤχετο 23.100; κ. γᾶς under ground, Pi. O. 2.59; κατ' ὕδατος under water, Hdt. 2.149; [ ποταμὸς ] δὺς κ. τῆς γῆς Pl. Phd. 113c, cf. Ti. 25d; κ. γῆς σύμεναι A. Eu. 1007 (anap.); κ. Χθονὸς κρύψαι to bury. S. Ant. 24; ὁ κ. γῆς one dead and buried, X. Cyr. 4.6.5; οἱ κ. Χθονὸς θεοί A. Pers. 689, etc.; θεοὶ[οἱ] κ. γᾶς Id. Ch. 475 (lyr.), etc.; so κ. θαλάσσης ἀφανίζεσθαι, καταδεδυκέναι, Hdt. 7.6, 235; also βᾶτε κατ' ἀντιθύρων go down by or through.., S. El. 1433.

3. later, towards a point, τοξεύειν κ. σκοποῦ to shoot at, Hdn. 6.7.8; κατ' ἰχνῶν τινος ὁδεύειν Luc. Rh. Proverbs 9:1-18.

4. of vows or oaths, by, καθ' ἡμῶν ὀμνύναι D. 29.26, cf. 54.38; ἐπιορκήσασα κ. τῶν παίδων Lys. 32.13; esp. of the victims, etc., over which the oath is taken, ὀμνυόντων τὸν ἐπιχώριον ὅρκον καθ' ἱερῶν τελείων Foed. ap. Th. 5.47, cf. Arist. Ath. 29.5, Foed.Delph.Pell. 1 A 9, etc.; κ. τῶν νικητηρίων εὐξάμενοι D. Ephesians 1:16; also κατ' ἐξωλείας ὀμνύναι to imprecate destruction on oneself, Id. 21.119; κατ' ἐξ. ἐπιορκεῖν Id. 57.22. to make a vow towards, i.e. make a vow of offering.., κ. Χιλίων εὐχὴν ποιήσασθαι Χιμάρων Ar. Eq. 660.

5. in hostile sense, against, A. Ch. 221, S. Aj. 304, etc.; κ. πάντων φύεσθαι D. 18.19; esp. of judges giving sentence against a person, A. Th. 198, S. Aj. 449, etc.; ψεύδεσθαι κατά τινος Lys. 22.7; λέγειν κατά τινος κακά S. Ph. 65, cf. X. HG 1.5.2, etc.; of speeches, [ λόγος ] κ. Μειδίου, etc. (opp. πρὸς Λεπτίνην, in reply to L.); δῶρα εἰληφέναι κατά τινος Din. 3.6, cf. 18.

6. of Time, for, μισθοῦν κ. εἴκοσι ἐτῶν IG 12.94.37; κ. βίου for life, Tab.Heracl. 1.50; κὰπ παντὸς Χρόνοι IG 9(2).517.20 (Larissa) (but κ. παντὸς τοῦ Χρόνου σκέψασθε D. 22.72 falls under 7); κ. παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος ἀείμνηστον Lycurg. 7.

7. in respect of, concerning, μὴ κατ' ἀνθρώπων σκόπει μόνον τοῦτο Pl. Phd. 70d; κ. τῶν ἄλλων τεχνῶν τοιαῦτα εὑρήσομεν Id. Sph. 253b; οἱ κ. Δημοσθένους ἔπαινοι praises bestowed on D., Aeschin. 3.50; ἐρεῖν or λέγειν κατά τινος to say of one, Pl. Ap. 37b, Prt. 323b, etc.; εἰ κ. θηλείας φαίης A.D. Synt. 198.10; εἴπερ ἕν γέ τι ζητεῖς κ. πάντων Pl. Men. 73d, cf. 74b; ὅπερ εἴρηται καθόλου κ. πασῶν τῶν πολιτειῶν Arist. Pol. 1307b2; freq. in the Logic of Arist., κατά τινος λέγεσθαι or κατηγορεῖσθαι to be predicated of.., Int. 16b10, Cat. 1b10, etc.; καταφῆσαί (or ἀποφῆσαί) τι κατά τινος to affirm (or deny) of.., Metaph. 1007b21; so κ. τινὸς ὑπάρχειν Int. 16b13: and in Adv. καθόλου (q.v.).

WITH Acc.,

I

1. of motion downwards, κ. ῥόον down stream, Od. 14.254, Il. 12.33; opp. ἀνὰ τὸν ποταμόν, Hdt. 2.96; κ. τὸν ποταμόν, κ. τὸ ὑδάτιον, Id. 1.194, Pl. Phdr. 229a; κατ' οὖρον ἰέναι, ῥεῖν, down (i.e. with) the wind, A. Th. 690, S. Tr. 468; κ. πνεῦμα, κατ' ἄνεμον ἵστασθαι to leeward, Arist. HA 535a19, 560b13, Dsc. 4.153.

2. with or without signf. of motion, on, over, throughout a space, freq. in Hom., καθ' Ἑλλάδα καὶ μέσον Ἄργος Od. 1.344; κατ' Ἀχαΐδα, κ. Τροίην, Il. 11.770, 9.329; κατ' ἠερόεντα κέλευθα Od. 20.64; κ. πόντον, κῦμα, ὕλην, Il. 4.276, 6.136, 3.151; κ. πτόλιν Od. 2.383; κ. ἄστυ, οἶκον, Il. 18.286, 6.56; κ. ὅμιλον, στρατόν, 3.36, 1.229; κ. κλισίας τε νέας τε ib. 487; πόλεμον κάτα δακρυόεντα 17.512; κ. ὑσμίνην, μόθον, κλόνον, 5.84, 18.159, 16.331; τὸ ὕδωρ κ. τοὺς ταφροὺς ἐχώρει X. Cyr. 7.5.16, etc. (in later Gr.of motion to a place, κ. τὴν Ἰταλίαν Zos. 3.1); καθ' Ἑλλάδα A. Ag. 578; κ. πτόλιν Id. Th. 6; αἱ σκηναὶ αἱ κ. τὴν ἀγοράν D. 18.169; τὰ κατ' ἀγροὺς Διονύσια Aeschin. 1.157, etc.; κ. τὸ προάστιον Hdt. 3.54; τύμβον κατ' αὐτόν A. Th. 528, cf. Supp. 869 (lyr.): Geom., at a point, Euc. 1.1,al.; τέμνειν [ σφαῖραν ] κ. κύκλον in a circle, Archim. Aren. 1.17; also, in the region of, οἱ κ. τὸν ἥλιον γινόμενοι ἀστέρες Gem. 12.7: freq. in Hom. in describing the place of a wound, βαλεῖν κ. στῆθος, γαστέρα, etc., Il. 11.108, 16.465, al.; νύξε κ. δεξιὸν ὦμον 5.46; οὔτασε κατ' ἰσχίον 11.339; so βαλεῖν κατ' ἀσπίδα, κ. ζωστῆρα, 5.537, 615; βέλος κ. καίριον ἦλθεν struck upon a vital part, v.l. in 11.439: metaph., ἄχος κ. φρένα τύψε 19.125: generally, κ. φρένα καὶ κατὰ θυμόν in heart and soul, 4.163, al.

3. opposite, over against, κ. Σινώπην πόλιν Hdt. 1.76, cf. 2.148, Th. 2.30, etc.; ἀνὴρ κατ' ἄνδρα A. Th. 505; μολὼν.. μοι κ. στόμα Id. Ch. 573; κατ' ὀφθαλμούς τινος LXX 2 Kings 12:11; οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι κ. Λακεδαιμονίους ἐγένοντο X. HG 4.2.18; κατ' Ἀχαιοὺς ἀντετάχθησαν ibid.; ἐν συμποσίῳ.., περίμενε, μέχρις ἂν γένηται κατὰ σέ Epict. Ench. 15, cf. D.L. 7.108.

II

1. distributively, of a whole divided into parts, κρῖν' ἄνδρας κ. φῦλα, κ. φρήτρας by tribes, by clans, Il. 2.362; κ. σφέας μαχέονται by themselves, separately, ib. 366, cf. Th. 4.64; ἐσκήνουν κ. τάξεις X. Cyr. 2.1.25; αὐτὴ καθ' αὑτήν A. Pr. 1013; κ. κώμας κατοικημένοι in separate villages, Hdt. 1.96; κατ' ἑωυτοὺς ἕκαστοι ἐτράποντο each to his own home, Id. 5.15; κ. πόλεις ἀποπλεῦσαι, διαλυθῆναι, Th. 1.89, 3.1: στρατιὰ κ. ἕνδεκα μέρη κεκοσμημένη Pl. Phdr. 247a; later οἱ κατ' ἄνδρα λόγοι PLond. 2.259.72 (i A. D.), cf. D.Chr. 32.6, etc.; ἡ κατ' οἰκίαν ἀπογραφή PLond. 3.904.20 (ii A.D.), etc.; κατ' ἔπος word by word, Ar. Ra. 802; κατ' ὄνομα individually, 3 John 1:14, etc.; παῖδα κ. κρήνην at each fount a boy, Lyr.Alex.Adesp. 37.13, cf. POxy 2108.9 (iii A.D.).

2. of Time, καθ' ἡμέραν, κατ' ἦμαρ, day by day, daily, v. ἡμέρα 111; καθ' ἑνιαυτόν, κατ' ἔτος, Test.Epict. 6.24, Luke 2:41, etc.; κ. μῆνα POxy. 275.18 (i A.D.).

3. of Numbers, by so many at a time, καθ' ἕνα one at a time, individually, Hdt. 7.104 (later τὸ καθ' ἕν detailed list, PTeb. 47.34 (ii B.C.), etc.); κ. μίαν τε καὶ δύο by ones and twos, Hdt. 4.113; δύο μνέαι τεταγμέναι κατ' ἄνδρα αἰχμάλωτον ἕκαστον Id. 6.79; ἐκ τῶν συμμάχων ἐξελέγετο κατ' ὀλίγους Id. 8.113; κ. τὰς πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι μνᾶς πεντακοσίας δραχμὰς εἰσφέρειν to pay 500 drachmae on every 25 minae, D. 27.7; κ. διακοσίας καὶ τριακοσίας ὁμοῦ τι τάλαντον διακεχρημένον in separate sums of 200 and 300 drachmae, Id. 27.11; of ships, κ. μίαν (sc. ναῦν) in column, Th. 2.90; κ. μίαν ναῦν ἐπιτάττειν Plb. 1.26.12, cf. Th. 2.84: Geom., μετρεῖν, μετρεισθαι κατά.., measure, be measured a certain number of times, Euc. 7 Def. 8,9,al.; μετρεῖν κ. τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας as many times as there are units in B, Id. 7.16.

III

1. of direction towards an object or purpose, πλεῖν κ. πρῆξιν on a business, for or after a matter, Od. 3.72, 9.253; πλάζεσθαι κ. ληΐδα to rove in search of booty, 3.106; κ. ληΐην ἐκπλῶσαι Hdt. 2.152; ἔβη κ. δαῖτα Il. 1.424; ἐπιδημεῖν κατ' ἐμπορίαν IG 22.141.32, cf. Arist. Ath. 11.1; κ. Χρέος τινὸς ἐλθεῖν come to seek his help, consult him, Od. 11.479, etc.; ἵεται κ. τὴν φωνήν Hdt. 2.70; κ. θέαν ἥκειν to have come for the purpose of seeing, Th. 6.31; κ. πλοῦν ἤδη ὤν Id. 7.31; καθ' ἁρπαγὴν ἐσκεδασμένοι X. An. 3.5.2; κ. τί; for what purpose? why? Ar. Nu. 239.

2. of pursuit, κ. πόδας τινὸς ἐλαύνειν Hdt. 9.89; simply κ. τινά after him, Id. 1.84; ἰέναι κ. τοὺς ἄλλους Id. 9.53; κατ' ἴχνος on the track, S. Aj. 32, A. Ag. 695 (lyr.); ὥσπερ κατ' ἴχνη κ. τὰ νῦν εἰρημένα ζῆν Pl. Phd. 115b.

3. Geom., in adverbial phrases, κ. κάθετον in the same vertical line, Archim. Quadr. 6; κατ' εὐθεῖάν τινι in the same straight line with.., Papp. 58.7. of fitness or conformity, in accordance with, κ. θυμόν Il. 1.136; καθ' ἡμέτερον νόον after our liking, 9.108; κ. νόον πρήξωμεν Hdt. 4.97; κ. μοῖραν as is meet and right, Il. 1.286; κατ' αἶσαν, κ. κόσμον, 10.445, 472; κ. νόμον Hes. Th. 417; κὰν νόμον Pi. O. 8.78; κ. τοὺς νόμους IG 22.1227.15; αἰτίαν καθ' ἥντινα

IV

1. for what cause, A. Pr. 228; κατ' ἔχθραν, κ. φθόνον, for (i.e. because of) hatred, envy, Id. Supp. 336, Eu. 686; καθ' ἡδονήν τι δρᾶν, ποιεῖν, do as one pleases, Th. 2.37, 53; κ. τὸ ἔχθος τὸ Θεσσαλῶν Hdt. 8.30, cf. 9.38; κ. φιλίαν, κατ' ἔχθος, Th. 1.60, 103, etc.; κατ' ἄλλο μὲν οὐδέν, ὅτι δέ.. for no other reason but that.., Pl. Phdr. 229d; κ. δύναμιν to the best of one's power, Hdt. 3.142, etc. (κὰδ δ. Hes. Op. 336); κ. τρόπον διοικεῖν arrange suitably, Isoc. 2.6,al.; κατ' εὐνοίην with goodwill, Hdt. 6.108; κ. τὰ παρηγγελμένα X. An. 2.2.8, etc.; in quotations, according to, κατ' Αἰσχύλον Ar. Th. 134; κ. Πίνδαρον Pl. Phdr. 227b, etc.

2. in relation to, concerning, τὰ κατ' ἀνθρώπους = τὰ ἀνθρώπινα, A. Eu. 930, 310; τὰ κ. τὸν Τέλλον Hdt. 1.31; τὰ κ. τὴν Κύρου τελευτήν ib. 214; τὰ κ. πόλεμον military matters, Aeschin. 1.181; αἱ κ. τὴν πόλιν οἰκονομίαι (opp. αἱ πολεμικαὶ πράξεις) the management of public affairs, Din. 1.97; τὰ κ. τὰς θυσίας SIG 506.7 (Delph., iii B.C.); so τὸ κατ' ὑμέας as far as concerns you, Hdt. 7.158; τὸ κατ' ἐμέ as far as I am concerned, D. 18.247; κ. τοῦτο in this respect, Hdt. 5.3, etc.; κ. ταὐτά in the same way, Id. 2.20; καθ' ὅτι so far as, Th. 1.82, etc.

3. in Comparisons, corresponding with, after the fashion of, κρομύοιο λοπὸν κ. like the coat of an onion, dub. in Od. 19.233; μέλος κ. Φοίνισσαν ἐμπολὰν πέμπεται Pi. P. 2.67; κ. Μιθραδάτην answering to the description of him, Hdt. 1.121; τὴν ἰδέαν κ. πνιγέα like an oven in appearance, Ar. Av. 1001; κηδεῦσαι καθ' ἑαυτόν to marry in one's own rank of life, A. Pr. 890; οὐ κατ' ἄνθρωπον φρονεῖν Id. Th. 425; λέγω κατ' ἄνδρα, μὴ θεόν, σέβειν ἐμέ Id. Ag. 925; οὐ κατὰ σέ none of your sort, Chionid. 1 (but ἵνα προσείπω σε κατὰ σέ to address you in your own style, Pl. Grg. 467c); τὸ κατ' ἐμὲ καὶ οὐ κατ' ἐμέ Arr. Epict. 1.28.5; οὐ κ. τὰς Μειδίου λῃτουργίας D. 21.169; ἡ βασιλεία κ. τὴν ἀριστοκρατίαν ἐστί Arist. Pol. 1310b3: freq. after a Comp., μέζων ἢ κατ' ἀνθρώπων φύσιν Hdt. 8.38, cf. Pl. Revelation 20:1-15 e, etc.; μείζω ἢ κ. δάκρυα too great for tears, Th. 7.75; ἤθεα βαθύτερα ἢ κ. Θρήϊκας morerefined than was common among the Thracians, Hdt. 4.95. by the favour of a god, etc., κ. δαίμονα Pi. O. 9.28, cf. P. 8.68; κ. θεῖον Ar. Eq. 147 codd. (κ. θεὸν Cobet); κ. τύχην τινά D. 48.24. of round numbers (v. infr. v11.2), nearly, about, κ. Χίλια ἑξακόσια ἔτεα 1600 years more or less, Hdt. 2.145, cf. 6.44, al.; κατ' οὐδέν next to nothing, Pl. Plt. 302b.

κατά, = κατὰ τά, IG 22.334.15; cf. κά. κᾆτα, Att. crasis for καὶ εἶτα, v. εἶτα sub fin. κατάβα, for κατάβηθι, aor. 2 imper. of καταβαίνω.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 κατά (on its neglect of elision before a vowel see Tdf, Proleg., p. 95; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5,1a.; a. 10; WH's Appendix, p. 146a), a preposition denoting motion or diffusion or direction from the higher to the lower; as in classical Greek, joined with the genitive and the accusative.

I. With the genitive ( Winer's Grammar, § 47, k., p. 381 (357); (B, § 147,20));

1. properly,

a. down from, down: κατά τοῦ κρημνοῦ, Matthew 8:32; Mark 5:13; Luke 8:33; κατεχην κατά τῆς κεφαλῆς (so that it flowed down from his head (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357) note); but it is more correct here to omit κατά with L T Tr WH; see καταχέω), Mark 14:3; hence κατά κεφαλῆς (a veil hanging down from his entry) ἔχων, 1 Corinthians 11:4 (( A. V. having his head covered) cf. καταπέτασμα (or rather κάλυμμα (which see), but see ἔχω, I:1b.)).

b. down upon (down into) anything: Acts 27:14 ( Winer s Grammar, 381 (357) note{1}; cf. B. D. American edition, under the word ); tropically, κατά βάθους πτωχεία reaching down into the depth, i. e. deep or extreme poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2 (cf. Strabo 9,5, p. 419 ἐστι τό μαντεῖον ἄντρον κοῖλον κατά βάθους).

c. used of motion or extension through a space from top to bottom; hence through, throughout: in the N. T. (and in Luke's writings; Buttmann, § 147,20) everywhere with the adjective ὅλος, as καθ' ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου τῆς Ἰουδαίας, τῆς Ἰόππης, Luke 4:14; Luke 23:5; Acts 9:31; Acts 10:37 (διεσπάρησαν κατά τῆς νήσου, Polybius 3,19, 7; ἐσκεδάσμενοι κατά τῆς χώρας, 1,17, 10; 3,76, 10; μή παραβαίνειν τάς ἁμαροτροχιας, ἀλλά κατ' αὐτῶν ἰέναι, Aelian v. h. 2,27).

2. metaphorically,

a. after verbs of swearing, adjuring (the hand being, as it were, placed down upon the thing sworn by (cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 238; Kühner, § 433at the end)), by: Matthew 26:63; Hebrews 6:13,16 ( Isaiah 45:23; 2 Chronicles 36:13; Judith 1:12; Demosthenes 553,17; 554,23).

b. against (properly, down upon ( Winer's Grammar, 382 (358)); Hebrew עַל): opposed to ὑπέρ, Mark 9:40; 2 Corinthians 13:8; Romans 8:31; opposed to μετά, Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:23; after ἐπιθυμεῖν, Galatians 5:17; εἰπεῖν πονηρόν (ῤῆμα), Matthew 5:11; λαλεῖν, Acts 6:13; Jude 1:15; μαρτυρία, Mark 14:55; Matthew 26:59; μαρτυρεῖν, 1 Corinthians 15:15 (here many take κατά equivalent to with regard to, of; cf. DeWette at the passage; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 272); ψευδομαρτύρειν, Mark 14:56f; γογγύζειν, Matthew 20:11 ( Exodus 15:24 Alex.); διδάσκειν, Acts 21:28; ψεύδεσθαι, James 3:14 ( Xenophon, Apology 13); συμβούλιον λαβεῖν or ποιεῖν, Matthew 27:1; Mark 3:6; αἰτεῖσθαι τί, Acts 25:3,15; after verbs of accusing, etc.: ἔχειν τί, Matthew 5:23; Mark 11:25; Revelation 2:4,14, 20; κατηγορεῖν, Luke 23:14; κατηγορία, John 18:29 ( Tdf. omits κατά); ἐγκάλειν, Romans 8:33; ἐντυγχάνειν τίνι, Romans 11:2; add, Acts 24:1; Acts 25:2; James 5:9; τό χειρόγραφον, Colossians 2:14; κρίσιν ποιεῖν, Jude 1:15; after verbs of rebelling, fighting, prevailing: Matthew 10:35; Matthew 12:25; Acts 14:2; 1 Corinthians 4:6; 2 Corinthians 10:5; 1 Peter 2:11; ( Revelation 12:7 Rec.); ἰσχύειν, Acts 19:16; ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν, John 19:11.

II. With the accusative; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 49d.; Bernhardy (1829), p. 239ff

1. of place;

a. of the place through which anything is done or is extended (properly, down through; opposed to ἀνά, up through): καθ' ὅλην τήν πόλιν κηρύσσειν, Luke 8:39; ἐκφέρειν κατά τάς πλατείας, Acts 5:15 ( R G); add, Luke 9:6; Luke 13:22; Luke 15:14; Acts 8:1; Acts 11:1; Acts 15:23; Acts 21:21; Acts 24:5,12; Acts 27:2; τούς κατά τά ἔθνη (throughout Gentile lands) πάντας Ἰουδαίους, Acts 21:21, cf. Grimm on 2 Maccabees 1:1; κατά τήν ὁδόν, along the way i. e. on the journey ( Winer's Grammar, 400 (374) note{1}), Luke 10:4; Acts 8:36; Acts 25:3; Acts 26:13; along (Latin secundum or praeter ( R. V. off)), πέλαγος τό κατά τήν Κιλικίαν, Acts 27:5.

b. of the place to which one is brought (down): γενόμενος ( Tr WH omit γ.) κατά τόν τόπον (ἐλθών etc.), Luke 10:32 (cf. Field, Otium Norv. Pars iii at the passage); ἐλθόντες κατά τήν Μυσίαν, Acts 16:7; κατά τήν Κνίδον, Acts 27:7; κατ' αὐτόν (came) to him, i. e. to the place where he was lying, Luke 10:33.

c. of direction; toward: Λιβύη κατά Κυρήνην, that Libya which lay toward Cyrene, i. e. Libya of Cyrene (i. e. the chief city of which was Cyrene), Acts 2:10; βλέπειν, to look, lie toward (see βλέπω, 3), Acts 27:12; πορεύεσθαι κατά μεσημβρίαν, Acts 8:26; κατά σκοπόν, toward the goal, my eye on the goal, Philippians 3:14. against (Latin adversus with the accusative); over against, opposite: κατά πρόσωπον, to the face, Galatians 2:11 (see πρόσωπον, 1a.); equivalent to present, Acts 25:16 ( A. V. face to face); 2 Corinthians 10:1; with the genitive of person added, before the face of, in the presence of, one: Luke 2:31; Acts 3:13; τά κατά πρόσωπον, the things that are open to view, known to all, 2 Corinthians 10:7; κατ' ὀφθαλμούς, before the eyes, Galatians 3:1; here, too, according to some (cf. Winer's Grammar, 400 (374) note{3}) belongs κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27, but it is more correctly referred to 3c. α. below.

d. of the place where: κατ' οἶκον (opposed to ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), at home, privately ( Winer's Grammar, 400 (374) note{1}), Acts 2:46; Acts 5:42.

e. of that which so joins itself to one thing as to separate itself from another; our for, by: κατ' ἰδίαν, apart, see ἴδιος, 2; καθ' ἑαυτόν, alone ( by himself), Acts 28:16; James 2:17 ( R. V. in itself) ( 2 Maccabees 13:13; οἱ καθ' αὑτούς Ἕλληνες, Thucydides 1,138; οἱ Βοιωτοι καθ' αὑτούς, Diodorus 13,72; other examples are given by Alberti, Observations, etc., p. 293; Loesner, Observations, e Philone, p. 460f); ἔχειν τί καθ' ἑαυτόν, to have a thing by and to oneself, i. e. to keep it hidden in one's mind, Romans 14:22 ( Josephus, Antiquities 2,11, 1; Heliodorus 7,16; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 401 (375) note{1})); hence, of that which belongs to some person or thing: κατά τήν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν, belonging to ( A. V. in) the church that was there, Acts 13:1; ἐκκλησία κατ' οἶκον τίνος, belonging to one's household (see ἐκκλησία, 4b. aa.); hence it forms a periphrasis — now for the genitive, as τά κατά Ἰουδαίους ἔθη (equivalent to τῶν Ἰουδαίων), Acts 26:3; now for the possessive pronoun, οἱ καθ' ὑμᾶς ποιηταί, your own poets, Acts 17:28 (here WH marginal reading καθ' ἡμᾶς, see their Introductory § 404); νόμου τοῦ καθ' ὑμᾶς (a law of your own), Acts 18:15; τό κατ' ἐμέ πρόθυμον, my inclination, Romans 1:15 (see πρόθυμος); καθ' ὑμᾶς πίστις, Ephesians 1:15 ( κατά τόν τύραννον ὠματης τέ καί δύναμις, Diodorus 14,12; μέχρι τῶν καθ' ἡμᾶς χρόνων, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Antiquities 2,1; cf. Grimm on 2 Maccabees 4:21, p. 88; a throng of examples from Polybius may be seen in Schweighaeuser, Lex. Polybius, p. 323 f; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 154 (146); 400 (374) note{2}; especially Buttmann, § 132,2)).

2. of Time (cf. Winer s Grammar, 401 (374)); during, about; Latin tempore: κατ' ἐκεῖνον, or τοῦτον τόν καιρόν, Acts 12:1; Acts 19:23; Romans 9:9; Hebrews 9:9 ( R G); κατά τό αὐτό, at the same time, together, Acts 14:1 (see αὐτός, III:1); κατά τό μεσονύκτιον, Acts 16:25; κατά μέσον τῆς νυκτός, Acts 27:27; (possibly also κατά μεσημβρίαν, at noon, Acts 8:26 (see μεσημβρία, b.)); κατά καιρόν, see καιρός, 2a.; κατ' ἀρχάς ( Herodotus 3,153), in the beginning (of things), Hebrews 1:10; κατά τήν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ, Hebrews 3:8 (as the Sept. in this passage have rendered the preposition כְּ in the context by ὡς (ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ, Psalm 94:8 (Psalm 95:8>)), some would take it and κατά here equivalent to like as in the day etc.; Vulg. secundum); κατά πᾶν σάββατον, Acts 13:27; Acts 15:21; Acts 18:4; καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, Hebrews 3:13; κατά μῆνα (ἕνα) ἕκαστον, Revelation 22:2; κατ' ὄναρ, during a dream, see ὄναρ.

3. it denotes reference, relation, proportion, of various sorts;

a. distributively, indicating a succession of things following one another ( Winer s Grammar, 401 (374); Buttmann, § 147,20); α, in reference to place: κατά πόλιν, in every city ( city by city, from city to city), Luke 8:1,4; Acts 15:21; Acts 20:23; Titus 1:5 ( Thucydides 1,122); κατ' ἐκκλησίαν, in every church, Acts 14:23; with the plural, κατά πόλεις, Luke 13:22; κατά τάς κώμας, Luke 9:6 ( Herodotus 1,96); κατά τόπους, Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11; κατά τάς συναγωγάς, in every synagogue, Acts 22:19; (cf. κατά τούς οἴκους εἰσπορευόμενος, Acts 8:3). β. in reference to time: κατ' ἔτος, yearly, year by year, Luke 2:41; also κατ' ἐνιαυτόν (see ἐνιαυτός); καθ' ἡμέραν etc., see ἡμέρα, 2, p. 278{a}; κατά μίαν σαββάτου ( R G σαββάτων), on the first day of every week, 1 Corinthians 16:2; κατά ἑορτήν, at any and every feast, Matthew 27:15; Mark 15:6; Luke 23:17 ( Rec.; cf. Buttmann, § 133,26. Others understand the phrase in these passages (contextually) "at or during (see 2above) the feast," viz. the Passover; cf. Winer's Grammar, 401 (374)). γ. universally: καθ' ἕνα πάντες, all one by one, successively, 1 Corinthians 14:31, see more fully in εἷς, 4c.; κατά δύο, by two, 1 Corinthians 14:27; κατά ἑκατόν καί κατά πεντήκοντα, by hundreds and by fifties, Mark 6:40 L T Tr WH; κατά μέρος, severally, singly, part by part, Hebrews 9:5 ( Herodotus 9,25; Xenophon, anab. 3,4, 22); κατ' ὄνομα, by name, i. e. each by its own name ( Vulg. nominatim (or per nomen)): John 10:3; 3 John 1:15 (14); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 858f.

b. equivalent to the Latin ratione habita alicuius rei vel personae; as respects; with regard to; in reference to; so far as relates to; as concerning; ( Winer's Grammar, 401 (375)): κατά σάρκα or κατά τήν σάρκα, as to the flesh (see σάρξ (especially 2b.)), Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3,5; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 11:18; οἱ κύριοι κατά σάρκα (Luther well, die leiblichen Herren), in earthly relations, according to the arrangements of society, Ephesians 6:5; κατά τό εὐαγγέλιον, κατά τήν ἐκλογήν, Romans 11:28; add, Romans 1:4; Romans 7:22; Philippians 3:5; Hebrews 9:9; τά κατά τινα, one's affairs, one's case, Acts 24:22; Acts 25:14; Ephesians 6:21; Philippians 1:12; Colossians 4:7 (and very often in classical Greek); κατά πάντα τρόπον, in every way, in every respect, Romans 3:2; the opposite κατά μηδένα τρόπον, in no wise, 2 Thessalonians 2:3; κατά πάντα, in all respects, in all things, Acts 17:22; Colossians 3:20,22; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:15 ( Thucydides 4,81).

c. according to, agreeably to; in reference to agreement or conformity to a standard, in various ways ( Winer's Grammar, 401 (375)); α. according to anything as a standard, agreeably to: περιπατεῖν κατά τί, Mark 7:5; Romans 8:1 ( Rec.), Romans 8:4>; Romans 14:15>; 2 Thessalonians 3:6; Ephesians 2:2; ζῆν κατά, Acts 26:5; Romans 8:12 f; πορεύεσθαι, 2 Peter 3:3; ἀποδιδόναι τίνι, Matthew 16:27, etc. (see ἀποδίδωμι, (especially 4)); λαμβάνειν, 1 Corinthians 3:8; so with many other verbs a thing is said to be done or to occur κατά, as in Luke 2:27,29; John 7:24; Colossians 2:8; Colossians 3:10; 1 Timothy 1:18; Hebrews 7:15; Hebrews 8:5,9; 1 John 5:14, etc.; (on the phrase κατ' ἄνθρωπον, see ἄνθρωπος, especially 1c.; (cf. . below; Winer's Grammar, 402 (376))); κατά τήν γραφήν, τάς γραφάς, James 2:8; 1 Corinthians 15:3f.; κατά τό γεγραμμένον, 2 Corinthians 4:13; κατά τό εἰρημένον, Romans 4:18; κατά τόν νόμον, Luke 2:39; John 18:31; John 19:7; Hebrews 9:22; κατά τό εὐαγγέλιον μου, Romans 2:16; Romans 16:25; 2 Timothy 2:8, cf. 1 Timothy 1:11; κατά τό ὡρισμένον, Luke 22:22; καθ' ὁμοίωσιν Θεοῦ, James 3:9; κατά λόγον rightly, justly ( A. V. reason would etc.), Acts 18:14; κατά τινα, agreeably to the will of anyone, as pleases him ( Winer's Grammar, 401 f (375)): so κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27 (cf. 1c. above); 2 Corinthians 7:9,11; κατά Χρσιτον Ἰησοῦν, Romans 15:5; κατά κύριον, 2 Corinthians 11:17; κατά τόν καθαρισμόν, after the manner of purifying, as the rite of purification prescribed, John 2:6; οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες, who bear, reflect, the nature of the flesh, equivalent to οἱ σαρκικοί, and οἱ κατά πνεῦμα ὄντες equivalent to οἱ πνευματικοί, Romans 8:5; κατά τί γνώσομαι; in accordance with what criterion i. e. by what sign shall I know? Luke 1:18. Here belongs the use of the preposition in the titles of the records of the life of Christ: εὐαγγέλιον (which word the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts omit) κατά Ματθαῖον, Μᾶρκον, etc., as Matthew etc. composed or wrote (it). This use of the preposition was not primarily a mere periphrasis for the genitive (Ματθαιου, etc., see II:1e. above), but indicated that the same subject had been otherwise handled by others, cf. παλαιά διαθήκη κατά τούς ἑβδομήκοντα (in tacit contrast not only to the Hebrew text, but also to the Greek translations made by others); οἱ ὑπομνηματισμοι οἱ κατά Νημιαν, 2 Maccabees 2:13 (see Grimm at the passage). Subsequently κατά with an accusative of the writer came to take the place of the genitive, as κατά Μωϋσέα πεντάτευχος in Epiphanius (haer. 8,4. Cf. Winer s Grammar, 402 (375); Buttmann, 3; 157 (137); and see, further, Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word εὐαγγέλιον, James Morison, Commentary on Matthew , Introductory § 4). β. in proportion to, according to the measure of: χαρίσματα κατά τήν χάριν τήν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν διάφορα, Romans 12:6; κατά τό μέτρον, 2 Corinthians 10:13; Ephesians 4:7; κατά τήν σκληρότητά σου, Romans 2:5; κατά τόν χρόνον, Matthew 2:16; ἑκάστῳ κατά τήν ἰδίαν δύναμιν, Matthew 25:15; without the article κατά δύναμιν, 2 Corinthians 8:3 (opposed to ὑπέρ δύναμιν, as Homer, Iliad 3,59 κατ' Αισαν, ὀυδ' ὑπέρ Αισαν); καθ' ὅσον, by so much as, inasmuch as, Hebrews 3:3; Hebrews 7:20; Hebrews 9:27; κατά τοσοῦτο, by so much, Hebrews 7:22. γ. used of the cause; through, on account of, from, owing to (in accordance with i. e. in consequence of, by virtue of) ( Winer's Grammar, 402 (376)): κατά πᾶσαν αἰτίαν, ( for every cause), Matthew 19:3; κατά τήν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:9 (κατά τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ πρόνοιαν, Josephus, Antiquities 20,8, 6); κατά χάριν, Romans 4:16; also opposed to κατά ὀφείλημα ( R. V. as of ... as of), Romans 4:4; οἱ κατά φύσιν κλάδοι, the natural branches, Romans 11:21 (cf. Buttmann, 162 (141)); κατά φύσιν ἀγριλαιος, the natural wild olive tree, Romans 11:24; κατά πίστιν δικαιοσύνη, righteousness proceeding from faith, Hebrews 11:7; add, Romans 8:28; Romans 9:11; Romans 11:5; Romans 16:25; 1 Corinthians 12:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10; Galatians 2:2; Galatians 3:29; Ephesians 1:5,7, 9,11, 19; Ephesians 3:7,11, 16,20; Colossians 1:11,29; Philippians 1:20; Philippians 3:21; Philippians 4:11,19; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Timothy 1:8; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 7:16; Titus 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 3:15. adverbial phrases ( Winer's Grammar, § 51,2g.): κατ' ἐξουσίαν (with authority), Mark 1:27; κατ' ἀνάγκην, κατά ἑκούσιον (q. v) (of necessity, of free will), Philemon 1:14; κατά γνῶσιν, 1 Peter 3:7; κατ' ἐπίγνωσιν, Romans 10:2 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 403 (376)); κατά ἄγνοιαν (in ignorance), Acts 3:17. δ. of likeness; as, like as: συντελέσω ... διαθήκην καινήν, οὐ κατά τήν διαθήκην κτλ., Hebrews 8:8f ( 1 Kings 11:10); so with the accusative of a person (cf. under α. above), Galatians 4:28; 1 Peter 1:15; κατά Θεόν, after the image of God, Ephesians 4:24; κρίνεσθαι κατά ἀνθρώπους, ζῆν κατά Θεόν, to be judged as it is fit men should be judged, to live as God lives, 1 Peter 4:6. Hence, it is used ε. of the mode in which a thing is done; of the quality: ἄνδρες οἱ κατ' ἐξοχήν τῆς πόλεως, the principal men of the city, Acts 25:23; καθ' ὑπομένην ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ, equivalent to ὑπομένοντες ἐν ἔργῳ Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
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KJV (480)NAS (315)HCS (430)
Matthew33
Mark20
Luke43
John10
Acts87
Romans44
1 Corinthians23
2 Corinthians25
Galatians14
Ephesians20
Philippians9
Colossians11
2 Thessalonians4
1 Timothy6
2 Timothy7
Titus7
Philemon2
Hebrews37
James5
1 Peter9
2 Peter4
1 John1
2 John1
3 John1
Jude3
Revelation10
Matthew19
Mark13
Luke30
John5
Acts51
Romans32
1 Corinthians15
2 Corinthians19
Galatians13
Ephesians17
Philippians3
Colossians7
2 Thessalonians3
1 Timothy5
2 Timothy6
Titus6
Philemon1
Hebrews23
James3
1 Peter8
2 Peter4
1 John1
2 John1
Jude3
Revelation9
Matthew36
Mark22
Luke40
John9
Acts80
Romans46
1 Corinthians23
2 Corinthians22
Galatians16
Ephesians21
Philippians8
Colossians12
2 Thessalonians4
1 Timothy5
2 Timothy7
Titus8
Philemon3
Hebrews34
James5
1 Peter10
2 Peter4
1 John1
2 John1
3 John1
Jude4
Revelation8
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επ' καθ καθ' καθά κατ κατ' κατα κατά κατὰ καταμόνας kat kat' kata katá katà kath kath'
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