ver. 2.0.15.06.30
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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #4459 - πῶς

Transliteration:
pōs
Phonetics:
poce  
Word Origin:
adverb from the base of (4226), an interrogative particle of manner
Parts of Speech:
particle
TDNT:
None
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. how, in what way
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πῶς,

Ion. κῶς, interrog. Adv. of Manner, how? Il. 1.123, etc.; sts. to express displeasure, 4.26, S. OT 391, Ph. 1031, Tr. 192; to express astonishment or doubt, π. εἶπας; A. Pers. 798, S. El. 407, etc.; π. λέγεις; Id. Ph. 1407; π. φῄς; A. Ag. 268, E. El. 575; π. τοῦτ' ἔλεξας; A. Pers. 793; π. τοῦτ' εἶπες αὖ; Pl. Plt. 309c; also π. μὴ φῶμεν . .; surely we must, Id. Tht. 161e . in dialogue, to ask explanation, with a repetition of a word used by the previous speaker, δίκαια — Answ. π. δίκαια; S. OC 832; μὴ δίκαιος ὤν — Answ. π. μὴ δίκαιος; Id. Tr. 412; συμβολάς — Answ. π. συμβολάς; Alex. 143; πῶς alone, how so, π., ὅς γε . .; S. Ph. 1386 .

2. with a second interrog. in the same clause, π. ἐκ τίνος νεώς ποτε . . ἥκετε; how and by what ship . .? E. Hel. 1543; τί τἀμὰ — π. ἔχει — θεσπίσματα; ib. 873; π. τί τοῦτο λέγεις; how say you and what? Pl. Ti. 22b, cf. Tht. 146d, 208e, etc.

3. c. gen. modi, π. ἀγῶνος ἥκομεν; how are we come off in it? E. El. 751; π. ἔχει πλήθους ἐπισκοπεῖ Pl. Grg. 451c .

4. with Verbs of selling, how? at what price? π. ὁ σῖτος ὤνιος; Ar. Ach. 758, cf. Eq. 480; τὰ δ' ἄλφιθ' ὑμῖν π. ἐπώλουν; — Answ. τεττάρων δραχμῶν . . τὸν κόφινον Stratt. 13 .

II with other Particles, π. ἂν . .; π. κε(ν) . .; how possibly . .? π. ἂν ἔπειτ' ἀπὸ σεῖο . . λιποίμην οἶος; Il. 9.437, cf. Od. 1.65, etc.; π. ἂν γένοιτ' ἂν . . ποδῶν ἔκμακτρον; E. El. 534: so with indic., Il. 22.202, E. Alc. 96 (lyr.), etc. in Trag., π. ἄν c. opt. is freq. used to express a wish, O how might it be? i.e. would that it might . .! π. ἂν θάνοιμι; π. ἂν ὀλοίμην; etc., S. Aj. 388 (lyr.), E. Supp. 796 (lyr.), cf. Hipp. 208 (anap.), 345; rare in Com., Ar. Th. 22 (a trace of this usage appears in Hom., Od. 15.195 ): in later Prose, π. ἂν γένοιτο ἑσπέρα; LXX De. 28.67; also with aor. subj. (without ἄν ), π. κοιμηθῶ; M.Ant. 9.40; π. μή μοι μέγας λέων ἐπιφανῇ; Arr. Epict. 4.10.10; with pres., π. μὴ χρῄζω; M.Ant.l.c.

2. π. ἄρα . .; in reply, how then? π. τ' ἄρ' ἴω . .; Il. 18.188, cf. Od. 3.22, h.Ap. 19, 207 .

3. π. γὰρ . .; also in reply, as if something had gone before, [ that cannot be ], for how can . .? Il. 1.123, Od. 10.337, etc.; π. γὰρ κάτοιδα; S. Ph. 250, cf. 1383; v. infr. 111.1 .

4. π. δὲ . .; to introduce a strong objection, π. δὲ σὺ νῦν μέμονας, κύον ἀδδεές . .; Il. 21.481, cf. Od. 18.31; δόξει δὲ π .; A. Pr. 261 .

5. π. δή; how in the world? π. δὴ φῂς πολέμοιο μεθιέμεν; Il. 4.351, cf. 18.364, A. Ag. 543, etc.; also π. γὰρ δή . .; Od. 16.70; π. δῆτα . .; A. Ag. 622, 1211, Ar. Nu. 79, etc.

6. π. καὶ . .; just how . .? E. Hec. 515, Ph. 1354, etc.; π. δὲ καὶ . .; A. Pers. 721, v. καί B. 6; but καὶ π . . .; to introduce an objection, E. Ph. 1348, v. καί A. 11.2: hence καὶ π .; alone, but how? impossible! Pl. Alc. 1.134c, Tht. 163d, etc.

7. π. οὐ . .; how not so . .? i.e. surely it is so . ., π. οὐ δεινὰ εἴργασθε; Th. 3.66, cf. Ar. Nu. 398, D. 18.273 .

8. π. οὖν . .; like π. ἄρα . .; A. Supp. 297, 340, S. OT 568, etc.; π. ἂν οὖν . . with opt., A. Pers. 243, E. IT 98 .

9. π. ποτε . .; how ever . .? S. OT 1210 (lyr.), Ph. 687 (lyr.).

III πῶς folld. by several of the abovenamed Particles is freq. used in elliptical sentences, as,

1 π. γάρ; inserted parenthet. in a negative sentence, for how is it possible? how can or could it be? hence in emphatic denial, κἀγὼ μὲν οὐκ ἔδρασα, τοῦτ' ἐπίσταμαι, οὐδ' αὖ σύ· π. γάρ; Id. El. 911; οὐκ ἀπορῶν ( π. γάρ; ), ὅς γε . . D. 18.312, cf. 21.217, Pl. Sph. 263c, etc.; οὐδ' ἐπὶ τὴν ἑστίαν καταφυγών ( π. γὰρ ἄν; ), ὅστις . . Lys. 1.27; π. γὰρ οὔ; how can it but be? i.e. it must be so, A. Ch. 754, S. El. 1307, Pl. Tht. 160c, al.; π. γάρ; (sc. ἄλλως ἔχει ) is so used in S. Aj. 279 .

2. π. δή; how so? A. Eu. 601, Ar. Nu. 664, 673, etc.; π. δῆτα; Pl. Grg. 469b; π. δαί; Ar. V. 1212 .

3. π. δ' οὔ; like π. γὰρ οὔ; (v. supr. 1 ), Pl. Tht. 153b, R. 457a; π. δ' οὐχί; S. OT 1015, Ar. Pax 1027; parenthetically, S. OT 567; π. δ' οὐκ ἄν . .; A. Pr. 759 .

4. π. οὖν; how then? how next? E. Med. 1376, Hipp. 598, 1261, D. 19.124; π. οὖν ἄν . .; X. Mem. 1.2.64 .

5. π. δοκεῖς; parenthet., in conversation, how think you? hence (losing all interrog. force),= λίαν, wonderfully, Ar. Pl. 742, Nu. 881, Ach. 24; also π. οἴει σφόδρα Id. Ra. 54; cf. δοκέω 1.2 . π . in indirect questions for ὅπως, A. Eu. 677, S. Tr. 991 (anap.), Ar. Eq. 614, X. Mem. 1.2.36, etc.; ἐθαύμαζον ἂν π . . . ἔδεισαν IG 12(3).174.28 (Cnidus, Epist.Aug.); ζητηθήσεται π. ὅτι καὶ τοῦτο ἀληθές ἐστι S.E. M. 8.16 . in exclamations, ὦ π. πονηρόν ἐστιν ἀνθρώπου φύσις τὸ σύνολον Philem. 2; π. παραχρῆμα ἐξηράνθη . . ! Ev.Matthew 21:20; π. δυσκόλως . . ! Mark 10:23 .

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 πῶς (from the obsolete ΠΟΣ, whence ποῦ, ποῖ, etc. (cf. Curtius, § 631)), adverb (from Homer down);

I. in interrogation; how? in what way? — in a direct question, followed by a. the indicative, it is the expression α. of one seeking information and desiring to be taught: Luke 1:34; Luke 10:26; John 3:9; John 9:26; 1 Corinthians 15:35 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 266 (250)); πῶς οὖν, John 9:10 Tdf. (but L WH brackets οὖν), John 9:19; Romans 4:10. β. of one about to controvert another, and emphatically deny that the thing inquired about has happened or been done: Matthew 12:29; Mark 3:23; Luke 11:18; John 3:4,12; John 5:44,47; John 6:52; John 9:16; 1 John 3:17; 1 John 4:20; Romans 3:6; Romans 6:2; 1 Corinthians 14:7,9, 16; 1 Timothy 3:5; Hebrews 2:3; καί πῶς, Mark 4:13; John 14:5 (here L text Tr WH omit καί); πῶς οὖν, Matthew 12:26; Romans 10:14 R G; πῶς δέ, Romans 10:14 a R G L marginal reading, 14 b R G T, 15 R G (on this see in b. below). where something is asserted and an affirmative answer is expected, πῶς οὐχί is used: Romans 8:32; 2 Corinthians 3:8. γ. of surprise, intimating that what has been done or is said could not have been done or said, or not rightly done or said — being equivalent to how is it, or how has it come to pass, that etc.: Galatians 2:14 G L T Tr WH; Matthew 22:12; John 4:9; John 6:52; John 7:15; πῶς λέγεις, λέγουσι, κτλ., Mark 12:35; Luke 20:41; John 8:38; καί πῶς, Luke 20:44; Acts 2:8; καί πῶς σύ λέγεις, John 12:34; John 14:9 (here L T WH omit; Tr brackets καί); πῶς οὖν, John 6:42 (here T WH Tr text πῶς νῦν); Matthew 22:43; πῶς οὐ, how is it that ... not, why not? Matthew 16:11; Mark 8:21 R G L marginal reading; Matthew 4:40> ( R G T); Luke 12:56.

b. the deliberative subjunctive (where the question Isaiah , how that can be done which ought to be done): πῶς πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαί, how are the Scriptures (which ought to be fulfilled) to be fulfilled? Matthew 26:54; πῶς φύγητε, how shall ye (who wish to escape) escape etc. Matthew 23:33; add, πῶς οὖν, Romans 10:14 L T Tr WH; πῶς δέ, Romans 10:14 a L text T Tr WH; 14{b} L Tr WH; 15 L T Tr WH ( Sirach 49:11); cf. Fritzsche on Romans , vol. ii., 405f c. followed by ἄν with the optative: πῶς γάρ ἄν δυναίμην; Acts 8:31 (on which see ἄν, III., p. 34 b).

II. By a somewhat negligent use, occasionally met with, even in Attic writings, but more frequent in later authors, πῶς is found in indirect discourse, where regularly ὅπως ought to have stood; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 57,2at the end; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, IV.).

a. with the indicative — present: Matthew 6:28; Mark 12:41; Luke 12:27; Acts 15:36; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 5:15; Colossians 4:6; 1 Timothy 3:15; τό πῶς (on the article see , II:10a.); with the imperfect Luke 14:7; with the perfect, Revelation 3:3; with the aorist, Matthew 12:4; Mark 2:26 (here Tr WH brackets πῶς); Luke 8:36; Acts 9:27, etc.; after ἀναγινώσκειν, Mark 12:26 T Tr WH; how it came to pass that, etc. John 9:15; with the future: μέριμνα, πῶς ἀρέσει (because the direct question would be πῶς ἀρέσω;), 1 Corinthians 7:32-34 (but L T Tr WH ἀρέσῃ); ἐζήτουν πῶς αὐτόν ἀπολέσουσιν, how they shall destroy him (so that they were in no uncertainty respecting his destruction, but were only deliberating about the way in which they will accomplish it), Mark 11:18 R G (but the more correct reading here, according to the best manuscripts, including codex Siniaticus, is ἀπολέσωσιν 'how they should destroy him' (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 41b. 4b.; Buttmann, § 139,61; see the next entry)).

b. with the subjunctive, of the aorist and in deliberation: Mark 11:18 L T Tr WH; Mark 14:1,11 ( R G); Matthew 10:19; Luke 12:11; τό πῶς, Luke 22:2,4; Acts 4:21.

III. in exclamation, how: πῶς δύσκολόν ἐστιν, Mark 10:24; πῶς παραχρῆμα, Matthew 21:20; πῶς δυσκόλως, Mark 10:23; Luke 18:24; with a verb, how (greatly): πῶς συνέχομαι, Luke 12:50; πῶς ἐφίλει αὐτόν, John 11:36.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Matthew14
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Luke16
John20
Acts8
Romans6
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2 Corinthians1
Galatians1
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Colossians1
1 Thessalonians2
2 Thessalonians1
1 Timothy2
Hebrews1
1 John2
Revelation1
Matthew14
Mark15
Luke16
John20
Acts7
Romans6
1 Corinthians9
2 Corinthians1
Galatians2
Ephesians1
Colossians1
1 Thessalonians2
2 Thessalonians1
1 Timothy2
Hebrews1
1 John1
Revelation1
Matthew14
Mark11
Luke15
John20
Acts9
Romans8
1 Corinthians9
2 Corinthians1
Galatians2
Ephesians1
Colossians1
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