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Bible Commentaries

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible
1 Samuel

Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7
Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11
Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15
Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19
Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23
Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27
Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 31

Book Overview - 1 Samuel

1. Author and Time of Writing

Originally the two books of Samuel formed o n e historical book. It was the translators of the Septuagint (Greek translation of the OT at about 200 BC) who separated the book into two parts. Henceforward the first book ended with Saul's death and the second book started with David's reign. From the Septuagint this separation into two books was taken over into the Vulgate (Latin translation of the whole Bible in the 4th century AC) and finally since Daniel Bomberg (1517) also into the printed editions of the Hebrew Bible. In the Septuagint as well as the Vulgate the books of Samuel are considered as part of the books of the Kings. This title is not altogether unsuitable for in the books of Samuel the kingdoms of Saul and David are described and in the books of Kings the reigns of Israel's and Judah's monarchs. And yet the original Hebrew title Samuel is more appropriate for both books describe the life of Samuel the prophet as well as the lives of the two kings who were anointed by him.

Having said all this, nothing has been said so far as to the author of the books. None of the books mentions any author. According to Jewish tradition in the Talmud Samuel was author of chapters 1-24 of the first book (which are the records of his time). Gad and Nathan the prophets are considered to be the authors of chapters 25-31 and the whole of the second book of Samuel. 1 Chronicles 29:29 gives us a hint thereto: "Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer." The mentioning of the fact that Ziklag belongs to the kings of Judah "to this day" (1 Samuel 27:6) is considered by some as an indication that the book has been written after the division of the kingdom under Rehoboam.

The first book of Samuel covers a time of about 90 years starting at Samuel's birth around 1100 BC unto the death of Saul around the year 1010 BC. The second book of Samuel describes the reign of David (around 1010 to 970 BC).

2. Purpose of Writing

The books of Samuel represent the transition from the time of the judges to the time of the kings. Samuel the central figure of the first book is at the same time the last judge and the first prophet (Acts 3:24; Acts 13:20).

As in the books of Judges the apostasy of Israel in its responsibility is first described. Under Eli and his sons (1 Samuel 2:22-25; 1 Samuel 4:17-18) and also under the two sons of Samuel (1 Samuel 8:1-2) the office of the judge crumbles into pieces. The decay in the house of Eli is so much graver as the priesthood is concerned also which ought to be the medium between God and the people. The enemies rob even the ark of the covenant, the holiest piece of the tabernacle and the synonym of the throne of Jehovah.

Into this condition of things God sends Samuel the first prophet who stands up for Jehovah with the people of Israel. Also Samuel introduces the kingdom. At first this happens on request of the people (King Saul, the man according to flesh) and then God chooses David (the man according to the heart of God). Read 1 Samuel 13:14.

David makes Jerusalem the political and religious centre of Israel (2 Samuel 5:6-12; 2 Samuel 6:1-17). Both the word of Jehovah (2 Samuel 7:4-16) and the words of David (2 Samuel 23:1-7) stress the importance of the God-given kingdom. Also the millennial Lordship of the Messiah is prophetically pointed to.

3. Peculiarities

a) Typology

Samuel's office as a prophet before the introduction of the kingdom is a picture of God's work in the actual day of grace. Saul (the man according to flesh) first reigns as king while David (the anointed king according to the mind of God) is rejected and persecuted (picturing Christ). It is only after the adversary's death that David starts to reign. But his reign is not yet characterized by peace but by combat. Whilst Solomon is a type of the Lord Jesus during His millennial kingdom of peace David typifies Christ as the rejected one that will execute judgment at His appearing.

b) Prayer

Prayer plays an important part, particularly in the first book of Samuel.

  • Already the name of Samuel signifies "heard of God" or "asked for of God". Hannah prayed for a child (1 Samuel 1:10-18; 1 Samuel 1:26-27) and she thanked God when she had received a son (1 Samuel 2:1-10).

  • God gave Israel victory over the Philistines in answer to Samuel's prayer (1 Samuel 7:5; 1 Samuel 7:9).

  • When Israel in self-will demanded a king Samuel prayed to God and God answered his prayer (1 Samuel 8:6-9).

  • Samuel the man of prayer receives revelations of God (1 Samuel 9:15).

  • It would have been a sin for Samuel not to pray for his people Israel (1 Samuel 12:19; 1 Samuel 12:23).

c) The Ark of God

The ark with the mercy seat was the throne of Jehovah amidst His people, that is the testimony of His presence. The history of this ark in the books of Samuel clearly shows the condition of the people in the eyes of God. In 1 Samuel 3:3 the ark was in Shiloh and Samuel lived there. In chap. 4 the ark is brought from Shiloh into the military camp of Israel to produce victory over the Philistines.

But the Philistines take the ark as a prey; Eli dies at this message and God punishes the Philistines for taking the ark (1 Samuel 5). Then the ark is brought to Kirjath-Jearim where it remains for 20 years (1 Samuel 6; 1 Samuel 7:1-2). It is only David who finally brings the ark to Zion, to the place which Jehovah had chosen to set His name there (2 Samuel 6 , compare Deuteronomy 12:5; Psalms 132) and in which place Solomon was going to build the temple in a later day (1 King 6-8).

4. Overview of Contents

I. 1 Samuel 1-7 : Samuel as Judge and Prophet of God

Chapter 1 ,1-2 ,11 Samuel's Birth
Chapter 2 ,12-36 Decay of the Priesthood
Chapter 3 Samuel's Calling as a Prophet
Chapter 4 The Ark is Taken by the Philistines
Chapter 5 The Ark in the Land of the Philistines
Chapter 6 The Ark returns to Israel
Chapter 7 Israel's Return and Victory

II. 1 Samuel 8-15 : Samuel and Saul

Chapter 8 Israel demands a King
Chapter 9-10 Saul is appointed King of Israel
Chapter 11 Saul's Victory over the Ammonites
Chapter 12 Samuel's last Speech to Israel
Chapter 13 Saul's first Failure
Chapter 14 Jonathan's Victory and Saul's further Failure
Chapter 15 Saul's Disobedience and Rejection

III. 1 Samuel 16-31 : Saul and David

Chapter 16 David is anointed King
Chapter 17 David's Victory over Goliath
Chapter 18 Saul is jealous of David
Chapter 19 Saul wants to kill David
Chapter 20 David flees from Saul
Chapter 21 David's Flight to the Priest at Nob and to the King of Gath
Chapter 22 David in the Cave of Adullam and Saul's Revenge on the Priests
Chapter 23 David at Kehilah and in the Wilderness of Ziph
Chapter 24 David spares Saul's Life in the Wilderness of Engedi
Chapter 25 Nabal and Abigail
Chapter 26 David spares Saul a second time
Chapter 27 David flees to Achish, King of the Philistines
Chapter 28 Saul goes to the Necromanceress at Endor
Chapter 29 David's Failure with the Philistines
Chapter 30 Ziklag: David's Punishment and Restoration
Chapter 31 Death of Saul and Jonathan


Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, September 19th, 2018
the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
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