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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #3361 - μή

Word Origin:
a primary particle of qualified negation (whereas (3756) expresses an absolute denial)
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. no, not lest
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


Elean μά [] SIG 9.5 (Olympia, vi B.C.). (Cf. Skt. mâ´, Arm. mi [from I.- E. mç´ ], negative used in prohibitions): not, the negative of the will and thought, as οὐ of fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. (A few examples of μηδέ and μηδείς have been included.) in

INDEPENDENT sentences, used in expressions of will or wish, command, entreaty, warning,

1 with pres. imper., 2 pers., μή μ' ἐρέθιζε Il. 1.32, al.; 3 pers., μή μευ πειράτω 9.345, etc.: rarely with aor. imper., μὴ.. ἔνθεο τιμῇ 4.410, cf. Od. 24.248; in Att., μὴ ψεῦσον, ὦ Ζεῦ, τῆς.. ἐλπίδος Ar. Th. 870; 3 pers., μή τις ἀκουσάτω Od. 16.301, cf. Pi. O. 8.55, P. 5.23, A. Th. 1041, S. Aj. 1180; μηδεὶς νομισάτω, προσδοκησάτω X. Cyr. 7.5.73, Pl. Revelation 17:1-18 c: with pf. imper. 3 pers., μή τις ὀπίσσω τετράφθω Il. 12.272; or 2 pers. when pf. = pres., μὴ κεκράγετε Ar. V. 415.

2. with subj. (usu. 2 pers. of aor.), in prohibitions, μὴ δή με.. ἐάσῃς Il. 5.684, cf. A. Pr. 583 (lyr.), al.; μή τοί με κρύψῃς τοῦτο ib. 625, cf. S. Ph. 470; μὴ φθονήσῃς Pl. Prt. 320c: coupled with pres. imper., μὴ βοηθήσητε τῷ πεπονθότι δεινά, μὴ εὐορκεῖτε D. 21.211; 3 pers., μὴ.. γένηται Il. 4.37, cf. Od. 22.213; μὴ ματεύσῃ θεὸς γενέσθαι Pi. O. 5.24: rarely, if ever, with 2 pers. pres. subj., μὴ κάμνῃς E. IA 1143 (leg. κάμῃς); 3 pers., μή τις οἴηται, = μὴ οἰώμεθα, Pl. Lg. 861e: also with the hortative subj. used to supply the 1 pers. of the imper., pres. μὴ ἴομεν (ἴωμεν) Il. 12.216, etc.; μὴ διώκωμεν Hdt. 8.109, etc.: aor. μὴ πάθωμεν X. Cyr. 1.5.11, etc.: rarely with 1 sg., μή σε.. κιχείω Il. 1.26, cf. 21.475, 22.123, S. OC 174 (anap.). with pres. or aor. subj. in a warning or statement of fear, μὴ.. γένησθε take care you do not become, Il. 5.487; μὴ.. ὑφαίνῃσιν I fear.. may prove to be weaving, Od. 5.356; αἷμα μὴ σοῖς ἐξομόρξωμαι πέπλοις E. HF 1399: in Att. Prose, to make a polite suggestion of apprehension or hesitation, perhaps, μὴ ἀγροικότερον ᾖ τὸ ἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν Pl. Grg. 462e, cf. Tht. 188d, Arist. Pol. 1291a8, al.: in later Greek the ind. is found, μὴ ἡ ἔννοια ἡμῶν.. ἀντιλαμβάνεται Dam. Proverbs 20:1-30.

3. with fut. ind., a dub. usage (νεμεσήσετ ' is subj. in Il. 15.115), μηδεμίαν ἄδειαν δώσετε Lys. 29.13; μὴ βουλήσεσθε (Pap. βούλη[σθ]ε) D. 23.117; cf. μαλακὸν ἐνδώσετε μηδέν Ar. Pl. 488.

4. with past tenses of ind. to express an unfulfilled wish, μὴ ὄφελες λίσσεσθαι Il. 9.698, cf. Od. 11.548; μή ποτ' ὤφελον λιπεῖν τὴν Σκῦρον S. Ph. 969; εἴθε μή ποτ' εἰδόμαν Id. OT 1217 (lyr.), cf. E. IA 70, Cyc. 186, X. Cyr. 4.6.3.

5. with opt. to express a negative wish, with pres., ἃ μὴ κραίνοι τύχη A. Th. 426, cf. Eu. 938 (lyr.): more freq. with aor., μὴ σέ γ' ἐν ἀμφιάλῳ Ἰθάκῃ βασιλῆα Κρονίων ποιήσειεν Od. 1.386, cf. 403, 11.613.

6. in oaths and asseverations, ἴστω Ζεὺς.., μὴ μὲν τοῖς ἵπποισιν ἀνὴρ ἐποχήσεται ἄλλος Il. 10.330; ἴστω νῦν τόδε Γαῖα.., μὴ.. Ποσειδάων.. πημαίνει Τρῶας 15.41; μὰ τὴν Ἀφροδίτην.., μὴ ἐγώ σ' ἀφήσω Ar. Ec. 1000, cf. Av. 195, Lys. 917.

7. c. inf., when used as imper., μὴ δή μοι ἀπόπροθεν ἰσχέμεν ἵππους Il. 17.501; μὴ πρὶν ἐπ' ἠέλιον δῦναι 2.413; οἷς μὴ πελάζειν A. Pr. 712.

8. freq. without a Verb, εἰ χρή, θανοῦμαι. Answ. μὴ σύ γε (sc. θάνῃς) S. OC 1441; ἄπελθε νῦν. Answ. μὴ (sc. γενέσθω) ἀλλά nay but, Ar. Ach. 458; in curt expressions, μὴ τριβὰς ἔτι (sc. ποιεῖσθε) S. Ant. 577; μή μοι σύ none of that to me! E. Med. 964; μή μοι πρόφασιν no excuses! Ar. Ach. 345; μή μοί γε μύθους Id. V. 1179.

in DEPENDENT clauses:

1 with Final Conjs., ἵνα μή Il. 19.348, etc.; ὅπως μή D. 27.5,al.; ὡς μή Il. 8.37, A. Pr. 53,al.; ὄφρα μή Il. 1.118,al.: with ὅπως ἄν and ὡς ἄν, that so, ὅπως ἂν.. μηδέ Ar. V. 178, Pl. Grg. 481a; ὡς ἂν μή Od. 4.749, Hdt. 1.5; but μή alone, = ἵνα μή, lest, ἀπόστιχε μή τινοήσῃ Ἥρη Il. 1.522, cf. 587; λίσσεσθαι.., μή οἱ.. χολώσαιτο φρένα κούρη Od. 6.147: fut. ind. and aor. subj. in consecutive clauses, Ar. Ec. 495 (lyr., dub.l.).

2. in the protasis of conditional sentences, v. εἰ (for the exceptions v. οὐ), and with temporal conjunctions used conditionally, v. ἐπειδάν, ὅταν, ὅτε, etc. ὅτι μή except, ὅτι μὴ Χῖοι μοῦνοι Hdt. 1.18, cf. Th. 4.26; ὅτι μὴ πᾶσα ἀνάγκη Pl. Phd. 67a; ὅσον μή ib. 83a; ὅσα μὴ ἀποβαίνοντες provided only that they did not disembark, Th. 4.16.

3. in later Gr., with causal Conjs., ὁ μὴ πιστεύων ἤδη κέκριται, ὅτι μὴ πεπίστευκεν John 3:18, cf. Luc. DMort. 21.2, D Deor. 2.1; ἐπεὶ μή Id. Hist.Conscr. 3, etc.: also after ὅτι and ὡς that, ὅτι μὴ ἐστὶν ἐπίπεδος οὕτως ἂν καταμάθοιμεν Cleom. 1.8, cf. Luc. Hist.Conscr. 29, DDeor. 20.10.

4. in relat. clauses, which imply a condition or generality, ὃς δὲ μὴ εἶδέ κω τὴν κανναβίδα whoever.., Hdt. 4.74; ὃ μὴ κελεύσει (fort. κελεύσαι) Ζεύς such a thing as.., A. Eu. 618, cf. 661, 899; λέγονθ' ἃ μὴ δεῖ such things as one ought not, S. Ph. 583; λόγοις τοιούτοις οἷς σὺ μὴ τέρψῃ κλύων Id. Ant. 691; ὅπου μὴ ἠθέλησεν Antipho 1.7: freq. with subj., ᾧ μὴ ἄλλοι ἀοσσητῆρες ἔωσιν Od. 4.165, al.: with ἄν, S. OT 281: with opt., ἃ μὴ σαφῶς εἰδείη X. Cyr. 1.6.19, etc.: less freq. with opt. and ἄν, Pl. Phlb. 20a, Lg. 839a; γένοιτο δ' ἂν ἐν ᾗ μή τι ἂν προσδοκήσειεν χώρᾳ ib. 872d.

5. c. inf., regularlyfrom Homer on, exc. after Verbs of saying and thinking (but v. infr. c): after ὥστε or ὡς, ὥστε μὴ φρονεῖν A. Pers. 725 (troch.), etc. (for exceptions v. οὐ): always when the inf. takes the Art., τὸ μὴ προμαθεῖν Pi. O. 8.60; τὸ μὴ ἀμελεῖν μάθε A. Eu. 86, cf. 749, Pr. 624; λείπομαι ἐν τῷ μὴ δύνασθαι S. OC 496. by an apparent pleonasm after Verbs of negative result signifying to forbid, deny, and the like, ὁ δ' ἀναίνετο μηδὲν ἑλέσθαι Il. 18.500 (without μή ib. 450); ἀντιδικεῖν Lys. 6.12 (μηδέν) ; ἀντιλέγειν Th. 5.49, Isa 4.15 (μηδέ) ; ἀπαγορεύειν Antipho 5.34, And. 4.9; ἀπειπεῖν Ar. Av. 557, D. 33.19, etc.; ἀπαυδᾶν Ar. Eq. 1072; ἀπείργειν E. Hel. 1559, al. (without μή S. Aj. 70); ἀπιστεῖν Th. 4.40; ἀπεγνωκέναι Lys. 1.34; ἀποστερεῖσθαι Antipho 2.4.1 (μηδέ) ; ἀποτρέπεσθαι Id. 5.32 (μηδέν) ; ἀρνεῖσθαι, ἔξαρνος εἶναι, Ar. Eq. 572, Hdt. 3.67; ἐναντιωθῆναι Pl. Ap. 32b; σχεῖν Hdt. 1.158; παύειν (where the part. is more freq.) Ar. Ach. 634; κωλῦσαι E. Ph. 1269; ἐπάρατον ἦν μὴ οἰκεῖν Th. 2.17: in these cases the Art. freq. precedes μή, τὸ δὲ μὴ λεηλατῆσαι.. ἔσχε τόδε Hdt. 5.101; ἐξομῇ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι; S. Ant. 535; εἴργειν τὸ μή.. Th. 3.1, etc.; also ἀπέφυγε τὰ σφῷν τὸ μὴ πίτνειν κακῶς S. OC 1740 (lyr.): with Art. in gen., ἔχειν τοῦ μή.. X. An. 3.5.71; ἐμποδὼν γίγνεσθαι τοῦ μή.. Id. Cyr. 2.4.23. after Verbs of saying and thinking which involve an action of will, as in those signifying to swear, aver, believe, and the like; so after ὄμνυμι, Il. 9.133, Od. 5.179, Hdt. 1.165, 2.179, Ar. V. 1047, etc.; μαρτυρῶ Lys. 7.11, D. 45.15, etc.; ὁμολογῶ Pl. Prt. 336b, Smp. 202b, cf. Phd. 93d, etc.; ἐγγυῶμαι Pi. O. 11(10).18, Pl. Prt. 336d; πέπεισμαι Id. Ap. 37a, etc.; πιστεύω And. 1.2, X. An. 1.9.8, etc.: occasionally with other Verbs, φημί Id. Mem. 1.2.39, Pl. Tht. 155a; λέγω, προλέγω, Th. 5.49, 1.139; πάντες ἐροῦσι μή.. X. Cyr. 7.1.18; νομίζω ib. 7.5.59, Th. 6.102; ἡγοῦμαι Pl. Ap. 27d: very freq. in later Gr., Matthew 2:12, Luc. Peregr. 44, etc.

6. with the part., when it can be resolved into a conditional clause, μὴ ἐνείκας, = εἰ μὴ ἤνεικε, Hdt. 4.64; μὴ θέλων, = εἰ μὴ θέλεις, A. Pr. 504; μὴ δολώσαντος θεοῦ, = εἰ μὴ ἐδόλωσε, Id. Ag. 273; μὴ δρῶν, = εἰ μὴ δρῴην, S. OT 77, etc.: in a general or characteristic sense, δίδασκέ με ὡς μὴ εἰδότα, = ut qui nihil sciam, Id. OC 1155, cf. Ant. 1063, 1064; τίς πρὸς ἀνδρὸς μὴ βλέποντος ἄρκεσις; one who sees not, Id. OC 73: in this signf. freq. with the Art., ὁ μὴ λεύσσων Id. Tr. 828 (lyr.); ὁ μὴ δουλεύσας Pl. Lg. 762e; τῷ μὴ εἰργασμένῳ Antipho 5.65; τὸν.. μὴ φροντίσαντα Lycurg. 27, cf. 45, etc.: with causal significance, μὴ παρὼν θαυμάζεται S. OT 289, etc.; ἄθλια πάσχω μὴ.. μόνον βιαζόμενος Antipho 2.2.4; ἑτέρας μηδεμιᾶς ὁμολογουμένης εἶναι Isaiah 5:16; μηδενὸς ἐμποδὼν ὄντος D. 3.8: very freq. in later Greek, POxy. 38.16 (i A.D.), Luc. DMeretr. 12.4, etc.: occasionally after Verbs of knowing and showing, S. Ph. 79, OC 656, 797, 1122, E. Tr. 970, Th. 1.76, 2.17.

7. with Substs., Adjs., and Advbs. used generically, with or without Art., τὰ μὴ δίκαια A. Eu. 432; δίκαια καὶ μὴ δίκαια Id. Ch. 78 (lyr.); τὸ μὴ 'νδικον S. OT 682 (lyr.); τὸ μὴ καλόν Id. Ant. 370 (lyr.); ἡ μὴ 'μπειρία, = τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἐμπειρίαν, want of experience, Ar. Ec. 115; ἡ μὴ ἐπιτροπή Pl. Lg. 966c; δῆμον καὶ μὴ δῆμον ib. 759b; ὁ μὴ ἰατρός Id. Grg. 459b; νίκης μὴ κακῆς A. Eu. 903, cf. Th. 411; τῷ φρονοῦντι μὴ καλῶς Id. Pr. 1012, cf. Ag. 349, 927.

8. after Verbs expressing fear or apprehension (cf. μὴ οὐ): when the thing feared is fut., mostly with subj.: with pres. subj., δεινῶς ἀθυμῶ μὴ βλέπων ὁ μάντις ᾖ shall proveto be.., S. OT 747, cf. Ant. 1113; ὅρα μὴ κυβεύῃς Pl. Prt. 314a: more freq. with aor., δείδοικα.. μή σε παρείπῃ Il. 1.555, cf. 9.244, 13.745: with pf., shall prove to have been, δέδοικα μὴ περαιτέρω πεπραγμέν' ᾖ μοι S. Tr. 663, cf. Ph. 494, Hdt. 3.119, 4.140, etc.: less freq. with fut. ind., X. Cyr. 2.3.6, Ar. Ec. 488, Pl. Phlb. 13a: with opt. according to the sequence of moods and tenses: pres. opt., S. Tr. 482, X. An. 1.10.9: aor., Od. 11.634, etc.: pf., X. Cyr. 1.3.10: with fut. opt. in oratio obliqua, Id. HG 6.4.27, Mem. 1.2.7, Pl. Euthphr. 15d: with opt. and ἄν, S. Tr. 631, X. vect. 4.41. when the action is pres. or past, the ind. is used, εἰσόρα μὴ σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν τίθης S. El. 584, cf. E. Ion 1523, Ar. Nu. 493, Pl. La. 196c; ὅρα μὴ παίζων ἔλεγεν Id. Tht. 145b, cf. E. Hel. 119; φοβούμεθα μὴ ἀμφοτέρων ἡμαρτήκαμεν Th. 3.53, cf. E. Or. 209, Pl. Ly. 218d; δείδω μὴ δὴ πάντα θεὰ νημερτέα εἶπεν Od. 5.300. with ind. and subj. in consecutive clauses, E. Ph. 93. in


I direct questions,

1 with ind., where aneg. answer is anticipated (but more generally in A. Ag. 683 (lyr.), S. OC 1502, Tr. 316, Pl. Grg. 488b), in Hom. only ἦ μή..; Od. 6.200, 9.405; μή σοι δοκοῦμεν..; A. Pers. 344, cf. Pr. 249, 959, etc.: in Trag. and Att. freq. ἆρα μή; Id. Th. 208, S. El. 446, Pl. R. 405a: for questions in which μή (μηδέ) follows οὐ, v. οὐ μή. in other questions, τί μὴ ποιήσω; what am I not to do? S. El. 1276 (lyr.); τί μή; why not? Id.Aj.668 (s.v.l.); cf. μήν.

2. with subj., when the speaker deliberates about a neg. action, μὴ οὕτω φῶμεν; Pl.R.335c, cf. 337b, 417b; ὁ τοιοῦτος μὴ δῷ δίκην; D.21.35; πῶς μὴ φῶμεν; Pl.Tht.161e: with opt. and ἄν, τῶς ἄν τις μὴ θυμῷ λέγοι; how can a man help being excited when he speaks? Id.Lg.887c, cf. Grg.510d, X.Mem.3.1.10.


1. indirect questions, freq. where fear is implied (cf. b. 8), ἄφρα ἴδωμεν μὴ τοὶ κοιμήσωνται Il.10.98, cf. 101, Od.21.395; εἰσόμεσθα μή τι.. καλύπτει S.Ant.1253, cf. Th.2.13, etc.; also σκοπεῖσθαι τῶς ἂν μή.. Isoc.5.8, cf. 15.6; later in simple indirect quesitons, ἐπυνθάνετο μὴ ἔγνω Ant.Lib.23.5.

2. in questions introduced by εἰ, ἤρετό με.. εἰ μὴ μέμνημαι Aeschin.2.36 (εἰ οὐκ in same sense, 1.84): in the second part of a disjunctive question, εἰ.. (or εἴτε) μή.., εἴτε.. εἴτε μή.., A.Eu.468, 612, And.1.7, Pl.Revelation 18:1-24 a, R.457d, X.Cyr.2.1.7; εἴτε.. εἴτε μή.., εἰ.. ἢ οὔ, εἰ.. ἢ μή without difference of meaning between μή and οὺ, Isaiah 8:9; so also, τοὺς νόμους καταμανθάνειν εἰ καλῶς κεῖνται ἢ μή,.. τοὺς λόγους, εἰ ὀρθῶς διδάσκουσι τὸ πρᾶγμα ἢ οὔ Antipho 5.14.


1. of μή. When the neg. extends its power over the whole clause, μή prop. precedes the Verb. When its force is limited to single words, it precedes those words. But Poets sts. put μή after the Verb, ὄλοιο μή πω S.Ph.961; φράσῃς.. μὴ πέρα ib.332, cf. OC1522.

2. μή is sts. repeated, cf. οὐ C μή, μή καλέσῃς Ar.V.1418, cf. S.Aj.190, OC210 (both lyr.).


in Trag. μή may be joined by synizesis with a following ει or ου, μὴ οὐ, μὴ εἰδέναι, S.OT13, 221, Tr.321, etc.: initial ε after μή is cut off by aphaeresis, μὴ ʼπόθουν Id.Aj.962; μὴ ʼμβαίνῃς Id.OC400; μὴ ʼγώ Id.Ph.910: in Prose, μὴ ʼκ IG1.115.11: μή folld. by α is sts. written μἀ.. (v. μὴ ἀλλά, etc.); sts. separately, μὴ ἀδικεῖν A.Eu.85, etc. μή in

Composition, or joined with other Particles, as μὴ ἀλλά, μὴ γάρ, μὴ οὐ, μὴ ὅπως or ὅτι, μή ποτε, etc., will be found in alphabetical order.

Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (673)NAS (148)HCS (1019)
1 Corinthians52
2 Corinthians25
1 Thessalonians10
2 Thessalonians9
1 Timothy17
2 Timothy3
1 Peter13
2 Peter4
1 John14
2 John3
3 John2
1 Corinthians23
2 Corinthians8
1 Thessalonians4
2 Thessalonians1
1 Timothy3
2 Timothy1
1 Peter2
2 Peter3
1 Corinthians96
2 Corinthians44
1 Thessalonians14
2 Thessalonians11
1 Timothy24
2 Timothy4
1 Peter14
2 Peter6
1 John20
2 John5
3 John2
List of Word Forms
ακύρους εισέλθητε καὶ μη μή μὴ μηδὲν μήποτε ος οὐκ kai kaì me mē mḗ mḕ meden medèn mēden mēdèn mepote mēpote ouk
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ἐὰν μή
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