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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #3739 - ὅς

hos, hay, ho  
Word Origin:
probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article (3588))
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. who, which, what, that
Wigram's count is 1309 not 1393.
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ὅς, ἥ, ὅ,

gen. οὗ, ἧς, οὗ, etc.; dat. pl. οἷς, αἷς, οἷς, etc.: forms, gen. ὅου (prob. replacing Οο) in the phrases ὅου κλέος οὔ ποτ' ὀλεῖται Il. 2.325, h.Ap. 156; ὅου κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον Od. 1.70 (elsewh. οὗ Il. 7.325, al., never οἷο); fem. ἕης Il. 16.208 (perh. imitation of ὅου; elsewh. only ἧς 5.265, al.); dat. pl. οἷς, οἷσι, ᾗς, ᾗσι (never αἷς or αἷσι in Hom.): Pron. used, as demonstr. by the side of οὗτος, ὅδε, and the Art. ὁ, ἡ, τό: in post-Homeric Gr. this use survived only in a few special phrases. as a Relat. by the side of the Art. ὅ, ἥ, τό (v. ὁ, ἡ, τό, c): this demonstr. and Relat. Pron. must not be confounded with the Possess. ὅς, ἥ, ὅν. (With Gr. Relat. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ cf. Skt. Relat. yas, yâ, yad, Lith. jis, ji (he, she), Oslav. i, ja, je (he, she, it).)

DEMONSTR. PRON., = οὗτος, ὅδε, this, that; also, he, she, it:

I Homeric usage: this form only occurs in the nom. masc. and neut. ὅς, ὅ, and perh. nom. fem. and nom. pl. οἵ, the other cases being supplied by ὁ, ἡ, τό (ὅ, ἡ, τό); most codd. have in Il. 17.551, Od. 24.255, al., and this (as also οἵ) can be referred equally to either (on the accent v. ὁ, ἡ, τό): with γάρ or καί, ὃς γὰρ δεύτατος ἦλθεν 1.286; ἀλλὰ καὶ ὃς δείδοικε Il. 21.198; ὃ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων Od. 24.190, Il. 23.9, cf. 12.344: freq. used emphatically in apodosi, mostly with οὐδέ or μηδέ before it, μηδ' ὅν τινα γαστέρι μήτηρ κοῦρον ἐόντα φέροι, μηδ' ὃς φύγοι Il. 6.59, cf. 7.160, Od. 4.653: after a part., εἰς ἕτερον γάρ τίς τε ἰδών.., ὃς σπεύδει (for ὅστις ἂν ἴδῃ, ὃς σπεύδει) Hes. Op. 22.

II in later Gr. this usage remained in a few forms:

1 at the beginning of a clause, καὶ ὅς and he, Hdt. 7.18, X. Smp. 1.15, Pl. Phd. 118, Prt. 310d; καὶ ἥ and she, καὶ οἵ and they, Hdt. 8.56, 87, Pl. Smp. 201e, X. An. 7.6.4.

2. ὃς καὶ ὅς such and such a person, Hdt. 4.68: here also the Art. supplied the obl. cases.

3. ἦ δ' ὅς, ἦ δ' ἥ, said he, said she, v. ἠμί.

4. in oppositions, where it sts. answers to the Art., Λέριοι κακοί· οὐχ ὁ μέν, ὃς δ' οὔ.. Phoc. 1; ὃς μὲν.., ὃ δὲ.. Mosch. 3.76; ὃ μὲν.., ὃς δὲ.., ὃ δὲ.., ὃς δὲ.. Bion 1.81; so τῷ μὲν.., ᾧ δὲ.., ᾧ δὲ.. AP 6.187 (Alph.); ὃ μὲν.., ὃ δὲ.., ὃ δὲ.. (neut.) Matthew 13:8; ἂ μὲν.., ἃ δὲ.. Heraclit. 102, Archyt. ap. Stob. 3.1.110; ὧν μὲν.., ὧν δὲ.. Philem. 99; πόλεις ἃς μὲν.., ἃς δὲ.. D. 18.71 (as v. l.): so in Dor. dat. fem. as Adv., ᾇ μὲν.., ᾇ δὲ.. Tab.Heracl. 1.81; ἐφ' ὧν μὲν.., ἐφ' ὧν δὲ.. Arist. EN 1109a1: very freq. in late Prose, Arr. Epict. 3.25.1, etc.: also answering to other Prons., ἑτέρων.., ὧν δὲ.. Philem. 31.6; ἐφ' ᾧ μὲν.., ἐπὶ θατέρῳ δὲ.. Arist. HA 564a21, etc.

RELAT. PRON., who, which. By the side of the simple Relat., ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (in Hom. also ὁ, ἡ, τό), we find in common use the compd. forms ὅστε, ὅστις and ὅτις, ὅσπερ and ὅπερ, ὅς γε (q. v.).

USAGE of the Relat. Pron. (the foll. remarks apply to ὅς γε, ὅσπερ, ὅστε, ὅστις, as well as to ὅς, and to ὁ, ἡ, τό as relat.):

I in respect of CONCOR D. Prop. it agrees in gender and number with the Noun or Pron. in the antec. clause. But this rule admits of many exceptions:

1 the Relat. mayagree with the gender implied, not expressed, in the antec., φίλον θάλος, ὃν τέκον αὐτή Il. 22.87; τέκνων, οὓς ἤγαγε E. Supp. 12: so after collective Nouns, the Relat. is freq. put in pl. in the gender implied in the Noun, λαόν.., οὕς.. Il. 16.369; στρατιάν.. τοιαύτην.., οἵ τινες.., τὸ ναυτικόν, οἵ.., Th. 6.91, 3.4; πλήθει, οἵπερ.. Pl. Phdr. 260a; esp. after the names of countries or cities, Τηλέπυλον Λαιστρυγονίην ἀφίκανεν, οἳ.. (i. e. to Telepylos of the Laestrygonians, who..) Od. 23.319; τὰς Ἀθήνας, οἵ γε.. Hdt. 7.8. β' ; Μέγαρα.., οὓς.. Th. 6.94: it also may agree with the Noun or Pron. implied in an Adj., Θηβαίας ἐπισκοποῦντ' ἀγυιάς, τάν.. the streets of Thebes, which.., S. Ant. 1137 (lyr.); τοὺς Ἡρακλείους παῖδας, ὃς.. the children of Heracles, who.., E. HF 157; τῆς ἐμῆς ἐπεισόδου, ὅν.. of me whom.., S. OC 731; τὸν ἥμισύν ἐστ' ἀτελὴς τοῦ χρόνου· εἶθ' ἧς πᾶσι μέτεστι.., where ἧς agrees with ἀτελείας implied in ἀτελής, D. 20.8.

2. when the antec. Noun in sg. implies a class, the Relat. is sts. in pl., ἦ μάλα τις θεὸς ἔνδον, οἳ.. ἔχουσιν (for τις θεῶν, οἵ..) Od. 19.40; κῆτος, ἃ μυρία βόσκει.. Ἀμφιτρίτη one of the thousands, which.., 12.97; αὐτουργός, οἵπερ.. one of those who.., E. Or. 920: rare in Prose, ἀνὴρ καλός τε κἀγαθός, ἐν οἷς οὐδαμοῦ σὺ φανήσει γεγονώς D. 18.310, cf. Lys. 1.32.

3. reversely, the sg. Relat. may follow a pl. antec., where the relat. clause refers to each individual; but in this case ὅστις or ὃς ἄν is mostly used, ἀνθρώπους τίνυσθον, ὅ τις κ' ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ, for ἀνθρώπων τινά, ὅς κε.., Il. 3.279; πάντα.., ὅ τι νοοίης, i.e. anything which.., Ar. Nu. 1381: rarely ὅς alone, τὰ λίνεα [ὅπλα], τοῦ τάλαντον ὁ πῆχυς εἷλκε a cubit's length where of.., Hdt. 7.36.

4. the Relat. is sts. in the neut., agreeing rather with the notion implied in the antec. than with the Noun itself, διὰ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ὃ πᾶσα φύσις διώκειν πέφυκεν for profit's sake a thing which.., Pl. R. 359c, cf. Lg. 849d; τοὺς Φωκέας, ὃ σιωπᾶν εἰκὸς ἦν a name which.., D. 19.44; γυναῖκας, ἐφ' ὅπερ.. women, for dealings with whom, E. Ba. 454.

5. with Verbs of naming, the Relat. freq. agrees with the name added as a predicate, rather than with the antec., ξίφος, τὸν ἀκινάκην καλέουσι Hdt. 7.54; τὴν ἄκρην, αἳ καλεῦνται Κληΐδες Id. 5.108, cf. 2.17, 124, etc.

II in respect of CONSTRUCTION.

1. Prop., the Relat. is governed by the Noun or Verb in its own clause. But it is freq. thrown by attraction into the case of the antec. (prob. not in Hom., ἧς in Il. 5.265, cf. 23.649, can be expld. otherwise), ἀπὸ παιδεύσιος, τῆς ἐπεπαίδευτο (for τῇ or τήν) Hdt. 4.78; freq. in Att., Th. 7.21, etc.: esp. where a Demonstr. Pron. is unexpressed, while the Relat. takes its case, οὐδὲν ὧν λέγω (for οὐδὲν τούτων ἃ λ.) S. El. 1048, 1220, etc.; ξὺν ᾧπερ εἶχον οἰκετῶν (for ξὺν τούτῳ ὅνπερ) Id. OC 334; ἀνθ' ὧν ἂν ἐμοὶ δανείσῃς (for ἀντὶ τούτων ἅ..) X. Cyr. 3.1.34; πρὸς οἷς ἐκτήσαντο (for πρὸς τούτοις ἅ..) Pl. Grg. 519a, etc.: the Demonstr. Pron. sts follows, ἀφ' ὧν ἐγένεσθε ἀγαθοί, ἀπὸ τούτων ὠφελεῖσθαι Th. 3.64, cf. D. 8.23,26. This attraction is rare, exc. when the acc. passes into the gen. or dat. (v. supr.): sts. nom. is so attracted, οὐδὲν εἰδότες τῶν ἦν (for τούτων ἃ ἦν) Hdt. 1.78; ἀφ' ὧν παρεσκεύασται (for ἀπὸ τούτων ἃ π.) Th. 7.67: also dat., ὧν ἐγὼ ἐντετύχηκα οὐδείς (for τούτων οἷς..) Pl. Grg. 509a. reversely the antec. passes into the case of the Relat., φυλακὰς δ' ἃς εἴρεαι.., οὔτις (for φυλακῶν.. οὔτις) Il. 10.416; τὰς στήλας, τὰς ἵστα, αἱ πλεῦνες.. (for τῶν στηλῶν.. αἱ πλεῦνες) Hdt. 2.106: so also when the Noun follows the Relat. clause, it may be put in apposition with the Relat., Κύκλωπος κεχόλωται, ὃν ὀφθαλμοῦ ἀλάωσεν, ἀντίθεον Πολύφημον Od. 1.69, cf. 4.11, Il. 3.123, A. Th. 553, E. Hec. 771, 986, Hipp. 101, etc.

2. the Demonstr. Pron. or the Noun with an Art. is sts. transferred to the Relat. clause, Ἰνδὸν ποταμόν, ὃς κροκοδείλους δεύτερος οὗτος.. παρέχεται the river Indus, being the second river which.., Hdt. 4.44; σφραγῖδα.., ἣν ἐπὶ δέλτῳ τήνδε κομίζεις E. IA 156 (anap.); φοβούμεθα δέ γε.. δόξαν.., ὃν δὴ καὶ καλοῦμεν τὸν φόβον ἡμεῖς γε αἰσχύνην Pl. Lg. 647a.

3. the Relat. in all cases may govern a partit. gen., ἀθανάτων ὅς τίς σε.. any one of the immortals who.., Od. 15.35, cf. 25, 5.448, etc.; οἳ.. τῶν ἀστῶν Hdt. 7.170; οὓς.. βαρβάρων A. Pers. 475; .. τῶν ἡνιόχων Pl. Phdr. 247b: freq. in neut., ἐς ὃ δυνάμιος to what a height of power, Hdt. 7.50; οἶσθ' οὖν ὃ κάμνει τοῦ λόγου; what part of thy speech, E. Ion 363; ᾧπερ τῆς τέχνης ἐπίστευον in which particular of their art.., Th. 7.36; τὰ μακρὰ τείχη, ἃ σφῶν.. εἶχον which portion of their territory, Id. 4.109, etc.: rarely in such forms as ἕξουσι δ' ἣν λάβωσιν ἐν ταφῇ χθονός (for ὃ χθονός) A. Th. 819 (χθόνα cj. Brunck).

III in respect of the Moods which follow the Relat.:

1. when the Relat. is equivalent to καί + demonstr. (ὅς = and he..) any mood may follow which may be found in independent clauses: ἦλθε τὸ ναυτικὸν τὸ τῶν βαρβάρων, ὃ τίς οὐκ ἂν ἰδὼν ἐφοβήθη; Lys. 2.34; ὁ δ' εἰς τὸ σῶφρον ἐπ' ἀρετήν τ' ἄγων ἔρως ζηλωτὸς ἀνθρώποισιν· ὧν εἴην ἐγώ E. Fr. 672; ἐλπίς, ᾗ μόνῃ σωθεῖμεν ἄν Id. Hel. 815; εἰς καλὸν ἡμῖν Ἄνυτος ὅδε παρεκαθέζετο, ᾧ μεταδῶμεν τῆς σκέψεως to whom let us.., Pl. Men. 89e; ὃν ὑμεῖς.. νομίσατε which I would have you think.., Lys. 19.61: so the inf. in orat. obliq., ἔτι δὲ.. προσετίθει χρήματα οὐκ ὀλίγα, οἷς χρήσεσθαι αὐτούς (sc. ἔφη) Th. 2.13: for the inf. after ἐφ' ᾧ τε, v. ἐπί B. 111.3.

2. after ὅς, ὅστις, = whoever, in collective hypothetical sense (= if A + if B + if C..), the same moods are used as after εἰ: pres. ind., τῷδ' ἔφες ἀνδρὶ βέλος.. ὅς τις ὅδε κρατέει Il. 5.175; κλῦθι, ἄναξ, ὅτις ἐσσί Od. 5.445; δουληΐην.., ἥτις ἐστί (as we say) whatever it is, Hdt. 6.12; ὅ τι ἀνὴρ καὶ γυνή ἐστι πλὴν παιδίων all that are man and woman, Id. 2.60; Ζεύς, ὅστις ποτ' ἐστίν A. Ag. 160 (lyr.): also after ὅς, ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος.. ὃς πενίῃ εἴκων ἀπατήλια βάζει Od. 14.157, etc. subj. with ἄν (κεν) or, in poetry, without ἄν: ξυνίει ἔπος ὅττι κεν εἴπω 19.378; οὐ δηναιὸς ὃς ἀθανάτοισι μάχηται Il. 5.407: in such cases the opt. is used after secondary tenses, Τρῶας ἄμυνε νεῶν, ὅς τις φέροι ἀκάματον πῦρ 15.731, cf. Hes. Sc. 480; πάντας ἑξῆς, ὅτῳ ἐντύχοιεν,.. κτείνοντες Th. 7.29, cf. Pl. Revelation 21:1-27 a, etc. sts. opt. without ἄν after a primary tense, ὃν πόλις στήσειε, τοῦδε χρὴ κλύειν S. Ant. 666; after an opt., ἔρδοι τις ἣν ἕκαστος εἰδείη τέχνην Ar. V. 1431.

peculiar Idioms:


1 in Homer and correct writers, when two coordinate Relat. clauses were joined by καί or δέ, the Relat. Pron. was freq. replaced in the second clause by the demonstr. even though the case was changed, ἄνδρα.., ὃς μέγα πάντων Ἀργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί (for καὶ ᾧ) Il. 1.78; ὅου κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον.. · Θόωσα δέ μιν τέκε νύμφη (for ὃν τέκε) Od. 1.70, cf. 14.85, etc.; and this sts. even without the demonstr. being expressed, δοίη δ' ᾧ κ' ἐθέλοι καί οἱ κεχαρισμένος ἔλθοι (for καὶ ὅς οἱ) 2.54, cf. 114; οὕς κεν ἐΰ γνοίην καί τ' οὔνομα μυθησαίμην (for καὶ ὧν) Il. 3.235; ᾗ χαλκὸς μὲν ὑπέστρωται, χαλκὸν δ' ἐπίεσται (nom. supplied) Orac. ap. Hdt. 1.47; ἃς ἐπιστήμας μὲν προσείπομεν.., δέονται δὲ ὀνόματος ἄλλου Pl. R. 533d.

2. the neut. of the Relat. is used in Att. to introduce a clause qualifying the whole of the principal clause which follows: the latter clause is commonly introduced by γάρ, ὅτι, εἰ, ἐπειδή, etc., ὃ δὲ δεινότατόν γ' ἐστὶν ἁπάντων, ὁ Ζεὺς γὰρ.. ἕστηκεν κτλ. Ar. Av. 514, cf. D. 19.211, etc.; ὃ δὲ πάντων σχετλιώτατον, εἰ.. βουλευσόμεθα Isoc. 6.56; ὃ μὲν πάντων θαυμαστότατον ἀκοῦσαι, ὅτι.. Pl. R. 491b, cf. Revelation 18:1-24 c: also without any Conj., ὃ δὲ πάντων δεινότατόν ἐστι, τοιοῦτος ὢν κτλ. And. 4.16; ὃ δ' ἠπάτα σε πλεῖστον.., ηὔχεις κτλ. E. El. 938: c. inf., ὃ δὲ πάντων δεινότατον, τὴν ἀδελφὴν ὑποδέξασθαι Lys. 19.33 (but ὑποδέξασθαι <δεῖ> is prob. cj.), etc.: so also the neut. pl. may mean with reference to that which, ἃ δ'.. ἐστί σοι λελεγμένα, πᾶν κέρδος ἡγοῦ.. as to what has been said.., E. Med. 453, cf. Hdt. 3.81, S. OT 216, Ar. Eq. 512, etc.

3. in many instances the Gr. Relat. must be resolved into a Conj. and Pron., θαυμαστὸν ποιεῖς, ὃς ἡμῖν οὐδὲν δίδως (= ὅτι σὺ) X. Mem. 2.7.13, cf. Lys. 7.23 codd., Pl. Smp. 204b, etc.: very freq. in conditional clauses, for εἴ or ἐάν τις, βέλτερον ὃς<> προφύγῃ κακόν, ἠὲ ἁλώῃ Il. 14.81, cf. Hes. Op. 327; συμφορὰ δ', ὃς ἂν τύχῃ κακῆς γυναικός E. Fr. 1056; τὸ δ' εὐτυχές, οἳ ἂν.. λάχωσι κτλ. Th. 2.44; τὸ καλῶς ἄρξαι τοῦτ' εἶναι, ὃς ἂν τὴν πατρίδα ὠφελήσῃ Id. 6.14.

4. the Relat. freq. stands where we should use a final Conj. or the inf., ἄγγελον ἧκαν, ὃς ἀγγείλειε sent a messenger to tell.., Od. 15.458; κλητοὺς ὀτρύνομεν, οἵ κε τάχιστα ἔλθωσ' that they may.., Il. 9.165: and freq. with fut. ind., πρέσβεις ἄγουσα, οἵπερ φράσουσι (v.l. φράσωσι) to tell.., Th. 7.25; πέμψον τιν', ὅστις σημανεῖ E. IT 1209 (troch.), cf. X. HG 2.3.2, Mem. 2.1.14: so with fut. opt., ὀργάνου, ᾧ τὴν τροφὴν δέξοιτο Pl. Ti. 33c: also for ὥστε, after οὕτω, ὧδε, etc., οὐκ ἔστιν οὕτω μῶρος, ὃς θανεῖν ἐρᾷ (for ὥστε ἐρᾶν) S. Ant. 220, cf. Hdt. 4.52, E. Alc. 198, Ar. Ach. 737, etc.

5. ὅς is freq. used where we should expect οἷος, as μαθὼν ὃς εἶ φύσιν what thou art, S. Aj. 1259, cf. E. Alc. 640, Pl. Euthd. 283d, etc.

6. ὅς is sts. = ὅστις or τις in indirect clauses, γνώσῃ.. ὅς.. ἡγεμόνων κακὸς ἠδ' ὅς κ' ἐσθλὸς ἔῃσι Il. 2.365 (perh. felt as Relat.); ὃς ἦν ὁ ἀναδέξας, οὐκ ἔχω εἰπεῖν I cannot tell who it was that.., Hdt. 6.124; γενομένης λέσχης ὃς γένοιτο.. ἄριστος Id. 9.71 (in 4.131, 6.37, 7.37, τί θέλει (θέλοι) has been conjectured for τὸ of the Mss.); so in Att., ἐγῷδ' ὅς ἐστι, Κλεισθένης ὁ Σιβυρτίου Ar. Ach. 118, cf. 442, Av. 804, Pl. 59, 369, S. OT 1068, OC 1171; πέμπει πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον, εἰπὼν ὃς ἦν X. Cyr. 6.1.46, cf. D. 52.7; δηλώσας ὃς ἦν Arist. Po. 1452a26; γράψας παρ' οὗ κομιούμεθα PCair.Zen. 150.11 (iii B. C.). later ὅς = τίς even in direct questions, ἐφ' ὃ πάρει; Matthew 26:50; ἣν δοκεῖς; Arr. Epict. 4.1.120 (both dub.).

7. in exclamations, ὦ Ἡράκλεις, ἃ πέπονθα Men. Epit. 146. A a. the Relat. Pron. joined with Particles or Conjs.: I ὅς γε, v. ὅσγε.

II ὃς δή, v. δή 11.2;

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1 Thessalonians4
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List of Word Forms
α ἅ ἃ αι αἵ αἳ αις αἷς ας ἃς η ἣ ᾗ ην ἥν ἣν ης ἧς Ο ὁ ὅ ὃ οι οἵ οἳ οις οἷς ον ὃν ος ὅς ὃς όσα ὅσα ὅσοι όστις ου οὗ ουν ους οὓς οφ του τούτων των ω ᾧ ων ὧν ως a ai ais as e ē en ēn es ēs ha há hà hai haí haì hais haîs has hàs he hē hḕ hêi hē̂i hen hēn hḗn hḕn hes hês hēs hē̂s ho hó hò hō hoi hoí hoì hôi hō̂i hois hoîs hon hòn hôn hōn hō̂n hos hós hòs hosa hósa hosoi hósoi hou hoû hous hoùs O ō oi ois on ōn os osa osoi ou ous
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