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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #4434 - πτωχός

Word Origin:
from ptosso {to crouch, akin to (4422) and the alternate of (4098))
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. reduced to beggary, begging, asking alms
  2. destitute of wealth, influence, position, honour
    1. lowly, afflicted, destitute of the Christian virtues and eternal riches
    2. helpless, powerless to accomplish an end
    3. poor, needy
  3. lacking in anything
    1. as respects their spirit
      1. destitute of wealth of learning and intellectual culture which the schools afford (men of this class most readily give themselves up to Christ's teaching and proved them selves fitted to lay hold of the heavenly treasure)
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 34 ‑ אֶבְיוֹן (eb‑yone');   779 ‑ אָרַר (aw‑rar');   1800 ‑ דַּל (dal);   2489 ‑ חֵלְכָא (khay‑lek‑aw', khay‑lek‑aw');   6041 ‑ עָנִי (aw‑nee');   6996 ‑ קָטֹן (kaw‑tawn', kaw‑tone');   7326 ‑ רוּשׁ (roosh);  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πτωχός, ή, όν, also ός, όν A. Ag. 1274, S. OC 444, 751: beggar, Od. 14.400, 18.1, Hdt. 3.14, etc.; πρὸς γὰρ Διός εἰσιν ἅπαντες ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε Od. 6.208, cf. 17.475; πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει Hes. Op. 26; π. ἀνὴρ ἀλαλήμενος ἐλθών Od. 21.327; π. καὶ ἀλήμονες ἄνδρες 19.74; πτωχοὺς ἀλᾶσθαι E. Med. 515; πτωχοῦ βίος ζῆν ἐστιν μηδὲν ἔχοντα, τοῦ δὲ πένητος ζῆν φειδόμενον Ar. Pl. 552: prov., πτωχοῦ πήρη οὐ πίμπλαται Call. Fr. 360: πτωχή beggar-woman, Ath. 10.453a (so πτωχός (fem.), S. OC 444 ); χήρα πτωχή Mark 12:42 .

2. metaph., οἱ π. τῷ πνεύματι Ev.Matthew 5:3, cf. Ev.Luke 6:20 .

II as Adj., beggarly, πτωχῷ διαίτῃ S. OC 751; π. στοιχεῖα Ep.Galatians 4:9 : c. gen., beggared of, poor in, [ πηγὴ] π. νυμφῶν AP 9.258 ( Antiphan. ).

2. Comp. πτωχότερος Timocl. 6.10; prov., π. κίγκλου 'as poor as a church mouse', Men. 221; irreg. πτωχίστερος Ar. Ach. 425: Sup. πτωχότατος AP 10.50 ( Pall. ).

3. Adv. -χῶς poorly, scantily, ἠροτρία π. μέν, ἀλλ' ἀναγκαίως Babr. 55.2 .

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 πτωχός, πτωχή, πτωχόν (πτώσσω, to be thoroughly frightened, to cower down or hide oneself for fear; hence, πτωχός properly, one who slinks and crouches), often involving the idea of roving about in wretchedness (see πένης, at the end; "but it always had a bad sense till it was ennobled in the Gospels; see Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20, cf. 2 Corinthians 8:9" (Liddell and Scott, under I.)); hence,

1. in classical Greek from Homer down, reduced to beggary, begging, mendicant, asking alms: Luke 14:13,21; Luke 16:20,22.

2. poor, needy (opposed to πλούσιος): Matthew 19:21; Matthew 26:9,11; Mark 10:21; Mark 12:42,43; Mark 14:5,7; Luke 18:22; Luke 19:8; Luke 21:3; John 12:5,6, 8; John 13:29; Romans 15:26; 2 Corinthians 6:10; Galatians 2:10; James 2:2,3, 6; Revelation 13:16; in a broader sense, destitute of wealth, influence, position, honors; lowly, afflicted: Matthew 11:5; Luke 4:18 (from Isaiah 61:1); Isaiah 6:20; 7:22>; οἱ πτωχοί τοῦ κόσμου (partitive genitive), the poor of the human race, James 2:5; but the more correct reading is that of L T Tr WH viz. τῷ κόσμῳ ( unto the world), i. e. the ungodly world being Judges , cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31,4a.; Buttmann, § 133,14; ( R. V. as to the world (see next head, and cf. κόσμος, 7)). tropically, destitute of the Christian virtues and the eternal riches, Revelation 3:17; like the Latin inops, equivalent to helpless, powerless to accomplish an end: στοιχεῖα, Galatians 4:9 (`bringing no rich endowment of spiritual treasure' ( Lightfoot)).

3. universally, lacking in anything, with a dative of the respect: τῷ πνεύματι, as respects their spirit, i. e. destitute of the wealth of learning and intellectual culture which the schools afford (men of this class most readily gave themselves up to Christ's teaching and proved themselves fitted to lay hold of the heavenly treasure, Matthew 11:25; John 9:39; 1 Corinthians 1:26,27; (others make the idea more inward and ethical: 'conscious of their spiritual need')), Matthew 5:3; compare with this the Epistle of Barnabas 19 [ET], see ἔσῃ ἁπλοῦς τῇ καρδία καί πλούσιος τῷ πνεύματι, abounding in Christian graces and the riches of the divine kingdom. (The Sept. for עָנִי, דַּל, רָשׁ, אֶבְיון, etc.)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission.
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πτωχός , - , -όν

(< πτώσσω , to crouch, cower),

[in LXX for H6041, H1800, רָשׁ , etc.;]

of one who crouches and cowers, hence,

1. as subst., a beggar: ; ; ; .

2. As adj.,

(a) prop., beggarly: metaph., στοιχεῖα , (v. Lft., in l);

(b) in broader sense (opp. to πλούσιος ), poor: ; ; ; , ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; , ; ; , , , , ; , ; Papyri τ . κόσμῳ , ; metaph., , ; Papyri τ . πνεύματι , .

SYN.: πένης G3993, q.v.





Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (34)NAS (35)HCS (34)
2 Corinthians1
2 Corinthians2
2 Corinthians1
List of Word Forms
πτωχα πτωχά πτωχὰ πτωχη πτωχή πτωχὴ πτωχοι πτωχοί πτωχοὶ πτωχοις πτωχοίς πτωχοῖς πτωχον πτωχόν πτωχὸν πτωχος πτωχός πτωχὸς πτωχού πτωχους πτωχούς πτωχοὺς πτωχω πτωχώ πτωχῷ πτωχων πτωχών πτωχῶν πύγαργον ptocha ptochà ptōcha ptōchà ptoche ptochḕ ptōchē ptōchḕ ptocho ptōchō ptochoi ptochoí ptochoì ptochôi ptōchoi ptōchoí ptōchoì ptōchō̂i ptochois ptochoîs ptōchois ptōchoîs ptochon ptochón ptochòn ptochôn ptōchon ptōchón ptōchòn ptōchōn ptōchō̂n ptochos ptochòs ptōchos ptōchòs ptochous ptochoús ptochoùs ptōchous ptōchoús ptōchoùs

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