ver. 2.0.15.09.04
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to http://classic.studylight.org/
Problem finding something? Get the StudyLight-HowTo PDF file or read the "Frequently Asked Questions"

Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #3739 - ὅς

Transliteration:
hós
Phonetics:
hos, hay, ho  
Word Origin:
probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article (3588))
Parts of Speech:
pronoun
TDNT:
None
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. who, which, what, that
Wigram's count is 1309 not 1393.
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ὅς, ἥ, ὅ,

gen. οὗ, ἧς, οὗ, etc.; dat. pl. οἷς, αἷς, οἷς, etc.: forms, gen. ὅου (prob. replacing Οο) in the phrases ὅου κλέος οὔ ποτ' ὀλεῖται Il. 2.325, h.Ap. 156; ὅου κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον Od. 1.70 (elsewh. οὗ Il. 7.325, al., never οἷο); fem. ἕης Il. 16.208 (perh. imitation of ὅου; elsewh. only ἧς 5.265, al.); dat. pl. οἷς, οἷσι, ᾗς, ᾗσι (never αἷς or αἷσι in Hom.): Pron. used, as demonstr. by the side of οὗτος, ὅδε, and the Art. ὁ, ἡ, τό: in post-Homeric Gr. this use survived only in a few special phrases. as a Relat. by the side of the Art. ὅ, ἥ, τό (v. ὁ, ἡ, τό, c): this demonstr. and Relat. Pron. must not be confounded with the Possess. ὅς, ἥ, ὅν. (With Gr. Relat. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ cf. Skt. Relat. yas, yâ, yad, Lith. jis, ji (he, she), Oslav. i, ja, je (he, she, it).)

DEMONSTR. PRON., = οὗτος, ὅδε, this, that; also, he, she, it:

I Homeric usage: this form only occurs in the nom. masc. and neut. ὅς, ὅ, and perh. nom. fem. and nom. pl. οἵ, the other cases being supplied by ὁ, ἡ, τό (ὅ, ἡ, τό); most codd. have in Il. 17.551, Od. 24.255, al., and this (as also οἵ) can be referred equally to either (on the accent v. ὁ, ἡ, τό): with γάρ or καί, ὃς γὰρ δεύτατος ἦλθεν 1.286; ἀλλὰ καὶ ὃς δείδοικε Il. 21.198; ὃ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων Od. 24.190, Il. 23.9, cf. 12.344: freq. used emphatically in apodosi, mostly with οὐδέ or μηδέ before it, μηδ' ὅν τινα γαστέρι μήτηρ κοῦρον ἐόντα φέροι, μηδ' ὃς φύγοι Il. 6.59, cf. 7.160, Od. 4.653: after a part., εἰς ἕτερον γάρ τίς τε ἰδών.., ὃς σπεύδει (for ὅστις ἂν ἴδῃ, ὃς σπεύδει) Hes. Op. 22.

II in later Gr. this usage remained in a few forms:

1 at the beginning of a clause, καὶ ὅς and he, Hdt. 7.18, X. Smp. 1.15, Pl. Phd. 118, Prt. 310d; καὶ ἥ and she, καὶ οἵ and they, Hdt. 8.56, 87, Pl. Smp. 201e, X. An. 7.6.4.

2. ὃς καὶ ὅς such and such a person, Hdt. 4.68: here also the Art. supplied the obl. cases.

3. ἦ δ' ὅς, ἦ δ' ἥ, said he, said she, v. ἠμί.

4. in oppositions, where it sts. answers to the Art., Λέριοι κακοί· οὐχ ὁ μέν, ὃς δ' οὔ.. Phoc. 1; ὃς μὲν.., ὃ δὲ.. Mosch. 3.76; ὃ μὲν.., ὃς δὲ.., ὃ δὲ.., ὃς δὲ.. Bion 1.81; so τῷ μὲν.., ᾧ δὲ.., ᾧ δὲ.. AP 6.187 (Alph.); ὃ μὲν.., ὃ δὲ.., ὃ δὲ.. (neut.) Matthew 13:8; ἂ μὲν.., ἃ δὲ.. Heraclit. 102, Archyt. ap. Stob. 3.1.110; ὧν μὲν.., ὧν δὲ.. Philem. 99; πόλεις ἃς μὲν.., ἃς δὲ.. D. 18.71 (as v. l.): so in Dor. dat. fem. as Adv., ᾇ μὲν.., ᾇ δὲ.. Tab.Heracl. 1.81; ἐφ' ὧν μὲν.., ἐφ' ὧν δὲ.. Arist. EN 1109a1: very freq. in late Prose, Arr. Epict. 3.25.1, etc.: also answering to other Prons., ἑτέρων.., ὧν δὲ.. Philem. 31.6; ἐφ' ᾧ μὲν.., ἐπὶ θατέρῳ δὲ.. Arist. HA 564a21, etc.

RELAT. PRON., who, which. By the side of the simple Relat., ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (in Hom. also ὁ, ἡ, τό), we find in common use the compd. forms ὅστε, ὅστις and ὅτις, ὅσπερ and ὅπερ, ὅς γε (q. v.).

USAGE of the Relat. Pron. (the foll. remarks apply to ὅς γε, ὅσπερ, ὅστε, ὅστις, as well as to ὅς, and to ὁ, ἡ, τό as relat.):

I in respect of CONCOR D. Prop. it agrees in gender and number with the Noun or Pron. in the antec. clause. But this rule admits of many exceptions:

1 the Relat. mayagree with the gender implied, not expressed, in the antec., φίλον θάλος, ὃν τέκον αὐτή Il. 22.87; τέκνων, οὓς ἤγαγε E. Supp. 12: so after collective Nouns, the Relat. is freq. put in pl. in the gender implied in the Noun, λαόν.., οὕς.. Il. 16.369; στρατιάν.. τοιαύτην.., οἵ τινες.., τὸ ναυτικόν, οἵ.., Th. 6.91, 3.4; πλήθει, οἵπερ.. Pl. Phdr. 260a; esp. after the names of countries or cities, Τηλέπυλον Λαιστρυγονίην ἀφίκανεν, οἳ.. (i. e. to Telepylos of the Laestrygonians, who..) Od. 23.319; τὰς Ἀθήνας, οἵ γε.. Hdt. 7.8. β' ; Μέγαρα.., οὓς.. Th. 6.94: it also may agree with the Noun or Pron. implied in an Adj., Θηβαίας ἐπισκοποῦντ' ἀγυιάς, τάν.. the streets of Thebes, which.., S. Ant. 1137 (lyr.); τοὺς Ἡρακλείους παῖδας, ὃς.. the children of Heracles, who.., E. HF 157; τῆς ἐμῆς ἐπεισόδου, ὅν.. of me whom.., S. OC 731; τὸν ἥμισύν ἐστ' ἀτελὴς τοῦ χρόνου· εἶθ' ἧς πᾶσι μέτεστι.., where ἧς agrees with ἀτελείας implied in ἀτελής, D. 20.8.

2. when the antec. Noun in sg. implies a class, the Relat. is sts. in pl., ἦ μάλα τις θεὸς ἔνδον, οἳ.. ἔχουσιν (for τις θεῶν, οἵ..) Od. 19.40; κῆτος, ἃ μυρία βόσκει.. Ἀμφιτρίτη one of the thousands, which.., 12.97; αὐτουργός, οἵπερ.. one of those who.., E. Or. 920: rare in Prose, ἀνὴρ καλός τε κἀγαθός, ἐν οἷς οὐδαμοῦ σὺ φανήσει γεγονώς D. 18.310, cf. Lys. 1.32.

3. reversely, the sg. Relat. may follow a pl. antec., where the relat. clause refers to each individual; but in this case ὅστις or ὃς ἄν is mostly used, ἀνθρώπους τίνυσθον, ὅ τις κ' ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ, for ἀνθρώπων τινά, ὅς κε.., Il. 3.279; πάντα.., ὅ τι νοοίης, i.e. anything which.., Ar. Nu. 1381: rarely ὅς alone, τὰ λίνεα [ὅπλα], τοῦ τάλαντον ὁ πῆχυς εἷλκε a cubit's length where of.., Hdt. 7.36.

4. the Relat. is sts. in the neut., agreeing rather with the notion implied in the antec. than with the Noun itself, διὰ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ὃ πᾶσα φύσις διώκειν πέφυκεν for profit's sake a thing which.., Pl. R. 359c, cf. Lg. 849d; τοὺς Φωκέας, ὃ σιωπᾶν εἰκὸς ἦν a name which.., D. 19.44; γυναῖκας, ἐφ' ὅπερ.. women, for dealings with whom, E. Ba. 454.

5. with Verbs of naming, the Relat. freq. agrees with the name added as a predicate, rather than with the antec., ξίφος, τὸν ἀκινάκην καλέουσι Hdt. 7.54; τὴν ἄκρην, αἳ καλεῦνται Κληΐδες Id. 5.108, cf. 2.17, 124, etc.

II in respect of CONSTRUCTION.

1. Prop., the Relat. is governed by the Noun or Verb in its own clause. But it is freq. thrown by attraction into the case of the antec. (prob. not in Hom., ἧς in Il. 5.265, cf. 23.649, can be expld. otherwise), ἀπὸ παιδεύσιος, τῆς ἐπεπαίδευτο (for τῇ or τήν) Hdt. 4.78; freq. in Att., Th. 7.21, etc.: esp. where a Demonstr. Pron. is unexpressed, while the Relat. takes its case, οὐδὲν ὧν λέγω (for οὐδὲν τούτων ἃ λ.) S. El. 1048, 1220, etc.; ξὺν ᾧπερ εἶχον οἰκετῶν (for ξὺν τούτῳ ὅνπερ) Id. OC 334; ἀνθ' ὧν ἂν ἐμοὶ δανείσῃς (for ἀντὶ τούτων ἅ..) X. Cyr. 3.1.34; πρὸς οἷς ἐκτήσαντο (for πρὸς τούτοις ἅ..) Pl. Grg. 519a, etc.: the Demonstr. Pron. sts follows, ἀφ' ὧν ἐγένεσθε ἀγαθοί, ἀπὸ τούτων ὠφελεῖσθαι Th. 3.64, cf. D. 8.23,26. This attraction is rare, exc. when the acc. passes into the gen. or dat. (v. supr.): sts. nom. is so attracted, οὐδὲν εἰδότες τῶν ἦν (for τούτων ἃ ἦν) Hdt. 1.78; ἀφ' ὧν παρεσκεύασται (for ἀπὸ τούτων ἃ π.) Th. 7.67: also dat., ὧν ἐγὼ ἐντετύχηκα οὐδείς (for τούτων οἷς..) Pl. Grg. 509a. reversely the antec. passes into the case of the Relat., φυλακὰς δ' ἃς εἴρεαι.., οὔτις (for φυλακῶν.. οὔτις) Il. 10.416; τὰς στήλας, τὰς ἵστα, αἱ πλεῦνες.. (for τῶν στηλῶν.. αἱ πλεῦνες) Hdt. 2.106: so also when the Noun follows the Relat. clause, it may be put in apposition with the Relat., Κύκλωπος κεχόλωται, ὃν ὀφθαλμοῦ ἀλάωσεν, ἀντίθεον Πολύφημον Od. 1.69, cf. 4.11, Il. 3.123, A. Th. 553, E. Hec. 771, 986, Hipp. 101, etc.

2. the Demonstr. Pron. or the Noun with an Art. is sts. transferred to the Relat. clause, Ἰνδὸν ποταμόν, ὃς κροκοδείλους δεύτερος οὗτος.. παρέχεται the river Indus, being the second river which.., Hdt. 4.44; σφραγῖδα.., ἣν ἐπὶ δέλτῳ τήνδε κομίζεις E. IA 156 (anap.); φοβούμεθα δέ γε.. δόξαν.., ὃν δὴ καὶ καλοῦμεν τὸν φόβον ἡμεῖς γε αἰσχύνην Pl. Lg. 647a.

3. the Relat. in all cases may govern a partit. gen., ἀθανάτων ὅς τίς σε.. any one of the immortals who.., Od. 15.35, cf. 25, 5.448, etc.; οἳ.. τῶν ἀστῶν Hdt. 7.170; οὓς.. βαρβάρων A. Pers. 475; .. τῶν ἡνιόχων Pl. Phdr. 247b: freq. in neut., ἐς ὃ δυνάμιος to what a height of power, Hdt. 7.50; οἶσθ' οὖν ὃ κάμνει τοῦ λόγου; what part of thy speech, E. Ion 363; ᾧπερ τῆς τέχνης ἐπίστευον in which particular of their art.., Th. 7.36; τὰ μακρὰ τείχη, ἃ σφῶν.. εἶχον which portion of their territory, Id. 4.109, etc.: rarely in such forms as ἕξουσι δ' ἣν λάβωσιν ἐν ταφῇ χθονός (for ὃ χθονός) A. Th. 819 (χθόνα cj. Brunck).

III in respect of the Moods which follow the Relat.:

1. when the Relat. is equivalent to καί + demonstr. (ὅς = and he..) any mood may follow which may be found in independent clauses: ἦλθε τὸ ναυτικὸν τὸ τῶν βαρβάρων, ὃ τίς οὐκ ἂν ἰδὼν ἐφοβήθη; Lys. 2.34; ὁ δ' εἰς τὸ σῶφρον ἐπ' ἀρετήν τ' ἄγων ἔρως ζηλωτὸς ἀνθρώποισιν· ὧν εἴην ἐγώ E. Fr. 672; ἐλπίς, ᾗ μόνῃ σωθεῖμεν ἄν Id. Hel. 815; εἰς καλὸν ἡμῖν Ἄνυτος ὅδε παρεκαθέζετο, ᾧ μεταδῶμεν τῆς σκέψεως to whom let us.., Pl. Men. 89e; ὃν ὑμεῖς.. νομίσατε which I would have you think.., Lys. 19.61: so the inf. in orat. obliq., ἔτι δὲ.. προσετίθει χρήματα οὐκ ὀλίγα, οἷς χρήσεσθαι αὐτούς (sc. ἔφη) Th. 2.13: for the inf. after ἐφ' ᾧ τε, v. ἐπί B. 111.3.

2. after ὅς, ὅστις, = whoever, in collective hypothetical sense (= if A + if B + if C..), the same moods are used as after εἰ: pres. ind., τῷδ' ἔφες ἀνδρὶ βέλος.. ὅς τις ὅδε κρατέει Il. 5.175; κλῦθι, ἄναξ, ὅτις ἐσσί Od. 5.445; δουληΐην.., ἥτις ἐστί (as we say) whatever it is, Hdt. 6.12; ὅ τι ἀνὴρ καὶ γυνή ἐστι πλὴν παιδίων all that are man and woman, Id. 2.60; Ζεύς, ὅστις ποτ' ἐστίν A. Ag. 160 (lyr.): also after ὅς, ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος.. ὃς πενίῃ εἴκων ἀπατήλια βάζει Od. 14.157, etc. subj. with ἄν (κεν) or, in poetry, without ἄν: ξυνίει ἔπος ὅττι κεν εἴπω 19.378; οὐ δηναιὸς ὃς ἀθανάτοισι μάχηται Il. 5.407: in such cases the opt. is used after secondary tenses, Τρῶας ἄμυνε νεῶν, ὅς τις φέροι ἀκάματον πῦρ 15.731, cf. Hes. Sc. 480; πάντας ἑξῆς, ὅτῳ ἐντύχοιεν,.. κτείνοντες Th. 7.29, cf. Pl. Revelation 21:1-27 a, etc. sts. opt. without ἄν after a primary tense, ὃν πόλις στήσειε, τοῦδε χρὴ κλύειν S. Ant. 666; after an opt., ἔρδοι τις ἣν ἕκαστος εἰδείη τέχνην Ar. V. 1431.

peculiar Idioms:

I

1 in Homer and correct writers, when two coordinate Relat. clauses were joined by καί or δέ, the Relat. Pron. was freq. replaced in the second clause by the demonstr. even though the case was changed, ἄνδρα.., ὃς μέγα πάντων Ἀργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί (for καὶ ᾧ) Il. 1.78; ὅου κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον.. · Θόωσα δέ μιν τέκε νύμφη (for ὃν τέκε) Od. 1.70, cf. 14.85, etc.; and this sts. even without the demonstr. being expressed, δοίη δ' ᾧ κ' ἐθέλοι καί οἱ κεχαρισμένος ἔλθοι (for καὶ ὅς οἱ) 2.54, cf. 114; οὕς κεν ἐΰ γνοίην καί τ' οὔνομα μυθησαίμην (for καὶ ὧν) Il. 3.235; ᾗ χαλκὸς μὲν ὑπέστρωται, χαλκὸν δ' ἐπίεσται (nom. supplied) Orac. ap. Hdt. 1.47; ἃς ἐπιστήμας μὲν προσείπομεν.., δέονται δὲ ὀνόματος ἄλλου Pl. R. 533d.

2. the neut. of the Relat. is used in Att. to introduce a clause qualifying the whole of the principal clause which follows: the latter clause is commonly introduced by γάρ, ὅτι, εἰ, ἐπειδή, etc., ὃ δὲ δεινότατόν γ' ἐστὶν ἁπάντων, ὁ Ζεὺς γὰρ.. ἕστηκεν κτλ. Ar. Av. 514, cf. D. 19.211, etc.; ὃ δὲ πάντων σχετλιώτατον, εἰ.. βουλευσόμεθα Isoc. 6.56; ὃ μὲν πάντων θαυμαστότατον ἀκοῦσαι, ὅτι.. Pl. R. 491b, cf. Revelation 18:1-24 c: also without any Conj., ὃ δὲ πάντων δεινότατόν ἐστι, τοιοῦτος ὢν κτλ. And. 4.16; ὃ δ' ἠπάτα σε πλεῖστον.., ηὔχεις κτλ. E. El. 938: c. inf., ὃ δὲ πάντων δεινότατον, τὴν ἀδελφὴν ὑποδέξασθαι Lys. 19.33 (but ὑποδέξασθαι <δεῖ> is prob. cj.), etc.: so also the neut. pl. may mean with reference to that which, ἃ δ'.. ἐστί σοι λελεγμένα, πᾶν κέρδος ἡγοῦ.. as to what has been said.., E. Med. 453, cf. Hdt. 3.81, S. OT 216, Ar. Eq. 512, etc.

3. in many instances the Gr. Relat. must be resolved into a Conj. and Pron., θαυμαστὸν ποιεῖς, ὃς ἡμῖν οὐδὲν δίδως (= ὅτι σὺ) X. Mem. 2.7.13, cf. Lys. 7.23 codd., Pl. Smp. 204b, etc.: very freq. in conditional clauses, for εἴ or ἐάν τις, βέλτερον ὃς<> προφύγῃ κακόν, ἠὲ ἁλώῃ Il. 14.81, cf. Hes. Op. 327; συμφορὰ δ', ὃς ἂν τύχῃ κακῆς γυναικός E. Fr. 1056; τὸ δ' εὐτυχές, οἳ ἂν.. λάχωσι κτλ. Th. 2.44; τὸ καλῶς ἄρξαι τοῦτ' εἶναι, ὃς ἂν τὴν πατρίδα ὠφελήσῃ Id. 6.14.

4. the Relat. freq. stands where we should use a final Conj. or the inf., ἄγγελον ἧκαν, ὃς ἀγγείλειε sent a messenger to tell.., Od. 15.458; κλητοὺς ὀτρύνομεν, οἵ κε τάχιστα ἔλθωσ' that they may.., Il. 9.165: and freq. with fut. ind., πρέσβεις ἄγουσα, οἵπερ φράσουσι (v.l. φράσωσι) to tell.., Th. 7.25; πέμψον τιν', ὅστις σημανεῖ E. IT 1209 (troch.), cf. X. HG 2.3.2, Mem. 2.1.14: so with fut. opt., ὀργάνου, ᾧ τὴν τροφὴν δέξοιτο Pl. Ti. 33c: also for ὥστε, after οὕτω, ὧδε, etc., οὐκ ἔστιν οὕτω μῶρος, ὃς θανεῖν ἐρᾷ (for ὥστε ἐρᾶν) S. Ant. 220, cf. Hdt. 4.52, E. Alc. 198, Ar. Ach. 737, etc.

5. ὅς is freq. used where we should expect οἷος, as μαθὼν ὃς εἶ φύσιν what thou art, S. Aj. 1259, cf. E. Alc. 640, Pl. Euthd. 283d, etc.

6. ὅς is sts. = ὅστις or τις in indirect clauses, γνώσῃ.. ὅς.. ἡγεμόνων κακὸς ἠδ' ὅς κ' ἐσθλὸς ἔῃσι Il. 2.365 (perh. felt as Relat.); ὃς ἦν ὁ ἀναδέξας, οὐκ ἔχω εἰπεῖν I cannot tell who it was that.., Hdt. 6.124; γενομένης λέσχης ὃς γένοιτο.. ἄριστος Id. 9.71 (in 4.131, 6.37, 7.37, τί θέλει (θέλοι) has been conjectured for τὸ of the Mss.); so in Att., ἐγῷδ' ὅς ἐστι, Κλεισθένης ὁ Σιβυρτίου Ar. Ach. 118, cf. 442, Av. 804, Pl. 59, 369, S. OT 1068, OC 1171; πέμπει πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον, εἰπὼν ὃς ἦν X. Cyr. 6.1.46, cf. D. 52.7; δηλώσας ὃς ἦν Arist. Po. 1452a26; γράψας παρ' οὗ κομιούμεθα PCair.Zen. 150.11 (iii B. C.). later ὅς = τίς even in direct questions, ἐφ' ὃ πάρει; Matthew 26:50; ἣν δοκεῖς; Arr. Epict. 4.1.120 (both dub.).

7. in exclamations, ὦ Ἡράκλεις, ἃ πέπονθα Men. Epit. 146. A a. the Relat. Pron. joined with Particles or Conjs.: I ὅς γε, v. ὅσγε.

II ὃς δή, v. δή 11.2;

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ὅς, , , the postpositive article, which has the force of:

I. a demonstrative pronoun, this, that (Latin hic, haec, hoc; German emphatic der, die, das); in the N. T. only in the following instances: ὅς δέ, but he (German er aber), John 5:11 L Tr WH; ( Mark 15:23 T Tr text WH; cf. Buttmann, § 126,2); in distributions and distinctions: ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, this ... that, one ... another, the one ... the other, Matthew 21:35; Matthew 22:5 L T Tr WH; Matthew 25:15>; Luke 23:33; Acts 27:44; Romans 14:5; 1 Corinthians 7:7 R G; 1 Corinthians 11:21>; 2 Corinthians 2:16; Jude 1:22; μέν ... δέ, the one ... the other, Romans 9:21; ( μέν ... δέ ... δέ, some ... some ... some, Matthew 13:23 L T WH); δέ ... δέ ... δέ, some ... some ... some, Matthew 13:8; (masculine) μέν ... ἄλλῳ (δέ) ... ἑτέρῳ δέ (but L T Tr WH omit this δέ) κτλ., 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 μέν ... ἄλλο δέ ( L text T Tr WH καί ἄλλο), Mark 4:4; with a variation of the construction also in the following passages: μέν ... καί ἕτερον, Luke 8:5; οὕς μέν with the omission of οὕς δέ by anacoluthon, 1 Corinthians 12:28; ὅς μέν ... δέ ἀσθενῶν etc. one man ... but he that is weak etc. Romans 14:2. On this use of the pronoun, chiefly by later writers from Demosth. down, cf. Matthiae, § 289 Anm. 7; Kühner, § 518,4b. ii., p. 780; ( Jelf, § 816,3b.); Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram. § 126,3; Buttmann, 101 (89); Winer's Grammar, 105 (100); Fritzsche on Mark , p. 507.

II. a relative pronoun who, which, what;

1. in the common construction, according to which the relative agrees as respects its gender with the noun or pronoun which is its antecedent, but as respects case is governed by its own verb, or by a substantive, or by a preposition: ἀστήρ ὅν εἶδον, Matthew 2:9; ... Ἰουδαῖος οὗ ἔπαινος κτλ., Romans 2:29; οὗτος περί οὗ ἐγώ ἀκούω τοιαῦτα, Luke 9:9; ἀπό τῆς ἡμέρας, ἀφ' ἧς, Acts 20:18; Θεός δἰ οὗ, ἐξ οὗ, 1 Corinthians 8:6, and numberless other examples it refers to a more remote noun in 1 Corinthians 1:8, where the antecedent of ὅς is not the nearest noun Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, but τῷ Θεῷ in 4; yet cf. Winer's Grammar, 157 (149); as in this passage, so very often elsewhere the relative is the subject of its own clause: ἀνήρ ὅς etc. James 1:12; πᾶς ὅς, Luke 14:33; οὐδείς ὅς, Mark 10:29; Luke 18:29, and many other examples

2. in constructions peculiar in some respect;

a. the gender of the relative is sometimes made to conform to that of the following noun: τῆς αὐλῆς, ἐστι πραιτώριον, Mark 15:16; λαμπάδες, εἰσί ( L ἐστιν) τά πνεύματα, Revelation 4:5 ( L T WH); σπέρματι, ὅς ἐστι Χριστός, Galatians 3:16; add, Ephesians 1:14 ( L WH text Tr marginal reading ); Ephesians 6:17>; 1 Timothy 3:15; Revelation 5:8 ( T WH marginal reading ); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 708; Matthiae, § 440, p. 989f; Winer s Grammar, § 24,3; Buttmann, § 143,3.

b. in constructions ad sensum (cf. Buttmann, § 143,4); α. the plural of the relative is used after collective nouns in the singular (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 21,3; Buttmann, as above): πλῆθος πολύ, οἱ ἦλθον, Luke 6:17; πᾶν τό πρεσβυτέριον, παῥ ὧν, Acts 22:5; γενεάς, ἐν οἷς, Philippians 2:15. β. κατά πᾶσαν πόλιν, ἐν αἷς, Acts 15:36; ταύτην δευτέραν ὑμῖν γράφω ἐπιστολήν, ἐν αἷς (because the preceding context conveys the idea of two Epistles), 2 Peter 3:1. γ. the gender of the relative is conformed not to the grammatical but to the natural gender its antecedent (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 21,2; Buttmann, as above): παιδάριον ὅς, John 6:9 L T Tr WH; θηρίον ὅς, of Nero, as antichrist, Revelation 13:14 L T Tr WH; κεφαλή ὅς, of Christ, Colossians 2:19; (add μυστήριον ὅς etc. 1 Timothy 3:16 G L T Tr WH; cf. Buttmann, as above; Winer's Grammar, 588f (547)); σκεύη (of men) οὕς, Romans 9:24; ἔθνη οἱ, Acts 15:17; Acts 26:17; τέκνα, τεκνία οἱ, John 1:13; Galatians 4:19; 2 John 1:1 ( Euripides, suppl. 12); τέκνον ὅς, Philemon 1:10.

c. In attractions ( Buttmann, § 143,8; Winer's Grammar, §§ 24,1; 66,4ff); α. the accusative of the relative pronoun depending on a transitive, verb is changed by attraction into the oblique case of its antecedent: κτίσεως ἧς ἔκτισεν Θεός, Mark 13:19 ( R G); τοῦ ῤήματος οὗ εἶπεν, Mark 14:72 ( Rec.); add, John 4:14; John 7:31,39 (but Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ); John 15:20; 21:10>; Acts 3:21,25; Acts 7:17,45; Acts 9:36; Acts 10:39; Acts 22:10; Romans 15:18; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 10:8,13; Ephesians 1:8; Titus 3:5( R G),Titus 3:6>; Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 9:20; James 2:5; 1 John 3:24; Jude 1:15; for other examples see below; ἐν ἄρα οὐ γινώσκει, Matthew 24:50; τῇ παραδόσει παρεδώκατε, Mark 7:13; add, Luke 2:20; Luke 5:9; Luke 9:43; Luke 12:46; Luke 24:25; John 17:5; Acts 2:22; Acts 17:31; Acts 20:38; 2 Corinthians 12:21; 2 Thessalonians 1:4; Revelation 18:6; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 24,1; (Buttmann, as above). Rarely attraction occurs where the verb governs the dative (but see below): thus, κατέναντι οὗ ἐπίστευσε Θεοῦ for κατέναντι Θεοῦ, ἐπίστευσε (see κατέναντι), Romans 4:17; φωνῆς, ἧς ἔκραξα (for (others, ἥν, cf. Winer s Grammar, 164 (154 f) Buttmann, 287 (247))), Acts 24:21, cf. Isaiah 6:4; (ἤγετο δέ καί τῶν ἑαυτοῦ τέ πιστῶν, οἷς ἠδετο καί ὧν ἠπιστει πολλούς, for καί πολλούς τούτων, οἷς ἠπιστει, Xenophon, Cyril 5,4, 39; ὧν ἐγώ ἐντετύχηκα οὐδείς, for οὐδείς τούτων, οἷς ἐντετύχηκα, Plato, Gorgias, p. 509a.; Protag., p. 361e.; de rep. 7, p. 531e.; παῥ ὧν βοηθεῖς, οὐδεμίαν ληψει χάριν, for παρά τούτων, οἷς κτλ., Aeschines f. leg., p. 43 (117); cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans , i., p. 237; ( Buttmann, § 148,11; Winer's Grammar, 163 f (154 f); but others refuse to recognize this rare species of attraction in the N. T.; cf. Meyer on Ephesians 1:8)). The following expressions, however, can hardly be brought under this construction: τῆς χάριτος ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν (as if for ), Ephesians 1:6 L T Tr WH; τῆς κλήσεως, ἧς ἐκλήθητε, Ephesians 4:1; διά τῆς παρακλήσεως ἧς παρακαλούμεθα, 2 Corinthians 1:4, but must be explained agreeably to such phrases as χάριν χαριτουν, κλῆσιν καλεῖν, etc. ((i. e. accusative of kindred abstract substantive; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 32,2; Buttmann, § 131,5)); cf. Winer s Grammar, (and Buttmann, as above). β. The noun to which the relative refers is so conformed to the case of the relative clause that either αα. it is itself incorporated into the relative construction, but without the article ( Buttmann, § 143,7; Winer's Grammar, § 24,2b.): ὅν ἐγώ ἀπεκεφάλισα Ἰωάννην, οὗτος ἠγέρθη, for Ἰωάννης, ὅν κτλ., Mark 6:16; add, Luke 24:1; Philemon 1:10; Romans 6:17; εἰς ἥν οἰκίαν, ἐκεῖ, equivalent to ἐν τῇ οἰκία, εἰς ἥν, Luke 9:4; or ββ. it is placed before the relative clause, either with or without the article ( Winer s Grammar, § 24,2a.; Buttmann, § 144,13): τόν ἄρτον ὅν κλῶμεν, οὐχί κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος, 1 Corinthians 10:16; λίθον ὅν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη (for λίθος, ὅς κτλ.), Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; 1 Peter 2:7. γ. Attraction in the phrases ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας for ἄχρι τῆς ἡμέρας, ( Winer's Grammar, § 24,1at the end): Matthew 24:38; Luke 1:20; Luke 17:27; Acts 1:2; ἀφ' ἧς ἡμρας for ἀπό τῆς ἡμέρας, , Colossians 1:6,9; ὅν τρόπον, as, just as, for τοῦτον τόν τρόπον ὅν or Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:31; Acts 7:28; (preceded or) followed by οὕτως, Acts 1:11; 2 Timothy 3:8. δ. A noun common to both the principal clause and the relative is placed in the relative clause after the relative pronoun ( Winer's Grammar, 165 (156)): ἐν κρίματι κρίνετε, κριθήσεσθε, for κριθήσεσθε ἐν τῷ κρίματι, ἐν κρίνετε, Matthew 7:2; Matthew 24:44; Mark 4:24; Luke 12:40, etc.

3. The Neuter a. refers to nouns of the masculine and the feminine gender, and to plurals, when that which is denoted by these nouns is regarded as a thing (cf. Buttmann, § 129,6): λεπτά δύο, ἐστι κοδράντης, Mark 12:42; ἀγάπην, ἐστι σύνδεσμος, Colossians 3:14 L T Tr WH; ἄρτους, etc. Matthew 12:4 L text T Tr WH.

b. is used in the phrases ( Buttmann, as above] — ἐστιν, which (term) signifies: Βοανεργές ἐστιν υἱοί βροντῆς, Mark 3:17; add, Mark 5:41; 7:11,34>; Hebrews 7:2; ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, and the like: Matthew 1:23; Mark 15:34; John 1:38 (John 1:39>), John 1:41> f (John 1:42>f); John 9:7; 20:16>.

c. refers to a whole sentence ( Buttmann, as above): τοῦτον ἀνέστησεν Θεός, οὗ ... μάρτυρες, Acts 2:32; Acts 3:15; περί οὗ ... λόγος, Hebrews 5:11; καί ἐποίησαν (and the like), Acts 11:30; Galatians 2:10; Colossians 1:29; ( which thing viz. that I write a new commandment (cf. Buttmann, § 143,3)) ἐστιν ἀληθές, 1 John 2:8; (namely, to have one's lot assigned in the lake of fire) ἐστιν θάνατος δεύτερος, Revelation 21:8.

4. By an idiom to be met with from Homer down, in the second of two coordinate clauses a pronoun of the third person takes the place of the relative (cf. Passow 2, p. 552 b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word B. IV:1); Buttmann, § 143,6; ( Winer's Grammar, 149 (141))): ὅς ἔσται ἐπί τοῦ δώματος καί τά σκεύη αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ οἰκία μή καταβάτω, Luke 17:31; ἐξ οὗ τά πάντα καί ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, 1 Corinthians 8:6.

5. Sometimes, by a usage especially Hebraistic, an oblique case of the pronoun αὐτός is introduced into the relative clause redundantly; as, ἧς τό θυγάτριον αὐτῆς, Mark 7:25; see αὐτός, II:5.

6. The relative pronoun very often so includes the demonstrative οὗτος or ἐκεῖνος that for the sake of perspicuity demons. pronoun must be in thought supplied, either in the clause preceding the relative clause or in that which follows it ( Winer s Grammar, § 23,2; Buttmann, § 127,5). The following examples may suffice:

a. a demons. pronoun must be added in thought in the preceding clause: οἷς ἡτοίμασται, for τούτοις δοθήσεται, οἷς ἡτοίμασται, Matthew 20:23; δεῖξαι (namely, ταῦτα), δεῖ γενέσθαι, Revelation 1:1; Revelation 22:6; for ἐκεῖνος , Luke 7:43,47; οὗ for τούτῳ οὗ, Romans 10:14; with the attraction of ὧν for τούτων , Luke 9:36; Romans 15:18; ὧν for ταῦτα ὧν, Matthew 6:8; with a preposition intervening, ἔμαθεν ἀφ' ὧν (for ἀπό τούτων ) ἔπαθεν, Hebrews 5:8.

b. a demons. pronoun must be supplied in the subsequent clause: Matthew 10:38; Mark 9:40; Luke 4:6; Luke 9:50; John 19:22; Romans 2:1, and often.

7. Sometimes the purpose and end is expressed in the form of a relative clause (cf. the Latin qui for ut is): ἀποστέλλω ἄγγελον, ὅς (for which Lachmann in Matt. has καί) κατασκευάσει, who shall etc. equivalent to that he may etc., Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27; ( 1 Corinthians 2:16); so also in Greek authors, cf. Passow, under the word, VIII. vol. 2, p. 553; (Liddell and Scott, under B. IV:4); Matthiae, § 481, d.; (Kühner, § 563,3b.; Jelf, § 836,4; Buttmann, § 139,32); — or the cause: ὅν παραδέχεται, because he acknowledges him as his own, Hebrews 12:6; — or the relative stands where ὥστε might be used (cf. Matthiae, § 479a.; Krüger, § 51,13, 10; (Kühner, § 563,3e.); Passow, under the word, VIII:2, ii., p. 553 b; (Liddell and Scott, as above)): Luke 5:21; Luke 7:49.

8. For the interrogative τίς, τί, in indirect questions (cf. Ellendt, Lex. Sophocles 2:372; (cf. Buttmann, § 139,58)): οὐκ ἔχω παραθήσω, Luke 11:6; by a later Greek usage, in a direct question (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 24,4; Buttmann, § 139,59): ἐφ' (or Rec. ἐφ' ) πάρει, Matthew 26:50 (on which (and the more than doubtful use of ὅς in direct question) see ἐπί, B. 2a. ζ῾., p. 233 b and C. I:2g. γ. αα., p. 235^b).

9. Joined to a preposition it forms a periphrasis for a conjunction ( Buttmann, 105 (92)): ἀνθ' ὧν, for ἀντί τούτων ὅτι because, Luke 1:20; Luke 19:44; Acts 12:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:10; for which reason, wherefore, Luke 12:3 (see ἀντί, 2d.); ἐφ' ,. for that, since (see ἐπί, B. 2a. δ., p. 233^a); ἀφ' οὗ (from the time that), when, since, Luke 13:25; Luke 24:21 (see ἀπό, I:4b., p. 58{b}); ἄχρις οὗ, see ἄχρι, 1d.; ἐξ οὗ, whence, Philippians 3:20 cf. Winer s Grammar, § 21,3; (Buttmann, § 143,4a.); ἕως οὗ, until (see ἕως, II:1b. α., p. 268{b}); also μέχρις οὗ, Mark 13:30; ἐν , while, Mark 2:19; Luke 5:34; John 5:7; ἐν οἷς, meanwhile, Luke 12:1; (cf. ἐν, I:8e.).

10. With particles: ὅς ἄν and ὅς ἐάν, whosoever, if any one ever, see ἄν, II:2 and ἐάν, II., p. 163{a}; οὗ ἐάν, wheresoever (whithersoever) with subjunctive, 1 Corinthians 16:6 (cf. Buttmann, 105 (92)). ὅς γέ, see γέ, 2. ὅς καί, who also, he who (cf. Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 636): Mark 3:19; Luke 6:13; Luke 10:39 (here WH brackets ); John 21:20; Acts 1:11; Acts 7:45; Acts 10:39 ( Rec. omits καί); Acts 12:4; 13:22; 24:6>; Romans 5:2; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Galatians 2:10; Hebrews 1:2, etc.; ὅς καί αὐτός, who also himself, who as well as others: Matthew 27:57. ὅς δήποτε, whosoever, John 5:4 Rec.; ὅσπερ (or ὅς περ L Tr text), who especially, the very one who (cf. Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 724): Mark 15:6 (but here T WH Tr marginal reading now read ὅν παρῃτοῦντο, which see).

11. The genitive οὗ, used absolutely (cf. Winer s Grammar, 690 (549) note; Jelf, § 522, Obs. 1), becomes an adverb (first so in Attic writings, cf. Passow, II., p. 546a; ( Meisterhans, § 50,1));

a. where (Latin ubi): Matthew 2:9; Matthew 18:20; Luke 4:16; Luke 23:53; Acts 1:13; Acts 12:12; Acts 16:13; Acts 20:6 ( T Tr marginal reading ὅπου); Acts 25:10; 28:14>; Romans 4:15; Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 3:9; Revelation 17:15; after verbs denoting motion (see ἐκεῖ b.; ὅπου, 1b.) it can be rendered whither (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 54,7; Buttmann, 71 (62)), Matthew 28:16; Luke 10:1; Luke 24:28; 1 Corinthians 16:6.

b. when (like Latin ubi equivalent to eo tempore quo, quom): Romans 5:20 ( Euripides, Iph. Taur. 320) (but others take οὗ in Romans , the passage cited locally).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (1427)NAS (1002)HCS (1133)
Matthew97
Mark73
Luke161
John143
Acts196
Romans72
1 Corinthians53
2 Corinthians34
Galatians23
Ephesians31
Philippians14
Colossians32
1 Thessalonians4
2 Thessalonians12
1 Timothy19
2 Timothy17
Titus8
Philemon5
Hebrews69
James7
1 Peter24
2 Peter17
1 John23
2 John3
3 John4
Jude4
Revelation62
Matthew81
Mark68
Luke129
John123
Acts141
Romans60
1 Corinthians46
2 Corinthians33
Galatians18
Ephesians26
Philippians13
Colossians23
1 Thessalonians3
2 Thessalonians11
1 Timothy18
2 Timothy14
Titus8
Philemon4
Hebrews57
James6
1 Peter14
2 Peter15
1 John20
2 John3
3 John3
Jude4
Revelation60
Matthew113
Mark72
Luke145
John117
Acts175
Romans82
1 Corinthians56
2 Corinthians30
Galatians19
Ephesians27
Philippians13
Colossians32
1 Thessalonians3
2 Thessalonians8
1 Timothy21
2 Timothy18
Titus9
Philemon2
Hebrews58
James7
1 Peter23
2 Peter16
1 John20
2 John2
3 John1
Jude6
Revelation58
List of Word Forms
α ἅ ἃ αι αἵ αἳ αις αἷς ας ἃς η ἣ ᾗ ην ἥν ἣν ης ἧς Ο ὁ ὅ ὃ οι οἵ οἳ οις οἷς ον ὃν ος ὅς ὃς όσα ὅσα ὅσοι όστις ου οὗ ουν ους οὓς οφ του τούτων των ω ᾧ ων ὧν ως a ai ais as e ē en ēn es ēs ha há hà hai haí haì hais haîs has hàs he hē hḕ hêi hē̂i hen hēn hḗn hḕn hes hês hēs hē̂s ho hó hò hō hoi hoí hoì hôi hō̂i hois hoîs hon hòn hôn hōn hō̂n hos hós hòs hosa hósa hosoi hósoi hou hoû hous hoùs O ō oi ois on ōn os osa osoi ou ous
Search for…
 or 
Choose a letter to browse:
α  β  γ  δ  ε  ζ  η  θ  ι  κ  λ  μ
ν  ξ  ο  π  ρ  σ  τ  υ  φ  χ  ψ  ω
Prev Entry
ὀρχέομαι
Next Entry
ὁσάκις
Download the Language Fonts
Below you will find links to the TrueType font(s) used in this resource. Simply right-mouse click the link and save it to your fonts

Once you have finished you might need to close all open browsers and open your fonts directory to initialized the font(s) you just installed.

SIL Galatia Greek font
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology