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Old Testament Hebrew

Entry for Strong's #8074 - שָׁמֵם

Word Origin:
a primitive root
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Brown-Drivers-Briggs | Strong ]
Brown-Driver-Briggs' Definition

1) to be desolate, be appalled, stun, stupefy

1a) (Qal)

1a1) to be desolated, be deflowered, be deserted, be appalled

1a2) to be appalled, be awestruck

1b) (Niphal)

1b1) to be desolated, be made desolate

1b2) to be appalled

1c) (Polel)

1c1) to be stunned

1c2) appalling, causing horror (participle)

1c2a) horror-causer, appaller (substantive)

1d) (Hiphil)

1d1) to devastate, ravage, make desolated

1d2) to appal, show horror

1e) (Hophal) to lay desolate, be desolated

1f) (Hithpolel)

1f1) to cause to be desolate

1f2) to be appalled, be astounded

1f3) to cause oneself desolation, cause oneself ruin

Greek Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 818 ‑ ἀτιμάζω (at‑im‑ad'‑zo);   853 ‑ ἀφανίζω (af‑an‑id'‑zo);   1311 ‑ διαφθείρω (dee‑af‑thi'‑ro);   2295 ‑ θαῦμα (thou'‑mah);   2704 ‑ καταφθείρω (kat‑af‑thi'‑ro);   1590 ‑ ἐκλύω (ek‑loo'‑o);   1605 ‑ ἐκπλήσσω (ek‑place'‑so);   2657 ‑ κατανοέω (kat‑an‑o‑eh'‑o);   5015 ‑ ταράσσω (tar‑as'‑so);   390 ‑ ἀναστρέφω (an‑as‑tref'‑o);   622 ‑ ἀπόλλυμι (ap‑ol'‑loo‑mee);   1863 ‑ ἐπάγω (ep‑ag'‑o);   2049 ‑ ἐρημόω (er‑ay‑mo'‑o);   4937 ‑ συντρίβω (soon‑tree'‑bo);   2296 ‑ θαυμάζω (thou‑mad'‑zo);   1839 ‑ ἐξίστημι (ex‑is'‑tay‑mee);   2050 ‑ ἐρήμωσις (er‑ay'‑mo‑sis);   4768 ‑ στυγνάζω (stoog‑nad'‑zo);   2048 ‑ ἔρημος (er'‑ay‑mos);  
Frequency / Word  [ Book | Word ]
Verse Results
KJV (92)NAS (91)HCS (91)
1 Samuel1
2 Samuel1
1 Kings1
2 Chronicles2
1 Samuel1
2 Samuel1
1 Kings1
2 Chronicles2
1 Samuel1
2 Samuel1
1 Kings1
2 Chronicles2
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1473) ms (סהמ ShM) AC: Breathe CO: Breath AB: Desolate: The wind, or breath, of someone or something is its character.

A) ms (סהמ ShM) AC: ? CO: Breath AB: Desolate: Hebrew names are words given to describe character.

Nm) ms (סהמ ShM) - I. Breath:The breath of a man is character, what makes one what he is. The name of an individual is more than an identifier but descriptive of his character or breath. II. There:Used to identify another place. [Hebrew and Aramaic] III. Sky:The place of the winds. [Hebrew and Aramaic; Only used in the masculine plural form, mimsor nimsin Aramaic] IV. Aroma: A sweet aroma that is carried on the wind or breath. [df: Mo] KJV (1365): name, renown, fame, famous, heaven, air, sweet, there - Strongs: H5561 (סַם), H8033 (שָׁם), H8034 (שֵׁם), H8036 (שֻׁם), H8064 (שָׁמֶה), H8065 (שְׁמַיִן), H8536 (תַּמָּה)

Nf1 ) ems (סהמה ShMH) - Desolate: A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up, making a place of ruin or desert. KJV (39): astonishment, desolation, desolate, waste, wonderful - Strongs: H8047 (שַׁמָּה)

kf1) emsm (מסהמה MShMH) - Desolate: A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up, making a place of ruin or desert. KJV (7): desolate, astonishment - Strongs: H4923 (מְשַׁמָּה)

nmm) nmsa (אסהמנ AShMN) - Desolate: A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up, making a place of ruin or desert. KJV (1): desolate - Strongs: H820 (אַשְׁמָן)

B) mms (סהממ ShMM) AC: ? CO: ? AB: Desolate: A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up, making a place of ruin or desert. One in horror or in astonishment is one dried up in the inside.

V) mms (סהממ ShMM) - Desolate: [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (93): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Hophal, Piel) desolate, astonish, waste, destroy, wonder, amaze - Strongs: H8074 (שָׁמֵם), H8075 (שְׁמַם)

Nf1) emms (סהממה ShMMH) - Desolate: KJV (58): desolate, waste - Strongs: H8077 (שִׁמָמָה)

ejm) nfmmis (סהיממונ ShYMMWN) - Desolation: KJV (2): astonishment - Strongs: H8078 (שִׁמָּמוֹן)

C) msa (אסהמ AShM) AC: ? CO: ? AB: Guilt: One with a character of wrongdoing.

V) msa (אסהמ AShM) - Guilt: KJV (35): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil) guilty, desolate, offend, trespass, destroy, faulty, offence - Strongs: H816 (אָשֵׁם)

Nm) msa (אסהמ AShM) - Guilt: KJV (49): trespass, sin, guiltiness - Strongs: H817 (אָשָׁם), H818 (אָשֵׁם)

Nf1) emsa (אסהמה AShMH) - Guilt: KJV (19): trespass, sin, offend - Strongs: H819 (אַשְׁמָה)

G) mes (סההמ ShHM) AC: ? CO: ? AB: ?: [Unknown meaning;]

Nm) mes (סההמ ShHM) - Shoham: An unknown stone. KJV (11): onyx - Strongs: H7718 (שֹׁהַם)

J) mfs (סהומ ShWM) AC: Smell CO: Garlic AB: ?: A sense of smell from breathing.

Nm) mfs (סהומ ShWM) - Garlic: From its strong odor. KJV (1): garlick - Strongs: H7762 (שׁוּמִים)

L) msi (יסהמ YShM) AC: ? CO: Desert AB: Desolate: A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up, making a place of ruin or desert.

V) msi (יסהמ YShM) - Desolate: KJV (4): (vf: Paal) desolate - Strongs: H3456 (יָשַׁם)

bf1) emisi (יסהימה YShYMH) - Desolate: KJV (1): seize - Strongs: H3451 (יְשִׁימָה)

bjm) nfmisi (יסהימונ YShYMWN) - Desert: A desolate place. KJV (13): desert, wilderness, solitary - Strongs: H3452 (יְשִׁימוֹן)

Adopted Roots:

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2013
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Brown-Driver-Briggs Expanded Definition
[ [שָׁמֵם] verb be desoleted, appalled (connection of meanings not clear) (Late Hebrew id.; Jewish-Aramaic שְׁמַם Ithpe`el be dazed); —

Qal Perfect 3 feminine singular שָׁמֵ֑מָה Ezekiel 35:15, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִשֹּׁם; 1 Kings 9:8 +, 3 masculine plural יָשֹּׁ֫מּוּ Job 17:8; Psalm 40:16, etc.; Imperative masculine plural שֹׁ֫מוּ Jeremiah 2:19; Infinitive construct (?) metaplastic שַׁמוֺת Ezekiel 36:3 (Ges§ 67r, but see infra); — תֵּשַׁם, etc. (see [יָשַׁם]) are placed here by most; Ezekiel 6:6 reads תִּישָׁ֑מְנָה, see Ges § 67 p dd; — Participle שׁוֺמֵם Lamentations 3:11 (see also

Po-.); feminine שֹׁמֵמָ֔ה (Ges§ 84 a s) 2 Samuel 13:20 +; plural שׁוֺמֵמִין Lamentations 1:14, etc.; —

1 be desolated, of Tamar 2 Samuel 13:20 (i.e. deflowered, or deserted; others appalled), of person elsewhere late Lamentations 1:16; נְתָנַנִישֹׁמֵמָה Lamentations 1:13, ׳שָׂמַ֫נִי שׁ Lamentations 3:11; participle as feminine noun בְּנֵי שׁוֺמֵמָה Isaiah 54:1 (opposed to בְּעוּלָה) [ Daniel 8:13 #NAME?

Po-.]; usually of land, etc. (sometimes= deserted), Isaiah 49:8; Ezekiel 33:28 (מֵאֵין עוֺבֵר), Ezekiel 35:12 (read שָֽׁמְמוּ Qr Co Toy Krae; >Kt שׁממה), Ezekiel 35:15; הֶחְָרָבוֺת הַשֹּׁמִמוֺת Ezekiel 36:4 ("" הֶעָרִים הַנֱּעֶזָבוֺתשַׁמּוֺת) Ezekiel 36:3 is probably corrupt, Co שְׁאָט as Ezekiel 36:5, Hi-Sm from שׁמה = נשׁם, Toy reads נָשֹׁם, Krae נָשֹׁם; — participle feminine plural as noun = desolate places Isaiah 49:19; Isaiah 61:4 (both "" חֳרָבוֺת), Isaiah 61:4 (compare שְׁמָמָה Isaiah 62:4); = desolations Daniel 9:18,26.

2 be appalled, awestruck, usually at (עַל) judgments on others, Leviticus 26:32 (H), Jeremiah 2:12 (see II. [ חָרֵב]), Ezekiel 26:16; Ezekiel 27:35; Ezekiel 28:19; Isaiah 52:14; Job 17:8, compare 1 Kings 9:8 2 Chronicles 7:12; Jeremiah 18:16; Jeremiah 19:8; Jeremiah 49:17; Jeremiah 50:13; on oneself Psalm 40:16 (עַלעֵֿקֶב). — Isaiah 42:14 see [נשׁם].

Niph`al Perfect 3 feminine singular נָשַׁ֫מָּה Jeremiah 12:11 +, 3 plural נָשַׁ֫נּוּ Zephaniah 3:6 +; Participle feminine נְשַׁמָּה Ezekiel 36:34 +, etc.; — =

Qal: 1. be desolated, of roads Leviticus 26:22 (H), Isaiah 33:8, bamoth Amos 7:9 ("" יֶחֱרָ֑בוּ), altars Ezekiel 6:4; compare Ezekiel 25:3; Ezekiel 32:15; Zephaniah 3:6; Zechariah 7:14; Joel 1:17; Psalm 69:26; of lands Ezekiel 29:12; Ezekiel 30:7; Ezekiel 36:34,35, cities Isaiah 54:3 (opposed to יוֺשִׁיבוּ), compare Ezekiel 36:35; Amos 9:14; Jeremiah 33:10; הַנְּשַׁמָּה Ezekiel 36:36 the desolated (that Isaiah , land, in figure).

2 be appalled Jeremiah 4:9; Lamentations 4:5; Ezekiel 4:17; Ezekiel 30:7, with עַל of thing Job 18:20.

Po` Participle

1וֵָ˜אשְׁבָה מְשׁוֺמֵם Ezra 9:3 I sat appalled, compare Ezra 9:4

2 transitive appalling, causing horror (Dr Daniel 150f.): (הַ)שִּׁקּוּץ מְשֹׁמֵם Daniel 11:31, + perhaps Daniel 9:27 a (see שִׁקּוּץ); so also שֹׁמֵם׳שִׁוּ Daniel 12:11 (on ׳שׁ v, Ges§ 52 s), הַמֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם Daniel 8:13 the crime causing horror, and ׳שׁ as noun horror-causer, appaller, Daniel 9:27b.

Hiph`il Perfect 2 masculine singular הֲשִׁמּ֫וֺתָ Job 16:7, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יַשּׁים (Ges§ 67y) Jeremiah 49:20; Jeremiah 50:45,3masculine plural suffix וַיְשִׁמֵּם 1 Samuel 5:6,1plural נַשִּׁים Numbers 21:30, etc.; Imperative masculine plural הָשַׁמּוּ (Ges§ 67v) Job 21:5; Infinitive absolute הַשְׁמֵם Micah 6:13; Participle מַשְׁמִים Ezekiel 3:15; —

1 devastate, ravage, accusative of person 1 Samuel 5:6; Ezekiel 20:26; Hosea 2:14 (figurative of vine), Job 16:7; accusative of location Leviticus 26:31,32 (H) Jeremiah 10:25; Ezekiel 30:12,14; Psalm 79:7, so (accusative omitted) Numbers 21:30 (poem in J E), Micah 6:13; — Ezekiel 14:8 see שִׂים

Hiph`il 2. a. appal, accusative of person, with עַל at, Jeremiah 49:20; Jeremiah 50:45; Ezekiel 32:10.

b. inwardly transitive, וָאֵשֵׁב׳מִשׁ Ezekiel 3:15 shewing horror, Job 21:5 (Bu Niph`al הִשַּׁמוּ).

Hoph`al Infinitive construct כָּליְֿמֵי הָשַּׁמָּה (that is הָאָרֶץ) Leviticus 26:34 (H) all the days of (its) being desolate, so Leviticus 26:35; 2 Chronicles 36:21; Aramaizing, בָּהְשַׁמָּה (Ges§ 67y) Leviticus 26:43.

Hithpo`el Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִשְׁתּוֺמֵם Psalm 143:4, etc.; —

1 be appalled, astounded, כִּי that, because, Isaiah 59:16; Isaiah 63:5; עַל of thing Daniel 8:27; ׳עבּתוֺכִי יִשְׁתּ Psalm 143:4 (compare 1 plural נשתומם Sirach 43:24).

2 cause oneself desolation, ruin, Ecclesiastes 7:16.


Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.
Gesenius Definition

שָׁמֵם fut. יִשֹּׁם pl. יָשֹׁמּוּ (fut. A יֵשַׁם see under the root יָשַׁם.)

(1) to be astonished (the primary idea is that of silence, being put to silence, compare the kindred roots דָּמַם and דּוּם see p. 203, B ), 1 Kings 9:8; Jeremiah 18:16 followed by עַל (because of any thing) Isaiah 52:14; Jeremiah 2:12. As to the passage 2 Chronicles 7:21, see לְ A, No. 2.

(2) to be laid waste, desolated (as places laid waste and silent and quiet, whereas in those that are inhabited there is noise) Ezekiel 33:28, 35:12, 15 Ezekiel 35:15. Part. שׁוֹמֵם laid waste, Lamentations 1:4, 3:11 used of persons wasted, destroyed, ibid. 1:13, 16 solitary, 2 Samuel 13:20; Isaiah 54:1. Plur. f. שׁוֹמֵמוֹת places laid waste, ruins, Isaiah 61:4; Daniel 9:18, 26.

(3) trans. to lay waste, to make desolate; Ezekiel 36:3, יַעַן בְּיַעַן שַׁמּוֹת וְשָׁאֹף אֶתְכֶם “because that they made you desolate, and gape after you” (where שַׁמּוֹת is a noun verbal pl. for infinit.). Part. שׁוֹמֵם the desolator (i.e. Antiochus Epiphanes [?]), Daniel 9:27. הַפֶּשַׁע שׁוֹמֵם (for פֶּשַׁע הַשּׁ׳), ibid. 8:13, the sin of the desolator, and שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם abomination of the desolator, Daniel 12:11, i.q. βδέλυγμα ἐρημώσεως, 1Ma_1:54 6:7 (either the altar or the idol which Antiochus caused to be erected over the altar of the temple at Jerusalem.) [But see, Matthew 24:14, as to the “abomination of desolation,” as something even then unfulfilled].

Niphal נָשַׁם.

(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to be astonished, Jeremiah 4:9 followed by עַל Job 18:20.

(2) i.q. Kal No. 2, to be laid waste, Jeremiah 12:11 to be destroyed (used of persons), Lamentations 4:5 to be desolate, solitary (as a way), Leviticus 26:22; Isaiah 33:8.


(1) i.q. Kal No. 1. to be astonished, Ezra 9:3.

(2) part. מְשֹׁמֵם a desolator, Daniel 9:27, 11:31.

Hiphil הֵשֵׁם, fut. יַשִּׁים, inf. הַשְׁמֵם, part. מַשְׁמִים.-causat. of Kal No. 1, to astonish, Ezekiel 32:10, intrans. to be astonished, stunned, Ezekiel 3:15 followed by עַל Micah 6:13.

(2) i.q. Kal No. 3, to lay waste, as a land, Leviticus 26:31, 32 Leviticus 26:32; Ezekiel 30:12, 14 Ezekiel 30:14.

Hophal הָשַׁם (read hŏsham, for הָשַּׁם, which is found in some copies), plur. הָשַׁמּוּ.

(1) to be astonished, Job 21:5.

(2) to be laid waste, Leviticus 26:34, 35 Leviticus 26:35, 43 Leviticus 26:43.

Hithpoel הִשְׁתּוֹמֵם but the fut. once יִשֹּׁמֵם Ecclesiastes 7:16.

(1) to be astonished, Isaiah 59:16, 63:5 to be confounded, Daniel 8:27 to be disheartened, Psalms 143:4.

(3) to lay oneself waste, to destroy oneself, Ecc. l.l.

Derivatives, שָׁמֵם-שִׁמָּמוֹן, שַׁמָּה, מְשַׁמָּה, and the pr.n. שַׁמָּא, שַׁמַּי.

List of Word Forms
אֲשִׁמֵּ֔ם אשמם בָּהְשַׁמָּה֙ בהשמה הֲ֝שִׁמּ֗וֹתָ הֳשַׁמָּ֔ה הֵשַֽׁמּוּ׃ הַֽנְשַׁמּ֗וֹת הַנְּשַׁמָּ֑ה הַנְּשַׁמָּ֔ה הַנְּשַׁמָּ֖ה הַשְׁמֵ֖ם הָשַּׁמָּ֖ה הָשַּׁמָּה֙ הנשמה הנשמות השמה השמו׃ השמות השמם וְאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֖ם וְהַֽנְשַׁמּ֥וֹת וְהָשַׁ֑מּוּ וְנָשַׁ֕מּוּ וְנָשַׁ֖מּוּ וְנָשַׁ֙מּוּ֙ וְשָֽׁמְמ֛וּ וְשָֽׁמְמ֤וּ וְשָׁמְמ֖וּ וְשֹׁ֣מְמֹתַ֔יִךְ וַהֲשִֽׂמֹתִ֙יהוּ֙ וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֗י וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֞י וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֥י וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִי֙ וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֖י וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֨י וַיְשִׁמֵּ֑ם וַיִּשְׁתּוֹמֵ֖ם וַנַּשִּׁ֣ים וָאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֥ם וּנְשַׁמָּ֗ה ואשתומם והנשמות והשמו והשמותי והשמתי והשמתיהו וישמם וישתומם ונשים ונשמה ונשמו ושממו ושממתיך יִשְׁתּוֹמֵ֥ם יִשֹּׁ֑ם יִשֹּׁ֖ם יִשֹּׁ֣ם יִשֹּׁ֥ם יַשִּׁ֛ים יָ֭שֹׁמּוּ יָשֹׁ֣מּוּ ישים ישם ישמו ישתומם לְשַׁמָּֽה׃ לשמה׃ מְשֹׁמֵ֔ם מְשׁוֹמֵ֔ם מְשׁוֹמֵֽם׃ מַשְׁמִ֥ים משומם משומם׃ משמים משמם נְשַׁמָּ֑ה נְשַׁמּ֑וֹת נְשַׁמּ֖וֹת נְשַׁמּ֗וֹת נְשַׁמּוֹת֙ נָשַׁ֔מָּה נָשַׁ֖מּוּ נָשַׁ֙מָּה֙ נָשַׁ֙מּוּ֙ נָשַׁ֣מּוּ נשמה נשמו נשמות שֶׁשָּׁמֵ֔ם שַׁמּוֹת֩ שָׁמְמ֖וּ שָׁמְמ֤וּ שָׁמֵ֖מָה שֹׁ֥מּוּ שֹׁמְמ֖וֹת שֹׁמְמ֥וֹת שֹׁמֵ֑ם שֹׁמֵ֔ם שֹׁמֵֽם׃ שֹׁמֵמֽוֹת׃ שֽׁוֹמֵמִ֔ים שֽׁוֹמֵמִ֔ין שָׁמֵ֑מוּ שׁוֹמֵמָ֛ה שוממה שוממים שוממין שמו שמות שמם שמם׃ שממה שממו שממות שממות׃ ששמם תִּשּׁוֹמֵֽם׃ תשומם׃ ’ă·šim·mêm ’ăšimmêm ashimMem bā·hə·šam·māh bāhəšammāh bahshamMah hă·šim·mō·w·ṯā han·nə·šam·māh han·šam·mō·wṯ hannəšammāh hanneshamMah hanšammōwṯ hanshamMot haš·mêm hāš·šam·māh hashimMota hashMem hashshamMah hăšimmōwṯā hašmêm hāššammāh hê·šam·mū hêšammū heShammu hoš·šam·māh hoshshamMah hoššammāh lə·šam·māh ləšammāh leshamMah maš·mîm mashMim mašmîm mə·šō·mêm mə·šō·w·mêm meshoMem məšōmêm məšōwmêm nā·šam·māh nā·šam·mū nāšammāh nāšammū naShammah naShammu nə·šam·māh nə·šam·mō·wṯ nəšammāh nəšammōwṯ neshamMah neshamMot šā·mê·māh šā·mê·mū šā·mə·mū šam·mō·wṯ šāmêmāh šāmêmū šāməmū šammōwṯ šeš·šā·mêm šeššāmêm shaMemah shameMu shammOt sheshshaMem shoMem shomeMah shomeMim shomeMin shomeMot Shommu šō·mê·mō·wṯ šō·mə·mō·wṯ šō·mêm šō·w·mê·māh šō·w·mê·mîm šō·w·mê·mîn šōm·mū šōmêm šōmêmōwṯ šōməmōwṯ šōmmū šōwmêmāh šōwmêmîm šōwmêmîn tiš·šō·w·mêm tishshoMem tiššōwmêm ū·nə·šam·māh ūnəšammāh uneshamMah vaeshtoMem vahashimmoTi vahasimoTihu vaiyishtoMem vannashShim vayshimMem veeshtoMem vehanshamMot vehaShammu venaShammu veshameMu veshamMu veShomemoTayich wā’eštōwmêm wā·’eš·tō·w·mêm wa·hă·śi·mō·ṯî·hū wa·hă·šim·mō·ṯî wa·hă·šim·mō·w·ṯî wahăšimmōṯî wahăšimmōwṯî wahăśimōṯîhū wan·naš·šîm wannaššîm way·šim·mêm way·yiš·tō·w·mêm wayšimmêm wayyištōwmêm wə’eštōwmêm wə·’eš·tō·w·mêm wə·hā·šam·mū wə·han·šam·mō·wṯ wə·nā·šam·mū wə·šā·mə·mū wə·šō·mə·mō·ṯa·yiḵ wəhanšammōwṯ wəhāšammū wənāšammū wəšāməmū wəšōməmōṯayiḵ yā·šōm·mū yaš·šîm yaShommu yashShim yāšōmmū yaššîm yiš·šōm yiš·tō·w·mêm yishShom yishtoMem yiššōm yištōwmêm

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