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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #4383 - πρόσωπον

Word Origin:
from (4314) and ops (the visage, from (3700))
Parts of Speech:
Noun Neuter
Word Definition  [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. the face
    1. the front of the human head
    2. countenance, look
      1. the face so far forth as it is the organ of sight, and by it various movements and changes) the index of the inward thoughts and feelings
    3. the appearance one presents by his wealth or property, his rank or low condition
      1. outward circumstances, external condition
      2. used in expressions which denote to regard the person in one's judgment and treatment of men
  2. the outward appearance of inanimate things
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 639 ‑ אַף (af);   649 ‑ אַפַּיִם (ap‑pah'‑yim);   4758 ‑ מַרְאֶה (mar‑eh');   5869 ‑ עַיִן (ah'‑yin);   5921 ‑ עַל (al);   6057 ‑ עָנָף (aw‑nawf');   6285 ‑ פֵּאָה (pay‑aw');   6310 ‑ פֶּה (peh);   6440 ‑ פָּנֶה (paw‑neem');   6440 ‑ פָּנֶה (paw‑neem');   6440 ‑ פָּנֶה (paw‑neem');   6440 ‑ פָּנֶה (paw‑neem');   6440 ‑ פָּנֶה (paw‑neem');   6441 ‑ פְּנִימָה (pen‑ee'‑maw);  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πρόσωπον, τό: pl. πρόσωπα, Ep. ( Aeol. acc. to Sch. Il. 7.212 ) προσώπατα Od. 18.192, AP 5.230 ( Maced. ), Opp. C. 1.419, etc.; dat. προσώπασι Il. 7.212: a masc. nom. πρόσωπος is cited from Pl.Com. 250: face, countenance (cf. μέτωπον ), Hom., always in pl., even of a single person, Il. 7.212, 18.414, Od. 19.361, al. (exc. Il. 18.24 ), and so in Hes. Op. 594 (v.l. -πον ), S. Fr. 871.6 (v.infr.), El. 1277 (lyr.), OC 314, X. An. 2.6.11 (dub.), AP 9.322( Leon. ): sg. in h.Hom. 10.2, 31.12, and usu. in later writers; π. κλιθὲν προσώπῳ Simon. 37.12; εἰς π. βλέπειν E. Hipp. 280; ἐς π. τινὸς ἀφικέσθαι come before him, ib. 720; π. πρός τινα στρέφειν Id. Ph. 457; οὐκ ὄψεσθε τὸ π. μου LXX Genesis 43:3, cf. UPZ 70.5 (ii B.C.); κατὰ πρόσωπον in front, facing, Th. 1.106, X. Cyr. 1.6.43, etc.; τὴν κατὰ π. τῆς ἀντίας φάλαγγος τάξιν ib. 6.3.35; κατὰ π. Αἰγύπτου facing, fronting Egypt, LXX Genesis 25:18; opp. κατὰ νώτου, Plb. 1.28.9; κατὰ π. ἄγειν, opp. κατὰ κέρας ὑπεραίρειν, Id. 11.14.6, etc.; κατὰ π . in person, ἡ κατὰ π. ἔντευξις Plu. Caes. 17; κατὰ π. παραμυθήσασθαι, opp. διὰ τοῦ ψαφίσματος, IG 42(1).86.22 (Epid.); so κατὰ πρόσωπα Eudox. Ars 11.21; also πρὸς τὸ π . X. Cyn. 10.9; ἐπὶ προσώπου Ἰεριχώ in front of Jericho, LXX De. 34.1; ἔρρ' ἐκ προσώπου Herod. 8.59; ἀπὸ π. τῆς γῆς LXX Amos 9:8; βλέπειν εἰς π. τινός regard his countenance, Ev.Matthew 22:16 : usu. of the face of man or God, as λειτουργῶν τῷ π. Κυρίου LXX 1 Kings 2:11; οἱ ἄρτοι τοῦ π ., of shewbread, ib. 21.6: of the ibis, Hdt. 2.76; of dogs, ἀπὸ τῶν π. φαιδραί X. Cyn. 4.2; of horses, Arist. HA 631a5; of deer, ib. 579a2; of fish, Anaxandr. 30, 33.16; face of the moon, S. Fr. 871.6 (pl.), Plu. 2.920b: metaph., ἀργυρωθεῖσαι πρόσωπα . . ἀοιδαί Pi. I. 2.8 .

2. front, façade, Id. P. 6.14, cf. E. Ion 189 (lyr., pl.); κατὰ π. τοῦ ἱεροῦ, τῆς νεώς, PPetr. 3p.2 (iii B.C.), Ach.Tat. 3.1, 2; τιθέναι τὰς φιάλας ἐπὶ πρόσωπον Asclep.Myrl. ap. Ath. 11.501d .

II one's look, countenance, A. Ag. 639, 794 (anap., pl.), Eu. 990 (anap., pl.), etc.; οὐ τὸ σὸν δείσας π . S. OT 448: metaph., φαίνοισα π. Ἀλάθεια Pi. N. 5.17 .

2. Astrol., decan considered as the domain of a planet, ἐν ἰδίοις π . Vett.Val. 62.21, Paul. Al. C. 2.

III = προσωπεῖον, mask, D. 19.287 ( -εῖον is v.l.), Arist. Po. 1449a36, b4, Pr. 958a17, Dsc. 3.144 (v.l.), Poll. 2.47; π. ὑπάργυρον κατάχρυσον IG 12.276.6, cf. 42(1).102.58,68 (Epid., iv B.C. ), Clara Rhodos 6/7.428; ὀθόνινον π . prob. in Pl.Com. 142; π. περίθετον Aristomen. 5; of the Roman imagines, Plb. 6.53.5; bust or portrait, Sammelb. 5221, OGI 432.1 (Naksh-i-Rustam, iii A.D. ).

2. dramatic part, character, Phld. Rh. 1.199S., Arr. Epict. 1.29.45 and 57; κωφὸν π . Cic. Att. 13.19.3; character in a book, τὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ὄνομα καὶ π . Plb. 8.11.5; τὸ τοῦ Ὀδυσσέως π . Id. 12.27.10, cf. Phld. Po. 5.32; also ἀστοχεῖν τοῦ π ., of an author, Callisth. 44J.; ἐπὶ προσχήματι καὶ π. δικαστῶν Ael. Fr. 168 .

person, Phld. Rh. 1.52S. (pl.); ἀδίκως μὴ κρῖνε πρόσωπον Ps.-Phoc. 10; προσώπῳ, οὐ καρδίᾳ in person, in bodily presence, 1 Thessalonians 2:17, cf. 2 Corinthians 5:12; ποιεῖν or πληροῦν τὸ π. τινός to represent a person, PRein. 56.30 (iv A.D.), Sammelb. 6000ii 12 (vi A.D.); λαμβάνειν π. τινός admit a person to one's presence, εἰ προσδέξεταί σε, εἰ λήψεται πρόσωπόν σου LXX Ma. 1.8; hence, = προσωποληπτεῖν, Ev.Luke 20:21, Ep.Galatians 2:6; μὴ ἀποστρέψῃς τὸ π. μου, i.e. do not reject my prayer, LXX 1 Kings 2:20; θαυμάσαι π. ἀσεβοῦς ib. Proverbs 18:5; ὁ θεὸς ὁ μέγας . ., ὅστις οὐ θαυμάζει π. οὐδὲ οὐ μὴ λάβῃ δῶρον ib. De. 10.17 .

2. legal personality, Bion Borysth. ap. D.L. 4.46 .

3. Gramm., person, D.T. 638.4, A.D. Pron. 3.12, etc.; γυναικεῖα π . Alex.Trall. 2 .

4. π. πόλεως a feature of the city, of a person, Cic. Fam. 15.17.2 .

5. Zeno Stoic. 1.23 (cf. Nicol. Prog. p.4 F.).

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 πρόσωπον, προσώπου, τό (from πρός and ὤψ, cf. μέτωπον), from Homer down; the Sept. hundreds of times for פָּנִים, also for אַפַיִם, etc.;


a. the face, i. e. the anterior part of the human head: Matthew 6:16,17; Matthew 17:2; Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65; Luke (Luke 9:29>); Luke 22:64> ( T Tr WH omit; Lachmann brackets the clause); Acts 6:15; 2 Corinthians 3:7,13, 18; (2 Corinthians 11:20>); Revelation 4:7; Revelation 9:7; Revelation 10:1; τό πρόσωπον τῆς γενέσεως, the face with which one is born ( A. V. his natural face), James 1:23; πίπτειν ἐπί πρόσωπον (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 27,1n.; 122 (116)) and ἐπί τό πρόσωπον, Matthew 17:6; Matthew 26:39; Luke 5:12; Luke 17:16; 1 Corinthians 14:25; ( Revelation 7:11 Rec.; ἔπεσαν ἐπί τά πρόσωπα, Revelation 11:16; Revelation 7:11 G L T Tr WH); ἀγνωυμενος τίνι τῷ προσώπῳ, unknown to one by face, i. e. personally unknown, Galatians 1:22; bereaved of one προσώπῳ, οὐ καρδία ( A. V. in presence, not in heart), 1 Thessalonians 2:17; κατά πρόσωπον, in or toward (i. e. so as to look into) the face, i. e. before, in the presence of (see κατά, II:1c.): opposed to ἀπών, 2 Corinthians 10:1; with τίνος added, before (the face of) one, Luke 2:31; Acts 3:13; ἔχω τινα κατά πρόσωπον, i. e. to have one present in person ( A. V. face to face), Acts 25:16; ἀντέστην κατά πρόσωπον, I resisted him to the face (with a suggestion of fearlessness), Galatians 2:11 (κατά πρόσωπον λέγειν τούς λόγους, Polybius 25,5, 2; add Job 16:8; but in Deuteronomy 7:24; Deuteronomy 9:2; Judges 2:14; 2 Chronicles 13:7, ἀντιστῆναι κατά πρόσωπον τίνος simply denotes to stand against, resist, withstand); τά κατά πρόσωπον the things before the face, i. e. open, known to all, 2 Corinthians 10:7. Expressions modelled after the Hebrew: ὁρᾶν τό πρόσωπον τίνος, to see one's face, see him personally, Acts 20:25; Colossians 2:1; ἰδεῖν, 1 Thessalonians 2:17; 1 Thessalonians 3:10; θεωρεῖν, Acts 20:38 (cf. θεωρέω, 2a.); particularly, βλέπειν τό πρόσωπον τοῦ Θεοῦ (see βλέπω, 1b. β.), Matthew 18:10; ὁρᾶν τό πρόσωπον τοῦ Θεοῦ (see ὁράω, 1), Revelation 22:4; ἐμφανισθῆναι τῷ πρόσωπον τοῦ Θεοῦ, to appear before the face of God, spoken of Christ, the eternal priest, who has entered into the heavenly sanctuary, Hebrews 9:24; in imitation of the Hebrew אֵל־פָּנִים פָּנִים we have the phrase πρόσωπον πρός πρόσωπον, face (turned (see πρός, I:1a., p. 541 b)) to face (εἶδον τινα, Genesis 32:30; Judges 6:22): tropically, βλέπω namely, τόν Θεόν, see God face to face, i. e. discern perfectly his nature, will, purposes, 1 Corinthians 13:12; a person is said to be sent or to go πρό προσώπου τίνος (פ לִפנֵי) (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 65,4b. at the end; Buttmann, 319 (274)), i. e. before one, to announce his coming and remove the obstacles from his way, Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 1:76; Luke 7:27 ( Malachi 3:1); Luke 9:52; 10:1>; πρό προσώπου τίνος (of time) before a thing, Acts 13:24 (so לִפְנֵי in Amos 1:1; Zechariah 8:10; where the Sept. simply πρό (cf. πρό, b., p. 536b bottom)). πρός φωτισμόν τῆς γνώσεως τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐν προσώπῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, that we may bring forth into the light the knowledge of the glory of God as it shines in the face of Jesus Christ, 2 Corinthians 4:6 (Paul really means, the majesty of God manifest in the person of Christ; but the signification of πρόσωπον is 'face,' and Paul is led to use the word by what he had said in 2 Corinthians 3:13> of the brightness visible in the force of Moses).

b. countenance, look (Latin vultus), i. e. the face so far forth as it is the organ of sight, and (by its various movements and changes) the index of the inward thoughts and feelings: κλίνειν τό πρόσωπον εἰς τήν γῆν, to bow the face to the earth (a characteristic of fear and anxiety), Luke 24:5; Hebraistic phrases relating to the direction of the countenance, the look: τό πρόσωπον τοῦ κυρίου ἐπί τινα, namely, ἐστιν, the face of the Lord is (turned) upon one, i. e. he looks upon and watches him, 1 Peter 3:12 (from Psalm 33:17 (Psalm 34:17>)); στηρίζειν τό πρόσωπον (Hebrew שׂוּם or פָּנִים נָתַן; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, ii., p. 1109 on the same form of expression in Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Turkish) τοῦ πορεύεσθαι εἰς with an accusative of the place ( A. V. steadfastly to set one's face to go etc. (see στηρίζω, a.)), Luke 9:51; moreover, even τό πρόσωπον τίνος ἐστι πορευόμενον εἰς with the accusative of place, Luke 9:53 (τό πρόσωπον σου πορευόμενον ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν, 2 Samuel 17:11); ἀπό προσώπου τίνος φεύγειν, to flee in terror from the face (German Anblick) of one enraged, Revelation 20:11; κρύπτειν τινα etc. (see κρύπτω, a.), Revelation 6:16; ἀνάψυξις ἀπό προσώπου Θεοῦ, the refreshing which comes from the bright and smiling countenance of God to one seeking comfort, Acts 3:20 (19); on 2 Thessalonians 1:9 see ἀπό, p. 59a middle; μετά τοῦ προσώπου σου, namely, ὄντα, in the presence of thy joyous countenance (see μετά, I:2b. β'.), Acts 2:28 (from Psalm 15:11 (Psalm 16:11>)); εἰς πρόσωπον τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν, turned unto (i. e. in ( R. V.)) the face of the churches as the witnesses of your zeal, 2 Corinthians 8:24; ἵνα ἐκ πολλῶν προσώπων ... διά πολλῶν εὐχαριστηθῇ, that from many faces (turned toward God and expressing the devout and grateful feelings of the soul) thanks may be rendered by many (accordingly, both ἐκ πολλῶν προσώπων and διά πολλῶν belong to εὐχαριστηθῇ (cf. Meyer ad loc.; see below)), 2 Corinthians 1:11. ἀπό προσώπου τίνος (פ מִפְּנֵי), from the sight or presence of one, Acts 5:41; Acts 7:45 (here A. V. before the face; Revelation 12:14); ἐν προσώπῳ Χριστοῦ, in the presence of Christ, i. e. Christ looking on (and approving), 2 Corinthians 2:10 ( Proverbs 8:30); (some would render πρόσωπον here and in 2 Corinthians 1:11> above person (cf. R. V.): — here nearly equivalent to on the part of ( Vulg. in persona Christi); there equivalent to 'an individual' ( Plutarch, de garrul. 13, p. 509b.; Epictetus diss. 1,2, 7; Polybius 8,13, 5; 12,27, 10; 27,6, 4; Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 1,1 [ET]; 47,6 [ET]; Phryn., p. 379, and Lobeck's note, p. 380)).

c. Hebraistically, the appearance one presents by his wealth or poverty, his rank or low condition; outward circumstances, external condition; so used in expressions which denote to regard the person in one's judgment and treatment of men: βλέπειν εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 22:16; Mark 12:14; θαυμάζειν πρόσωπα, Jude 1:16; λαμβάνειν πρόσωπον (τίνος), Luke 20:21; Galatians 2:6 (on which see βλέπω, 2c., θαυμάζω λαμβάνω, I:4). καυχᾶσθαι ἐν προσώπῳ καί οὐ καρδία, to glory in those things which they simulate in look, viz. piety, love, righteousness, although their heart is devoid of these virtues, 2 Corinthians 5:12, cf. 1 Samuel 16:7.

2. the outward appearance of inanimate things ( A. V. face (except in James as below)): τοῦ ἄνθους, James 1:11; τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, τῆς γῆς, Matthew 16:3 (here T brackets; WH reject the passage); Luke 12:56 ( Psalm 103(104):Psalm 103:30>); (so in Latin, naturae vultus, Ovid. metam. 1,6; maris facies, Vergil Aen. 5,768; on this use of the noun facies see Aulus Gellius, noctes atticae 13,29); surface: τῆς γῆς, Luke 21:35; Acts 17:26 (on the omitted article here cf. πᾶς, I:1c.) ( Genesis 2:6; Genesis 11:8).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πρόσωπον , -ου , τό

(< πρός , ὤψ ),

[in LXX chiefly and very freq. for H6440;]

1. prop., of persons (so always in cl.);

(a) the face, countenance: , , , , , al.; τὸ Papyri τῆς γενέτεως (EV, natural face), ; πίπτειν ἐπὶ (τὰ ) Papyri, , , , al.; ἀγνοούμενος τῷ Papyri, ; Papyri, οὐ καρδίᾳ , ; κατὰ πρόσωπον (in front, facing: Thuc., Xen., al.), when present, face to face, , ; , ; id. c. gen., as compound prep., in the presence of (not cl.; v. Bl., § 40, 9; M, Pr., 99 f.; Thackeray, Gr., 43 f.), , ; similarly ἀπὸ Papyri (Heb. (H6440 מִלִּפְּנֵי ); v. Dalman, Words, 29), from the presence of, ; ; , , ; ; πρὸ Papyri (Heb. (H6440 לִפְנֵי ), before, , , (LXX), al.; in other phrases resembling Heb. idiom (Thackeray, Gr., 42), βλέπειν (ὁρᾶν , θεωρεῖν , ἰδεῖν ) τὸ Papyri, to see one's face, i.e. see him in person, , ; , , ; ἐμφανισθῆναι τῷ Papyri τοῦ θεοῦ , ; ἐν Papyri Χριστοῦ , ; ; μετὰ τοῦ Papyri σου with thy presence, (LXX); εἰς Papyri τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν , ; στηρίζειν τὸ Papyri (Heb. H6440 H7760: , al.; v. Dalman, Words, 30), c. inf., to set one's face towards, ; similarly, τὸ Papyri αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον (op. cit., 31), ; τὸ Papyri τοῦ κυρίου ἐπί , (LXX);

(b) form, person: καυχᾶσθαι . ἐν Papyri καὶ μὴ ἐν καρδίᾳ , (cf. ); metaph., as in Heb. idiom, of judgment according to appearance, external condition or circumstances (H6440 H5387; v. Dalman, Words, 30; Thackeray, Gr., 43 f.): λαμβάνειν Papyri, , ; βλέπειν εἰς Papyri, , ; θαυμάζειν πρόσωπα , .

2. Of things (cf. Dalman, l.c.);

(a) face, appearance (): (WH, R, mg., om.), , ;

(b) surface (): , .





Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
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1 Corinthians2
2 Corinthians11
1 Thessalonians2
2 Thessalonians1
1 Peter1
1 Corinthians2
2 Corinthians11
1 Thessalonians2
2 Thessalonians1
1 Peter1
1 Corinthians3
2 Corinthians10
1 Thessalonians3
2 Thessalonians1
1 Peter1
List of Word Forms
προσωπα πρόσωπα πρόσωπά προσώποις προσωπον προσώπον πρόσωπον πρόσωπόν προσωπου προσώπου πρόσωπου προσωπω προσώπω προσώπῳ προσωπων προσώπων πρόωσπον prosopa prosōpa prósopa prósōpa prosopo prosōpō prosṓpoi prosṓpōi prosopon prosōpon prosōpōn prosṓpon prosṓpōn prósopon prósopón prósōpon prósōpón prosopou prosōpou prosṓpou
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