Old & New Testament Greek
a primary particle of qualified negation (whereas (3756
) expresses an absolute denial)
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Elean μά [ᾱ] SIG 9.5 (Olympia, vi B.C.). (Cf. Skt. mâ´, Arm. mi [from I.- E. mç´ ], negative used in prohibitions): — not, the negative of the will and thought, as οὐ of fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. (A few examples of μηδέ and μηδείς have been included.) in
INDEPENDENT sentences, used in expressions of will or wish, command, entreaty, warning,
1 with pres. imper., 2 pers., μή μ' ἐρέθιζε Il. 1.32, al.; 3 pers., μή μευ πειράτω 9.345, etc.: rarely with aor. imper., μὴ.. ἔνθεο τιμῇ 4.410, cf. Od. 24.248; in Att., μὴ ψεῦσον, ὦ Ζεῦ, τῆς.. ἐλπίδος Ar. Th. 870; 3 pers., μή τις ἀκουσάτω Od. 16.301, cf. Pi. O. 8.55, P. 5.23, A. Th. 1041, S. Aj. 1180; μηδεὶς νομισάτω, προσδοκησάτω X. Cyr. 7.5.73, Pl. Revelation 17:1-18 c: with pf. imper. 3 pers., μή τις ὀπίσσω τετράφθω Il. 12.272; or 2 pers. when pf. = pres., μὴ κεκράγετε Ar. V. 415.
2. with subj. (usu. 2 pers. of aor.), in prohibitions, μὴ δή με.. ἐάσῃς Il. 5.684, cf. A. Pr. 583 (lyr.), al.; μή τοί με κρύψῃς τοῦτο ib. 625, cf. S. Ph. 470; μὴ φθονήσῃς Pl. Prt. 320c: coupled with pres. imper., μὴ βοηθήσητε τῷ πεπονθότι δεινά, μὴ εὐορκεῖτε D. 21.211; 3 pers., μὴ.. γένηται Il. 4.37, cf. Od. 22.213; μὴ ματεύσῃ θεὸς γενέσθαι Pi. O. 5.24: rarely, if ever, with 2 pers. pres. subj., μὴ κάμνῃς E. IA 1143 (leg. κάμῃς); 3 pers., μή τις οἴηται, = μὴ οἰώμεθα, Pl. Lg. 861e: also with the hortative subj. used to supply the 1 pers. of the imper., pres. μὴ ἴομεν (ἴωμεν) Il. 12.216, etc.; μὴ διώκωμεν Hdt. 8.109, etc.: aor. μὴ πάθωμεν X. Cyr. 1.5.11, etc.: rarely with 1 sg., μή σε.. κιχείω Il. 1.26, cf. 21.475, 22.123, S. OC 174 (anap.). with pres. or aor. subj. in a warning or statement of fear, μὴ.. γένησθε take care you do not become, Il. 5.487; μὴ.. ὑφαίνῃσιν I fear.. may prove to be weaving, Od. 5.356; αἷμα μὴ σοῖς ἐξομόρξωμαι πέπλοις E. HF 1399: in Att. Prose, to make a polite suggestion of apprehension or hesitation, perhaps, μὴ ἀγροικότερον ᾖ τὸ ἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν Pl. Grg. 462e, cf. Tht. 188d, Arist. Pol. 1291a8, al.: in later Greek the ind. is found, μὴ ἡ ἔννοια ἡμῶν.. ἀντιλαμβάνεται Dam. Proverbs 20:1-30.
3. with fut. ind., a dub. usage (νεμεσήσετ ' is subj. in Il. 15.115), μηδεμίαν ἄδειαν δώσετε Lys. 29.13; μὴ βουλήσεσθε (Pap. βούλη[σθ]ε) D. 23.117; cf. μαλακὸν ἐνδώσετε μηδέν Ar. Pl. 488.
4. with past tenses of ind. to express an unfulfilled wish, μὴ ὄφελες λίσσεσθαι Il. 9.698, cf. Od. 11.548; μή ποτ' ὤφελον λιπεῖν τὴν Σκῦρον S. Ph. 969; εἴθε μή ποτ' εἰδόμαν Id. OT 1217 (lyr.), cf. E. IA 70, Cyc. 186, X. Cyr. 4.6.3.
5. with opt. to express a negative wish, with pres., ἃ μὴ κραίνοι τύχη A. Th. 426, cf. Eu. 938 (lyr.): more freq. with aor., μὴ σέ γ' ἐν ἀμφιάλῳ Ἰθάκῃ βασιλῆα Κρονίων ποιήσειεν Od. 1.386, cf. 403, 11.613.
6. in oaths and asseverations, ἴστω Ζεὺς.., μὴ μὲν τοῖς ἵπποισιν ἀνὴρ ἐποχήσεται ἄλλος Il. 10.330; ἴστω νῦν τόδε Γαῖα.., μὴ.. Ποσειδάων.. πημαίνει Τρῶας 15.41; μὰ τὴν Ἀφροδίτην.., μὴ ἐγώ σ' ἀφήσω Ar. Ec. 1000, cf. Av. 195, Lys. 917.
7. c. inf., when used as imper., μὴ δή μοι ἀπόπροθεν ἰσχέμεν ἵππους Il. 17.501; μὴ πρὶν ἐπ' ἠέλιον δῦναι 2.413; οἷς μὴ πελάζειν A. Pr. 712.
8. freq. without a Verb, εἰ χρή, θανοῦμαι. Answ. μὴ σύ γε (sc. θάνῃς) S. OC 1441; ἄπελθε νῦν. Answ. μὴ (sc. γενέσθω) ἀλλά nay but, Ar. Ach. 458; in curt expressions, μὴ τριβὰς ἔτι (sc. ποιεῖσθε) S. Ant. 577; μή μοι σύ none of that to me! E. Med. 964; μή μοι πρόφασιν no excuses! Ar. Ach. 345; μή μοί γε μύθους Id. V. 1179.
in DEPENDENT clauses:
1 with Final Conjs., ἵνα μή Il. 19.348, etc.; ὅπως μή D. 27.5,al.; ὡς μή Il. 8.37, A. Pr. 53,al.; ὄφρα μή Il. 1.118,al.: with ὅπως ἄν and ὡς ἄν, that so, ὅπως ἂν.. μηδέ Ar. V. 178, Pl. Grg. 481a; ὡς ἂν μή Od. 4.749, Hdt. 1.5; but μή alone, = ἵνα μή, lest, ἀπόστιχε μή τινοήσῃ Ἥρη Il. 1.522, cf. 587; λίσσεσθαι.., μή οἱ.. χολώσαιτο φρένα κούρη Od. 6.147: fut. ind. and aor. subj. in consecutive clauses, Ar. Ec. 495 (lyr., dub.l.).
2. in the protasis of conditional sentences, v. εἰ (for the exceptions v. οὐ), and with temporal conjunctions used conditionally, v. ἐπειδάν, ὅταν, ὅτε, etc. ὅτι μή except, ὅτι μὴ Χῖοι μοῦνοι Hdt. 1.18, cf. Th. 4.26; ὅτι μὴ πᾶσα ἀνάγκη Pl. Phd. 67a; ὅσον μή ib. 83a; ὅσα μὴ ἀποβαίνοντες provided only that they did not disembark, Th. 4.16.
3. in later Gr., with causal Conjs., ὁ μὴ πιστεύων ἤδη κέκριται, ὅτι μὴ πεπίστευκεν John 3:18, cf. Luc. DMort. 21.2, D Deor. 2.1; ἐπεὶ μή Id. Hist.Conscr. 3, etc.: also after ὅτι and ὡς that, ὅτι μὴ ἐστὶν ἐπίπεδος οὕτως ἂν καταμάθοιμεν Cleom. 1.8, cf. Luc. Hist.Conscr. 29, DDeor. 20.10.
4. in relat. clauses, which imply a condition or generality, ὃς δὲ μὴ εἶδέ κω τὴν κανναβίδα whoever.., Hdt. 4.74; ὃ μὴ κελεύσει (fort. κελεύσαι) Ζεύς such a thing as.., A. Eu. 618, cf. 661, 899; λέγονθ' ἃ μὴ δεῖ such things as one ought not, S. Ph. 583; λόγοις τοιούτοις οἷς σὺ μὴ τέρψῃ κλύων Id. Ant. 691; ὅπου μὴ ἠθέλησεν Antipho 1.7: freq. with subj., ᾧ μὴ ἄλλοι ἀοσσητῆρες ἔωσιν Od. 4.165, al.: with ἄν, S. OT 281: with opt., ἃ μὴ σαφῶς εἰδείη X. Cyr. 1.6.19, etc.: less freq. with opt. and ἄν, Pl. Phlb. 20a, Lg. 839a; γένοιτο δ' ἂν ἐν ᾗ μή τι ἂν προσδοκήσειεν χώρᾳ ib. 872d.
5. c. inf., regularlyfrom Homer on, exc. after Verbs of saying and thinking (but v. infr. c): after ὥστε or ὡς, ὥστε μὴ φρονεῖν A. Pers. 725 (troch.), etc. (for exceptions v. οὐ): always when the inf. takes the Art., τὸ μὴ προμαθεῖν Pi. O. 8.60; τὸ μὴ ἀμελεῖν μάθε A. Eu. 86, cf. 749, Pr. 624; λείπομαι ἐν τῷ μὴ δύνασθαι S. OC 496. by an apparent pleonasm after Verbs of negative result signifying to forbid, deny, and the like, ὁ δ' ἀναίνετο μηδὲν ἑλέσθαι Il. 18.500 (without μή ib. 450); ἀντιδικεῖν Lys. 6.12 (μηδέν) ; ἀντιλέγειν Th. 5.49, Isa 4.15 (μηδέ) ; ἀπαγορεύειν Antipho 5.34, And. 4.9; ἀπειπεῖν Ar. Av. 557, D. 33.19, etc.; ἀπαυδᾶν Ar. Eq. 1072; ἀπείργειν E. Hel. 1559, al. (without μή S. Aj. 70); ἀπιστεῖν Th. 4.40; ἀπεγνωκέναι Lys. 1.34; ἀποστερεῖσθαι Antipho 2.4.1 (μηδέ) ; ἀποτρέπεσθαι Id. 5.32 (μηδέν) ; ἀρνεῖσθαι, ἔξαρνος εἶναι, Ar. Eq. 572, Hdt. 3.67; ἐναντιωθῆναι Pl. Ap. 32b; σχεῖν Hdt. 1.158; παύειν (where the part. is more freq.) Ar. Ach. 634; κωλῦσαι E. Ph. 1269; ἐπάρατον ἦν μὴ οἰκεῖν Th. 2.17: in these cases the Art. freq. precedes μή, τὸ δὲ μὴ λεηλατῆσαι.. ἔσχε τόδε Hdt. 5.101; ἐξομῇ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι; S. Ant. 535; εἴργειν τὸ μή.. Th. 3.1, etc.; also ἀπέφυγε τὰ σφῷν τὸ μὴ πίτνειν κακῶς S. OC 1740 (lyr.): with Art. in gen., ἔχειν τοῦ μή.. X. An. 3.5.71; ἐμποδὼν γίγνεσθαι τοῦ μή.. Id. Cyr. 2.4.23. after Verbs of saying and thinking which involve an action of will, as in those signifying to swear, aver, believe, and the like; so after ὄμνυμι, Il. 9.133, Od. 5.179, Hdt. 1.165, 2.179, Ar. V. 1047, etc.; μαρτυρῶ Lys. 7.11, D. 45.15, etc.; ὁμολογῶ Pl. Prt. 336b, Smp. 202b, cf. Phd. 93d, etc.; ἐγγυῶμαι Pi. O. 11(10).18, Pl. Prt. 336d; πέπεισμαι Id. Ap. 37a, etc.; πιστεύω And. 1.2, X. An. 1.9.8, etc.: occasionally with other Verbs, φημί Id. Mem. 1.2.39, Pl. Tht. 155a; λέγω, προλέγω, Th. 5.49, 1.139; πάντες ἐροῦσι μή.. X. Cyr. 7.1.18; νομίζω ib. 7.5.59, Th. 6.102; ἡγοῦμαι Pl. Ap. 27d: very freq. in later Gr., Matthew 2:12, Luc. Peregr. 44, etc.
6. with the part., when it can be resolved into a conditional clause, μὴ ἐνείκας, = εἰ μὴ ἤνεικε, Hdt. 4.64; μὴ θέλων, = εἰ μὴ θέλεις, A. Pr. 504; μὴ δολώσαντος θεοῦ, = εἰ μὴ ἐδόλωσε, Id. Ag. 273; μὴ δρῶν, = εἰ μὴ δρῴην, S. OT 77, etc.: in a general or characteristic sense, δίδασκέ με ὡς μὴ εἰδότα, = ut qui nihil sciam, Id. OC 1155, cf. Ant. 1063, 1064; τίς πρὸς ἀνδρὸς μὴ βλέποντος ἄρκεσις; one who sees not, Id. OC 73: in this signf. freq. with the Art., ὁ μὴ λεύσσων Id. Tr. 828 (lyr.); ὁ μὴ δουλεύσας Pl. Lg. 762e; τῷ μὴ εἰργασμένῳ Antipho 5.65; τὸν.. μὴ φροντίσαντα Lycurg. 27, cf. 45, etc.: with causal significance, μὴ παρὼν θαυμάζεται S. OT 289, etc.; ἄθλια πάσχω μὴ.. μόνον βιαζόμενος Antipho 2.2.4; ἑτέρας μηδεμιᾶς ὁμολογουμένης εἶναι Isaiah 5:16; μηδενὸς ἐμποδὼν ὄντος D. 3.8: very freq. in later Greek, POxy. 38.16 (i A.D.), Luc. DMeretr. 12.4, etc.: occasionally after Verbs of knowing and showing, S. Ph. 79, OC 656, 797, 1122, E. Tr. 970, Th. 1.76, 2.17.
7. with Substs., Adjs., and Advbs. used generically, with or without Art., τὰ μὴ δίκαια A. Eu. 432; δίκαια καὶ μὴ δίκαια Id. Ch. 78 (lyr.); τὸ μὴ 'νδικον S. OT 682 (lyr.); τὸ μὴ καλόν Id. Ant. 370 (lyr.); ἡ μὴ 'μπειρία, = τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἐμπειρίαν, want of experience, Ar. Ec. 115; ἡ μὴ ἐπιτροπή Pl. Lg. 966c; δῆμον καὶ μὴ δῆμον ib. 759b; ὁ μὴ ἰατρός Id. Grg. 459b; νίκης μὴ κακῆς A. Eu. 903, cf. Th. 411; τῷ φρονοῦντι μὴ καλῶς Id. Pr. 1012, cf. Ag. 349, 927.
8. after Verbs expressing fear or apprehension (cf. μὴ οὐ): when the thing feared is fut., mostly with subj.: with pres. subj., δεινῶς ἀθυμῶ μὴ βλέπων ὁ μάντις ᾖ shall proveto be.., S. OT 747, cf. Ant. 1113; ὅρα μὴ κυβεύῃς Pl. Prt. 314a: more freq. with aor., δείδοικα.. μή σε παρείπῃ Il. 1.555, cf. 9.244, 13.745: with pf., shall prove to have been, δέδοικα μὴ περαιτέρω πεπραγμέν' ᾖ μοι S. Tr. 663, cf. Ph. 494, Hdt. 3.119, 4.140, etc.: less freq. with fut. ind., X. Cyr. 2.3.6, Ar. Ec. 488, Pl. Phlb. 13a: with opt. according to the sequence of moods and tenses: pres. opt., S. Tr. 482, X. An. 1.10.9: aor., Od. 11.634, etc.: pf., X. Cyr. 1.3.10: with fut. opt. in oratio obliqua, Id. HG 6.4.27, Mem. 1.2.7, Pl. Euthphr. 15d: with opt. and ἄν, S. Tr. 631, X. vect. 4.41. when the action is pres. or past, the ind. is used, εἰσόρα μὴ σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν τίθης S. El. 584, cf. E. Ion 1523, Ar. Nu. 493, Pl. La. 196c; ὅρα μὴ παίζων ἔλεγεν Id. Tht. 145b, cf. E. Hel. 119; φοβούμεθα μὴ ἀμφοτέρων ἡμαρτήκαμεν Th. 3.53, cf. E. Or. 209, Pl. Ly. 218d; δείδω μὴ δὴ πάντα θεὰ νημερτέα εἶπεν Od. 5.300. with ind. and subj. in consecutive clauses, E. Ph. 93. in
I direct questions,
1 with ind., where aneg. answer is anticipated (but more generally in A. Ag. 683 (lyr.), S. OC 1502, Tr. 316, Pl. Grg. 488b), in Hom. only ἦ μή..; Od. 6.200, 9.405; μή σοι δοκοῦμεν..; A. Pers. 344, cf. Pr. 249, 959, etc.: in Trag. and Att. freq. ἆρα μή; Id. Th. 208, S. El. 446, Pl. R. 405a: for questions in which μή (μηδέ) follows οὐ, v. οὐ μή. in other questions, τί μὴ ποιήσω; what am I not to do? S. El. 1276 (lyr.); τί μή; why not? Id.Aj.668 (s.v.l.); cf. μήν.
2. with subj., when the speaker deliberates about a neg. action, μὴ οὕτω φῶμεν; Pl.R.335c, cf. 337b, 417b; ὁ τοιοῦτος μὴ δῷ δίκην; D.21.35; πῶς μὴ φῶμεν; Pl.Tht.161e: with opt. and ἄν, τῶς ἄν τις μὴ θυμῷ λέγοι; how can a man help being excited when he speaks? Id.Lg.887c, cf. Grg.510d, X.Mem.3.1.10.
1. indirect questions, freq. where fear is implied (cf. b. 8), ἄφρα ἴδωμεν μὴ τοὶ κοιμήσωνται Il.10.98, cf. 101, Od.21.395; εἰσόμεσθα μή τι.. καλύπτει S.Ant.1253, cf. Th.2.13, etc.; also σκοπεῖσθαι τῶς ἂν μή.. Isoc.5.8, cf. 15.6; later in simple indirect quesitons, ἐπυνθάνετο μὴ ἔγνω Ant.Lib.23.5.
2. in questions introduced by εἰ, ἤρετό με.. εἰ μὴ μέμνημαι Aeschin.2.36 (εἰ οὐκ in same sense, 1.84): in the second part of a disjunctive question, εἰ.. ἢ (or εἴτε) μή.., εἴτε.. εἴτε μή.., A.Eu.468, 612, And.1.7, Pl.Revelation 18:1-24 a, R.457d, X.Cyr.2.1.7; εἴτε.. εἴτε μή.., εἰ.. ἢ οὔ, εἰ.. ἢ μή without difference of meaning between μή and οὺ, Isaiah 8:9; so also, τοὺς νόμους καταμανθάνειν εἰ καλῶς κεῖνται ἢ μή,.. τοὺς λόγους, εἰ ὀρθῶς διδάσκουσι τὸ πρᾶγμα ἢ οὔ Antipho 5.14.
1. of μή. When the neg. extends its power over the whole clause, μή prop. precedes the Verb. When its force is limited to single words, it precedes those words. But Poets sts. put μή after the Verb, ὄλοιο μή πω S.Ph.961; φράσῃς.. μὴ πέρα ib.332, cf. OC1522.
2. μή is sts. repeated, cf. οὐ C μή, μή καλέσῃς Ar.V.1418, cf. S.Aj.190, OC210 (both lyr.).
in Trag. μή may be joined by synizesis with a following ει or ου, μὴ οὐ, μὴ εἰδέναι, S.OT13, 221, Tr.321, etc.: initial ε after μή is cut off by aphaeresis, μὴ ʼπόθουν Id.Aj.962; μὴ ʼμβαίνῃς Id.OC400; μὴ ʼγώ Id.Ph.910: in Prose, μὴ ʼκ IG1.115.11: μή folld. by α is sts. written μἀ.. (v. μὴ ἀλλά, etc.); sts. separately, μὴ ἀδικεῖν A.Eu.85, etc. μή in
Composition, or joined with other Particles, as μὴ ἀλλά, μὴ γάρ, μὴ οὐ, μὴ ὅπως or ὅτι, μή ποτε, etc., will be found in alphabetical order.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, the Sept.
, a particle of negation, which differs from (which is always an adverb) in that denies the thing itself (or to speak technically, denies simply, absolutely, categorically, directly, objectively), but denies the thought of the thing, or the thing according to the judgment, opinion, will, purpose, preference, of someone (hence, as we say technically, indirectly, hypothetically, subjectively). This distinction holds also of the compounds , , , , etc. But is either an adverb of negation, not
(Latin non, ne
); or a conjunction, that ... not, lest
); or an interrogative particle (Latin num
) (i. e. (generally) implying a neg. ans.; in indirect question, whether not
(suggesting apprehension)). Cf. Herm. ad Vig.
§ 267, p. 802ff; Matthiae
, § 608; Alexander Buttmann
(1873) Gram. § 148 (cf. Alex. Alexander Buttmann
(1873) N. T. Gr., p. 344 (296ff)); Kühner, ii. § 512f, p. 739ff; ( Jelf
, § 738ff); Rost § 135; Winer
's § 55,56; F. Franke, De particulis negantibus (two commentaries) Rintel. 1832 f; G. F. Gayler, Particularum Graeci sermonis negativarum accurata disputatio, etc. Tub. 1836; E. Prüfer, De et particulis epitome. Vratisl. 1836; (Gildersleeve in American Jour. of Philol. vol. i. no. i., p. 45ff; Jebb in Vincent and Dickson's Handbook to Modern Greek, 2nd edition, Appendix, § 82ff).
I. As a negative adverb;
1. universally: , where is used because reference is made merely to the thought that there are those who lack these things, 2 Peter 1:9; , which (in my opinion) he hath not seen (because they are not visible), Colossians 2:18 (but here G T Tr WH omit; L brackets ; cf. Lightfoot at the passage; Winer's Grammar, 480f (448)); , , because he hath not believed, represented by the writer as the thought , John 3:18 (differently in 1 John 5:10, where the faith denied is considered as something positive and actual); , in the judgment of the writer, Titus 1:11.
2. in deliberative questions with the subjunctive: , Mark 12:14 ( , Xenophon, mem. 1,2, 45); (for so it would have run had there been no anacoluthon; but Paul by the statement which he interposes is drawn away from the construction with which he began, and proceeds ., so that these words depend on in the intervening statement ( Winer s Grammar, 628 (583); Buttmann, § 141,3)), Romans 3:8.
3. in conditional and final sentences (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 55,2; (Buttmann, 344ff (296ff)): , unless, if not, see examples in , I:3c. etc. , Mark 12:19; etc. , James 2:14; ... , 1 John 5:16; , , , etc., see , III., p. 171f. To this head belong the formulae that have or as a modifier ( Winer s Grammar, § 55,3e.; (Buttmann, § 148,4)), , , or : Matthew 10:14; Matthew 11:6; Mark 6:11; Mark 10:15; Luke 7:23; Luke 9:5; Luke 18:17; Revelation 13:15; etc. , Mark 11:23; Luke 10:10; ... , Matthew 19:9 G T Tr WH text; of the same sort is , , 1 John 4:3. , Matthew 7:1; Matthew 17:27; Mark 3:9; Romans 11:25; Galatians 5:17; Galatians 6:12, etc.; ... , Matthew 5:29; Mark 4:12; John 6:50; John 11:50; 2 Corinthians 4:7, etc.; ... , 2 Corinthians 13:10; ... , John 12:46; (weakened; see , II:2) : after (here L WH text ), Matthew 16:20; , , John 6:39; etc. ... , John 3:16; , ... , 1 Corinthians 1:10; , Matthew 6:18; Acts 20:16; 1 Corinthians 1:29; ... , Luke 16:26.
4. joined with the infinitive ( Winer s Grammar, § 55,4f.; (Buttmann, §§ 140,16; 148,6; cf. Prof. Gildersleeve as above, p. 48f));
a. after verbs of saying, declaring, denying, commanding, etc.: , Luke 20:7; , that he should not see, Luke 2:26; , Matthew 2:12; () , Hebrews 3:18; after , Matthew 5:34,39; Matthew 22:23; Mark 12:18; Acts 21:4; Acts 23:8; Romans 2:22; Romans 12:3; , Romans 2:21; , 1 Corinthians 5:9,11; , Acts 1:4; Acts 4:18; Acts 5:28,40; 1 Corinthians 7:10; 1 Timothy 1:3; 1 Timothy 6:17; , Acts 9:38 R G; Acts 19:31>; 2 Corinthians 6:1; , Ephesians 3:13; , 2 Timothy 2:14; , 2 Corinthians 13:7; , Hebrews 12:19 (here WH text omits ; cf. Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann, as below); , Acts 15:38; ( L T Tr WH ), Acts 25:24; (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 65,2 .; ( Buttmann, § 148,13)), Luke 20:27 ( Tr WH L marginal reading ); (which see), Luke 22:34; also after verbs of deciding: Luke 21:14; , Acts 15:19; , , Romans 14:13; 2 Corinthians 2:1; , Romans 13:3; after verbs of hindering, avoiding, etc.: (Res. ) , Galatians 5:7 (cf. Winer s Grammar, (and Buttmann, as above; also § 140,16)); , that ... not (Latin ne), after , Luke 4:42; , Luke 24:16; , Acts 10:47; , Acts 14:18; , 1 Peter 3:10; , Acts 20:20,27; , Matthew 6:1; but is added also to other expressions in the sense of Latin ut ne, that ... not: Romans 7:3; , , Romans 11:8,10. After clauses denoting necessity, advantage, power, fitness, is used with an infinitive specifying the thing ( Buttmann, § 148,6), , 1 Corinthians 7:1; Galatians 4:18; followed by , Romans 14:21; , Acts 25:27; , 2 Peter 2:21; ( L T Tr WH omit ) , a right to forbear working, 1 Corinthians 9:6; , Acts 27:21; , I cannot but, Acts 4:20; , Luke 17:1 (cf. ).
b. with an infinitive which has the article follows a preposition, to indicate the purpose or end: as, , that ... not, 2 Corinthians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Thessalonians 3:8; (Latin in id ... ne), to the end (or intent) that ... not, Acts 7:19; 1 Corinthians 10:6; 2 Corinthians 4:4; followed by an accusative and infinitive, 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Peter 3:7; , because ... not, Matthew 13:5; Mark 4:5; Luke 8:6; James 4:2 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 482 (449)) ( 2 Maccabees 4:19).
c. in other expressions where an infinitive with the article is used substantively: (dative of the cause or reason (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 44,5; Buttmann, 264 (227))), 2 Corinthians 2:13 (12); in the accusative, : Romans 14:13; 1 Corinthians 4:6 ( R G); 2 Corinthians 2:1; 2 Corinthians 10:2; 1 Thessalonians 4:6, cf. 3.
d. in sentences expressing consequence or result: , so that ... not, Matthew 8:28; Mark 3:20; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 2 Corinthians 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:8.
5. is joined with a participle ( Winer s Grammar, § 50,5g.; (Buttmann, § 148,7; see C. J. Vaughan's Commentary on Romans 2:14)), a. in sentences expressing a command, exhortation, purpose, etc.: Luke 3:11; John 9:39; Acts 15:38; Acts 20:29; Romans 8:4; Romans 14:3; 2 Corinthians 12:21; Ephesians 5:27; Philippians 1:28; Philippians 2:4 (here Rec. imperative); 1 Thessalonians 4:5; 2 Thessalonians 1:8; 1 Peter 2:16; Hebrews 6:1; Hebrews 13:17, etc.
b. in general sentences, in which no definite person is meant but it is merely assumed that there is someone of the character denoted by the participle: as , he that is not on roy side, whoever he Isaiah , or if there is any such person, Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:23; , whoever believeth not, John 3:18; if any do not confess, or belong to the class that do not confess, 2 John 1:7; add, Matthew 10:28; Luke 6:49; Luke 12:21,47; Luke 22:36; John 5:23; John 10:1; John 12:48; John 14:24; Romans 4:5; Romans 5:14; Romans 10:20; 1 Corinthians 7:38; 1 Corinthians 11:22; 2 Thessalonians 1:8; James 2:13; 1 John 2:4, etc.; , Matthew 7:26; ( , Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:19); 1 John 3:10; 2 John 9; 2 Thessalonians 2:12 (here L marginal reading T Tr WH marginal reading etc.); , John 20:29; Romans 14:22.
c. where, indeed, a definite person or thing is referred to, but in such a way that his (its) quality or action (indicated by the participle) is denied in the thought or judgment either of the writer or of some other person (cf. especially Winer's Grammar, 484 (451)): , that are deemed as nothing, 1 Corinthians 1:28; , as if thou hadst not received, 1 Corinthians 4:7; , as though I were not coming, 1 Corinthians 4:18; , 2 Corinthians 10:14; add, 1 Corinthians 7:29. ... (according to the opinion of ), John 6:64; the same holds true of Acts 20:29; (in the opinion of ), 2 Corinthians 4:18 (on the other hand, in Hebrews 11:1, , actually invisible); ( is said agreeably to the judgment of ), 2 Corinthians 5:21 ( would be equivalent to ). in predictions, where it expresses the opinion of those who predict: , Luke 1:20; , Acts 13:11. where the writer or speaker does not regard the thing itself so much as the thought of the thing, which he wishes to remove from the mind of the reader or hearer ( Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 666) — to be rendered without etc. (German ohne zu with an infinitive) (cf. Buttmann, § 148,7b.): , , Hebrews 11:8; add, Matthew 22:12; Luke 13:11 ((but cf. Buttmann, § 148,7c.)); Acts 5:7; Acts 20:22; Hebrews 9:9. where the participles have a conditional, causal, or concessive force, and may be resolved into clauses introduced by if, on condition that, etc.: , Galatians 6:9; , Romans 5:13; although: , Romans 2:14; , 1 Corinthians 9:20 ( Rec. omits); we have both the negative particles in (or (with L T Tr WH) ) ... , whom being ignorant of (in person) (or (according to the critical text) not having seen) ... although now not seeing, 1 Peter 1:8; also with the article: (German die doch nicht haben, they that have not, etc.), Romans 2:14; , but Hebrews , although not etc. Hebrews 7:6; — or since, because, inasmuch as: (but G L T Tr WH omit ; cf. Buttmann, § 148,14) ... ( would be equivalent to , strong), Romans 4:19; ; since he has not learned ( Winer's Grammar, 483 (450)), John 7:15; add, Matthew 18:25; Matthew 22:25,29; Luke 2:45; Luke 7:30; Luke 11:24; Luke 12:47; Luke 24:23; Acts 9:26; Acts 17:6; Acts 21:34; Acts 27:7; 2 Corinthians 3:14; 2 Corinthians 5:19; also with the article: , since it knoweth not the law, John 7:49; add, Jude 1:5.
d. where (with the participle) it can be resolved by (being) such (a person) as not, of such a sort as not: , 1 Corinthians 10:33; add, Acts 9:9; Galatians 4:8. neuter plural as a substantive: , Romans 4:17; , Hebrews 12:27; , 1 Timothy 5:13; , Romans 1:28; 2 Maccabees 6:4 (on the other hand, in , Ephesians 5:4 (where L T Tr WH ), the coalesces with and forms a single idea, unseemly, unlawful).
6. in independent sentences of forbidding, dehorting, admonishing, desiring, etc., is Prohibitive (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 56,1),Latin Nehemiah , not;
a. with the 1person plural of the subjunctive present: , Galatians 5:26; add, Galatians 6:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 1 John 3:18; aorist: John 19:24; before the word depending on the exhortation, 1 Corinthians 5:8.
b. with a present imperative, generally where one is bidden to cease from something already begun, or repeated, or continued: Matthew 6:16,19; Matthew 7:1; Matthew 19:6; Mark 9:39; Mark 13:11; Luke 6:30; Luke 7:6,13; Luke 8:49,52; Luke 10:4,7, 20; John 2:16; John 5:28,45; John 6:43; John 7:24; John 14:1,27; John 19:21; Acts 10:15; Acts 11:9; Acts 20:10; Romans 6:12; Romans 11:18,20; Romans 12:2 (here L Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading give the infinitive), 14; 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 6:14,17; Galatians 5:1; Galatians 6:7; Ephesians 4:30; Colossians 3:9,19, 21; 1 Thessalonians 5:19; 2 Thessalonians 3:15; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:16,19; Hebrews 12:5; Hebrews 13:2; James 1:7,16; 1 Peter 4:12,15; 1 John 2:15; 1 John 3:13; Revelation 5:5, and very often.
c. with the third person (nowhere in the N. T. with the second) of the aorist imperative where the prohibition relates to something not to be begun, and where things about to be done are forbidden: , Matthew 24:18; Luke 17:31; , Mark 13:15, and L T Tr WH in Matthew 24:17 (where R G badly ); , Matthew 6:3; (but T Tr WH ), Luke 22:42; cf. Xenophon, Cyril 7,5, 73; Aeschylus the Sept. c. Theb. 1036.
d. as in the more elegant Greek writings where future things are forbidden (cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 807), with the 2person of the aorist subjunctive: , Matthew 3:9; Matthew 5:17; , Matthew 1:20; Matthew 10:26,31 (here L T Tr WH present imperative ) (alternating with the imperative present in Matthew 10:28 ( G L T Tr)); , Colossians 2:21; , Matthew 5:42; , Matthew 10:9; add, Matthew 6:2,7, 13,31; Mark 5:7; Mark 10:19; Luke 6:29; Luke 8:28; Luke 14:8; John 3:7; Acts 7:60; Romans 10:6; 1 Corinthians 16:11; 2 Corinthians 11:16; 2 Thessalonians 2:3 — (in the last three examples with the third person, contrary to Winer's Grammar, 502 (467)); 1 Timothy 5:1; 2 Timothy 1:8; Revelation 6:6; Revelation 10:4 ( , for precedes; but in John 19:21 is used, because Pilate had already written); Revelation 11:2; Revelation 22:10, and very often. We have the imperative present and the aorist subjunctive together in Luke 10:4; Acts 18:9.
e. with the 2person of the present subjunctive: , Hebrews 3:8,15 (a rare construction though not wholly unknown to Greek writings ( more than doubtful (Liddell and Scott, under the word A. I:2)); see Delitzsch on the latter passage, and Schaefer ad Greg. Corinth., p. 1005f; ( Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word . Others regard the above examples as subjunctive aorist; cf. 2 Kings 2:10; Isaiah 63:17; Jeremiah 17:23; Jeremiah 19:15, etc.)).
f. with the optative, in wishes: in that frequent formula , Far be it! See , 2a.; , 2 Timothy 4:16 ( Job 27:5).
II. As a conjunction, Latin ne with the subjunctive;
1. our that, that not or lest (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 56,2 (Buttmann, § 139,48f; Goodwin § 46)); after verbs of fearing, caution, etc.
a. with the subjunctive present, where one fears lest something now exists and at the same time indicates that he is ignorant whether it is so or not (Hermann on Sophocles Aj. 272): , ... , Hebrews 12:15.
b. with the subjunctive aorist, of things which may occur immediately or very soon: preceded by an aorist, ( L T Tr WH ) , Acts 23:10; by a present: , Acts 27:17; , Matthew 24:4; Mark 13:5; Luke 21:8; Acts 13:40; 1 Corinthians 10:12; Galatians 5:15; Hebrews 12:25; , Galatians 6:1 ( Buttmann, 243 (209) would refer this to 2b. below; cf. Goodwin, p. 66); , Matthew 18:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; elliptically, (namely, (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 64,7a.; Buttmann, 395 (338))): Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9.
c. with the indicative future (as being akin to the subjunctive (cf. grammatical references at the beginning)): , , 2 Corinthians 12:20f ( L text T Tr); add, Colossians 2:8.
2. in order that not (Latin eo consilio ne);
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
subjective negative particle, used where the negation depends on a condition or hypothesis, expressed or understood, as distinct from οὐ , which denies absolutely. μή is used where one thinks a thing is not, as distinct from an absolute negation. As a general rule, οὐ negatives the indic., μή the other moods, incl. ptcp.
[In LXX for H408, H369, H371.]
I. As a neg. adv., not;
1. with ref. to thought or opinion : , , .
2. In delib. questions, c. subjc. (M, Pr., 185) : , .
3. In conditional and final sentences, after εἰ , ἐάν , ἄν , ἵνα , ὅπως : , ; , , , al.
4. C. inf. (v. M, Pr., 234 f., 239, 255),
(a) after verbs of saying, etc.: ; , , , , al.;
(b) c. artic. inf.: after a prep., , , , , al.; without a prep., , ; , ;
(c) in sentences expressing consequence, after ὥστε : , , , , al.
5. C. ptcp. (v. M, Pr., 231 f., 239), in hypothetical references to persons of a certain character or description: ; , , , , , , al.; where the person or thing being definite, the denial is a matter of opinion: , ; ; , , al.; where the ptcp. has a concessive, causal or conditional force, if, though, because not: , , , , ; , , , ; where the ptcp. has a descriptive force (being such as), not: , , , , , al.
6. μή prohibitive, in indep. sentences,
(a) c. subjc. praes., 1 pers. pl.: ; , , ;
(b) c. imperat. praes., usually where one is bidden to desist from what has already begun (cf. M, Pr., 122 ff.) : , , , ; , , , , , al.;
(c) forbidding that which is still future : c. imperat. aor., 3 pers., , , , al.; c. subjc. aor., 2 pers., ; , , , , , al.;
(d) c. optat., in wishes: (LXX); μὴ γένοιτο (v. M, Pr., 194; Bl., § 66, 1), , , al.; μή τις , , al.
II. As a conj.,
1. after verbs of fearing, caution, etc., that, lest, perhaps (M, Pr., 192 f.) : c. subjc. praes., ; c. subjc. aor., , , , , , al.; ὅρα μή (v. M, Pr., 124, 178), elliptically, ; ; c. indic. fut. (M, Pr., l.c.), .
2. in order that not: c. subjc. aor., , ; .
III. Interrogative, in hesitant questions (M, Pr., 170), or where a negative answer is expected: ; , , , ; , , al.; μή τις , , al; seq. οὐ (, al. in P1.), expecting an affirm. ans.; οὐ μή , , .
IV. οὐ μή as emphatic negation (cf. M, Pr., 188, 190 ff.; Bl., § 64, 5), not at all, by no means: c. indic. fut., , , , al.; c. subjc. aor., , , , , , al.
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
For μυριάς = 10,000, as in Acts 19:19, it is sufficient to cite P Tebt II. 308.8 (A.D. 174) (= Chrest. I. p. 376) τιμὴν βίβλου μυριάδων δύο, ";the price of 20,000 papyrus stalks"; (Edd.), P Amh II. 107.10 (A.D. 185) κριθῆς ἀρταβῶν μυριάδων δύο, ";20,000 artabae of barley,"; and P Oxy VIII. 1115.14 (A.D. 284) μυριάδας τρῖς καὶ ὀκτακισχιλ [ίους, ";38,000."; The sense of unlimited numbers, like our ";myriads,"; as in Revelation 5:11 al., is seen in the Christian amulet P Iand 6.10 (v/vi A.D.) ᾧ (sc. θεῷ) παραραστκουσιν (l. παραστήκουσιν) μύριαι μαιρια ̣τες (l. μυριάδες) ἀγγέλω [ν : for other exx. see the editor’s note ad l., and cf. Moulton Egyptian Rubbish-heaps, p. 31 f.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (673)||NAS (148)||HCS (1019)
|KJV (673)||NAS (148)||HCS (1019)
List of Word Forms
ακύρους εισέλθητε καὶ μη μή μὴ μηδὲν μήποτε ος οὐκ kai kaì me mē mḗ mḕ meden medèn mēden mēdèn mepote mēpote ouk
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