דִּין fut. יָדִין pret. דָּן.
(1) to rule, to regulate. (Prop. apparently, to subdue, to subjugate, causat. of the root דּוּן which see, as if for הֵדִין.) Const. with acc. 1 Samuel 2:10; Zechariah 3:7, “thou shalt rule my house.”
(2) to judge, i.q. שָׁפַט, but more often in poetic language. As the ideas of ruling and judging are in practice closely joined in the East, so also are they closely connected in the languages; compare שָׁפַט also دَانَ and حكم. Genesis 49:16, דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ “Dan shall judge his people;” more often used of God as the judge of the nations, Psalms 7:9, 9:9 50:4 72:2 96:10 Isaiah 3:13. To judge any one is specially used for
(a) to condemn, to punish the guilty, κατακρίνειν, Genesis 15:14; Job 36:31, seq.; followed by בְּ Psalms 110:6.
(b) to defend the right of any one, to cause him to obtain his right; spoken of a just judge, especially of God; Proverbs 31:9, דִּין עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן “judge the poor and needy;” Genesis 30:6, דָּנַנִּי אֱלֹהִים “God has judged my cause;” Psalms 54:3, וּבִגְבוּרָֽתְךָ תְרִינֵנִי “according to thy might judge me,” i.e. avenge me. More fully, Jeremiah 5:28, 22:16, דָּן דִּין עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן “he has judged the cause of the poor and needy;” Jeremiah 30:13.
(3) Followed by עִם, to contend with any one, like Niphal, Ecclesiastes 6:10.
Niphal נָדוֹן recipr, to contend together [דּוּן in Thes.], 2 Samuel 19:10 compare syn. נִשְׁפַט. (Arab. حكم to judge, III., IV., to strive). Hence besides the words immediately following, דָּן, מָדוֹן, מְדָנִים, מְדִינָה and the pr.n. מִדְיָן, מְדָן, דָּנִיֵּאל.
דִּין and דּוֹן Chald.-id. part. Ezra 7:25.
(1) judgment (hence in the western languages I consider to be derived Hom. δήνεα), Psalms 76:9 כִּסֵּא דִין tribunal, Proverbs 20:8.
(2) a cause which is judged; Deuteronomy 17:8, לְדִין בֵּין דִּין “between one cause and another,” Proverbs 29:7 עָשָׂה דִין Psal. 140:13, i.q. דָּן דִּין to judge, or protect any one’s cause; Esther 1:13 כָּל־יֹדְעֵי דָת וָדִין “all who knew law and right;” Job 36:17, דִּין and מִשְׁפָט are opposed to one another, like crime and punishment.
(3) strife, controversy, see the root No. 3, and Niph. Proverbs 22:10.
(1) judgment, meton, used for supreme tribunal; compare دِيوَانُ the highest tribunal; Daniel 7:10, דִּינָא יְתִב “the judgment was set,” verse 26.
(2) right, justice; Daniel 4:34, אָרְחָתֵהּ דִּין “his ways are justice;” Daniel 7:22, וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין “and (until) justice was done to the saints of the most high.”
(3) penalty, Ezra 7:26.