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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #740 - ἄρτος

Word Origin:
from (142)
Parts of Speech:
Noun Masculine
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. food composed of flour mixed with water and baked
    1. the Israelites made it in the form of an oblong or round cake, as thick as one's thumb, and as large as a plate or platter hence it was not to be cut but broken
    2. loaves were consecrated to the Lord
    3. of the bread used at the love-feasts and at the Lord's Table
  2. food of any kind
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 1715 ‑ דָּגָן (daw‑gawn');   2471 ‑ חַלָּה (khal‑law');   3899 ‑ לֶחֶם (lekh'‑em);   4682 ‑ מַצָּה (mats‑tsaw');   6595 ‑ פְּתוֹת (path);  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἄρτος, ὁ,

I cake or loaf of wheat-bread, mostly in pl., Od. 18.120, al.; ἄρτος οὖλος a whole loaf, 17.343; collectively, bread, δούλιον ἄρτον ἔδων Archil. Supp. 2.6; ἄ. τρισκοπάνιστος Batr. 35; opp. μᾶζα (porridge), Hp. Acut. 37. Freq. in all writers.

II ἄρτος· βόλος τις, καὶ ὁ Ἀθηναίων ξένος, Hsch.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἄρτος, ἄρτου, (from ἈΡΩ to fit, put together (cf. Etym. Magn. 150,36 — but doubtful)), bread; Hebrew לֶחֶם;

1. food composed of flour mixed with water and baked; the Israelites made it in the form of an oblong or round cake, as thick as one's thumb, and as large as a plate or platter (cf. Winer s RWB under the word Backen; (BB. DD.)); hence, it was not cut, but broken (see κλάσις and κλάω) Matthew 4:3; Matthew 7:9; Matthew 14:17,19; Mark 6:36 ( T Tr WH omit; L brackets), Mark 6:37; Luke 4:3; Luke 24:30; John 6:5 ff; Acts 27:35, and often; ἄρτοι τῆς προθέσεως, loaves consecrated to Jehovah, see πρόθεσις; on the bread used at the love-feasts and the sacred supper ( Winer's Grammar, 35), cf. Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; Acts 2:42,46; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:26-28.

2. As in Greek writings, and like the Hebrew לֶחֶם, food of any kind: Matthew 6:11; Mark 6:8; Luke 11:3; 2 Corinthians 9:10; ἄρτος τῶν τέκνων the food served to the children, Mark 7:27; ἄρτον φαγεῖν or ἐσθίειν to take food, to eat (לֶחֶם אֲכֹל) ( Winer's Grammar, 33 (32)): Mark 3:20; Luke 14:1,15; Matthew 15:2; ἄρτον φαγεῖν παρά τίνος to take food supplied by one, 2 Thessalonians 3:8; τόν ἑαυτόν ἄρτον ἐσθίειν, to eat the food which one has procured for himself by his own labor, 2 Thessalonians 3:12; μήτε ἄρτον ἐσθίον, μήτε οἶνον πίνων, abstaining from the usual sustenance, or using it sparingly, Luke 7:33; τρώγειν τόν ἄρτον μετά τίνος to be one's table-companion, his familiar friend, John 13:18 ( Psalm 40:10 (Psalm 41:10>)). In John 6:32-35 Jesus calls himself, τόν ἄρτον τοῦ Θεοῦ, τόν ἄρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς, as the Divine λόγος, come from heaven, who containing in himself the source of heavenly life supplies celestial nutriment to souls that they may attain to life eternal.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

ἄρτος is frequently found with καθαρός = ";pure"; or ";white bread,"; e.g. P Tebt II. 468 οἴνου κε (ράμιον) α ̄, ἄρτων κα ̣(θαρῶν) χ (= 10 Choenices? Edd.). P Oxy IV. 736.26 (a lengthy private account, c. A.D. I) ἄρτου καθαροῦ παιδ (ῶν) ἡμιωβέλιον) ";pure bread for the children ½ obol,"; P Giss I. 14.5 (ii. A.D.) ἔγραψάς μοι περὶ ἄρτων καθαρῶν πεγμφθῆναἱ σοι διὰ Διοσκύρου. Other instances of the word are P Leid Bi. 12 (ii/B.C.) ἄρτων πεπτῶν (in provision claimed for the Serapeum Twins), P Oxy VI. 936.15 f. (iii/A.D.) σφυρίδιον Κανωπικὸν ὅπ ̣ου ζεύγη ἄρτων δ ̄, ";a Canopic basket with four pairs of loaves,"; P Gen I. 74.25 f. (probably iii/A.D.) λήκυθον ἐλαίου καὶ ἄρτους μεγάλο [υ ]ς τέσσαρας. In P Oxy VI. 908.22f. (A.D. 199) ἀρτοκοπεῖον = ";bakery";—ὥστε ὑφ᾽ ἑκάστου ὑμῶν ἀρτοκοπεῖον ἓν ἀπαρτισθῆναι. Ἄρτος is the common and only word for ";bread"; during the period we are concerned with : towards the end of it ψωμίον (q. v.) begins to acquire this meaning and takes its place.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (99)NAS (97)HCS (94)
1 Corinthians6
2 Corinthians1
2 Thessalonians2
1 Corinthians6
2 Corinthians1
2 Thessalonians2
1 Corinthians7
2 Corinthians1
2 Thessalonians2
List of Word Forms
αρτοι άρτοι ἄρτοι αρτοις άρτοις ἄρτοις αρτον άρτον ἄρτον αρτος άρτος ἄρτος αρτου άρτου ἄρτου αρτους αρτούς άρτους ἄρτους αρτω άρτω ἄρτῳ αρτων άρτων άρτών ἄρτων arto artō artoi ártoi ártōi artois ártois arton artōn árton ártōn artos ártos artou ártou artous ártous
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