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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Genesis

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16
Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20
Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24
Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28
Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 32 Chapter 34
Chapter 35 Chapter 36 Chapter 37 Chapter 38
Chapter 39 Chapter 40 Chapter 41 Chapter 42
Chapter 43 Chapter 45 Chapter 46 Chapter 49
Chapter 50

Book Overview - Genesis

by Gary H. Everett

STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE BOOK OF GENESIS

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - The Lord God is the One, True God

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD.

Deuteronomy 6:4

Structural Theme (1) - God Predestines Mankind to Take Dominion upon the Earth

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness:

and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea,

and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle,

and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

Genesis 1:26

Structural Theme (2) - The Calling Out of Abraham and the Founding of the Nation of Israel

Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you:

for I called him alone, and blessed him, and increased him.

Isaiah 51:2

Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace;

to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed;

not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham;

who is the father of us all.

Romans 4:16

Now when I passed by thee, and looked upon thee, behold, thy time was the time of love;

and I spread my skirt over thee, and covered thy nakedness:

yea, I sware unto thee, and entered into a covenant with thee,

saith the Lord GOD, and thou becamest mine.

Ezekiel 16:8

As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.

Romans 9:13

Imperative Theme (1) - God Commands Man to be Fruitful and Multiply and Subdue the Earth

And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

Genesis 1:28

Imperative Theme (2) - God Calls Us out to Walk in the Steps of the Faith of our Father Abraham

…that he might be the father of all them that believe,

though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also:

And the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision only,

but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham,

which he had being yet uncircumcised.

Romans 4:11-12

Untitled

Solitude and Beauty

And all things great and small;

Flowers, Sunshine, Rainbows,

The Lord God made them all.

Each drop of dew falls on them,

It comes from heaven above;

They glisten in the sunlight and speak

Of God's great love.

(Flossie Powell Everett 1910-1987)

INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT

The New Testament uses various names in referring to the Old Testament: "the Scriptures," "Holy Scriptures," "the Writings," "the Sacred Scriptures," "the Book," "the Sacred Books." However, God did not hand to us these sacred books of the Old Testament canon all at once on a silver platter, as other religions claim to have received theirs. It was a long, historical process that took centuries. The canonization of the Holy Scriptures was based upon the foundations laid by those men of God who walked in the offices of the prophet and the apostle ( Ephesians 2:20). Church history tells us that God used the office of the prophet to write the Old Testament and the office of the apostle to write the New Testament. When the prophets of old died, the Old Testament canon was closed (Josephus, Against Apion 18). 1] The canonization of the New Testament was based upon apostolic authority. A closer evaluation will explain these statements.

1] Flavius Josephus, Flavius Josephus Against Apion, in The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, trans. William Whiston (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c 1987, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

Ephesians 2:20, "And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;"

A. The Old Testament Canon- We read in the Scriptures that the Old Testament custom was to keep holy writings in the Temple. Moses told the children of Israel to give the Levites the custody of the Sacred Scriptures ( Deuteronomy 17:18).

Deuteronomy 17:18, "And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites:"

We see this during the time of King Josiah's reforms when his servants cleaned out the Temple ( 2 Kings 22:8). There, hidden for decades, were the Sacred Scriptures.

2 Kings 22:8, "And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the LORD. And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it."

The prophets of the Old Testament were the inspiration for the Jews' sacred books. They carefully collected these holy prophecies and taught them to their people. There came a time that the prophets ceased to prophesy, and at that point in Jewish history, the Old Testament canon was closed. This is confirmed by Josephus, who says, "It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time." (Against Apion 18) In addition, the opening verse of the book of Hebrews states that the Old Testament was delivered to us by His prophets ( Hebrews 1:1-2), thus revealing the fact that the Old Testament prophets were the ones who kept the canon open.

Hebrews 1:1-2, "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Song of Solomon , whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;"

Just as the New Testament canon closed when the twelve apostles dies, so did the Old Testament canon close when the prophets ceased. Early Church tradition held that it was Ezra the scribe who finally compiled the books of the Old Testament Scriptures as we know them today. Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) says Ezra was inspired to restore the Sacred Scriptures after his return from Exile. Note:

"And this was nothing wonderful for God to do, who, in the captivity of the people trader Nebuchadnezzar, when the Scriptures had been destroyed, and the Jews had returned to their own country after seventy years, afterwards, in the time of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians, inspired Ezra the priest, of the tribe of Levi, to relate all the words of the former prophets, and to restore to the people the legislation of Moses." Such are the words of Irenaeus." (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5815) 2]

2] Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 224.

The purpose of compiling or editing Sacred Writings would be for the purpose of teaching the people of a later era than which a book was written. This is exactly what happened during the time of Ezra the scribe. E. W. Bullinger tells us the Jewish tradition how that after the Babylonian captivity, Ezra and Nehemiah began the task of setting the Old Testament Scriptures in order. We see this in Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:11 and Nehemiah 8:8. They created an order of scribes called the Sopherim (from the Hebrew word "saphar," which means, "to count or number"). Their task was to set the original text in order. This means, that they counted each line, each word and each letter of the books of the Old Testament. They devised the way each page of Scripture was to have a certain column of text with the known amount of words and letters on each particular page. These pages could then be copied without error using this counting system because each page would always look the same. This meant that each letter was locked into same place on its designated page in the Scriptures and could never be moved. Only the order of the Sopherim had the authority to revise the original text or to move text to a new place. Jewish tradition tells us that the men of "the Great Synagogue" as they were known, took about 100 years to complete this work, from the time of Nehemiah to Simon the first, 410-300 B.C.

After the text was set, the order of the Massorites was established. This title comes from the Hebrew word "maser," which means, "to deliver something into the hand of another, so as to commit it to his trust." This order of Jewish scribes became the custodians of the Sacred Scriptures. Their job was to preserve the Scriptures so that no changes took place. A look at an ancient Hebrew manuscript reveals how this was done. In the upper and lower margins of these ancient manuscripts and between and along the outside of the columns of Sacred Text, you can see small writings by these Massorites, which contain a counting system for the text. These side notes are not commentaries, but rather information about the text on that particular page, such as the number of times the several letters occur in the various books of the Bible; the number of words, and the middle word; the number of verses, and the middle verse; the number of expressions and combinations of words, etc. It even listed the one hundred thirty four (134) passages in which the Hebrew word "Adonai" was substituted for the original "YHWH." When the Hebrew Bible came into print in the fifteenth century, only the Sacred Text was printed and all of the marginal notes were disregarded. This is why we are not familiar with this ancient Hebrew tradition today. 3]

3] E. W. Bullinger, Appendix 30: Massrah, in The Companion Bible Being The Authorized Version of 1611With The Structures And Notes, Critical, Explanatory and Suggestive And With 198 Appendixes (London: Oxford University Press, c 1909-22), 31.

Regarding the number of Old Testament books originally canonized by the Jews, Josephus (A.D 37 to 100) tells us that the ancient Jews counted twenty-two books as the canon of the Old Testament. They did this by combining together some of the books that are separated in the English Bible.

"For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, [as the Greeks have,] but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time." (Josephus, Against Apion 18) 4]

4] Flavius Josephus, Flavius Josephus Against Apion, in The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, trans. William Whiston (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c 1987, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) cites Melito bishop of Sardis (A.D 170), who gives us a list of twenty-five Old Testament books, which includes one of the Apocrypha called Esdras.

"Accordingly when I went East and came to the place where these things were preached and done, I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis ,, Exodus ,, Numbers ,, Leviticus , Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges , Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalm of David, the Proverbs of Song of Solomon , Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes ,, Song of Solomon , Job; of Prophets, Isaiah , Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book; Daniel ,, Ezekiel , Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books." Such are the words of Melito." (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 42614) 5]

5] Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 206.

Eusebius cites Origen (A.D 185 to 254), who tells us that by the New Testament period, the Jews had accepted twenty-two books as Holy Scriptures, according to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

"When expounding the first Psalm , he gives a catalogue of the sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament as follows: "It should be stated that the canonical books, as the Hebrews have handed them down, are twenty-two; corresponding with the number of their letters." Farther on he says: "The twenty-two books of the Hebrews are the following: That which is called by us Genesis , but by the Hebrews , from the beginning of the book, Bresith, which means, "In the beginning"; Exodus , Welesmoth, that Isaiah , "These are the names"; Leviticus , Wikra, "And he called"; Numbers , Ammesphekodeim; Deuteronomy , Eleaddebareim, "These are the words"; Jesus, the son of Nave, Josoue ben Noun; Judges and Ruth , among them in one book, Saphateim; the First and Second of Kings, among them one, Samouel, that Isaiah , "The called of God"; the Third and Fourth of Kings in one, Wammelch David, that Isaiah , "The kingdom of David"; of the Chronicles, the First and Second in one, Dabreiamein, that Isaiah , "Records of days"; Esdras, First and Second in one, Ezra , that Isaiah , "An assistant"; the book of Psalm, Spharthelleim; the Proverbs of Song of Solomon , Me-loth; Ecclesiastes , Koelth; the Song of Songs (not, as some suppose, Songs of Songs), Sir Hassirim; Isaiah , Jessia; Jeremiah , with Lamentations and the epistle in one, Jeremia; Daniel , Daniel; Ezekiel , Jezekiel; Job , Job; Esther , Esther. And besides these there are the Maccabees, which are entitled Sarbeth Sabanaiel. He gives these in the above-mentioned work." (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6252) 6]

6] Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 272.

Athanasius (A.D 296 to 373), bishop of Alexandria, also says that the Jews arranged twenty-two books to the Old Testament.

"There are, then, of the Old Testament, twenty-two books in number; for, as I have heard, it is handed down that this is the number of the letters among the Hebrews; their respective order and names being as follows. The first is Genesis , then Exodus , next Leviticus , after that Numbers , and then Deuteronomy. Following these there is Joshua , the son of Nun, then Judges , then Ruth. And again, after these four books of Kings, the first and second being reckoned as one book, and so likewise the third and fourth as one book. And again, the first and second of the Chronicles are reckoned as one book. Again Ezra , the first and second are similarly one book. After these there is the book of Psalm , then the Proverbs , next Ecclesiastes , and the Song of Songs. Job follows, then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book. Then Isaiah , one book, then Jeremiah with Baruch ,, Lamentations , and the epistle, one book; afterwards, Ezekiel and Daniel , each one book. Thus far constitutes the Old Testament." (Athanasius, Easter Letter No 39 [for A.D 367] 4) 7]

7] Athanasius, St. Athanasius: Select Works and Letters, trans. Archibald Robertson, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 4, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, c 1892), 552.

Cyril of Jerusalem (A. D 315-386) counts twenty-two books of the Hebrew bible.

"Of these read the two and twenty books, but have nothing to do with the apocryphal writings. Study earnestly these only which we read openly in the Church. Far wiser and more pious than thyself were the Apostles, and the bishops of old time, the presidents of the Church who handed down these books. Being therefore a child of the Church, trench thou not upon its statutes. And of the Old Testament, as we have said, study the two and twenty books, which, if thou art desirous of learning, strive to remember by name, as I recite them. For of the Law the books of Moses are the first five, Genesis ,, Exodus ,, Leviticus ,, Numbers , Deuteronomy. And next, Joshua the son of Nave, and the book of Judges , including Ruth , counted as seventh. And of the other historical books, the first and second books of the Kings are among the Hebrews one book; also the third and fourth one book. And in like manner, the first and second of Chronicles are with them one book; and the first and second of Esdras are counted one. Esther is the twelfth book; and these are the Historical writings. But those which are written in verses are five, Job , and the book of Psalm , and Proverbs , and Ecclesiastes , and the Song of Solomon , which is the seventeenth book. And after these come the five Prophetic books: of the Twelve Prophets one book, of Isaiah one, of Jeremiah one, including Baruch and Lamentations and the Epistle; then Ezekiel , and the Book of Daniel , the twenty-second of the Old Testament." (Catechetical Lectures 435)

Jerome (A.D 342to 420) says different sects of the Jews arranged the Old Testament books into either twenty-two or twenty-four books, the former arrangement made to equal the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, while the latter reflecting the twenty-four elders in the book of Revelation. 8]

8] Jerome, "Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings," trans. W. H. Freemantle, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol 6, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893), 489-90.

B. Authorship - The topic of authorship of the books of the Old Testament has a long history of Jewish tradition. This discussion of authorship will deal with (1) the Office of the Prophet, and (2) Evidence of Composition After Authorship in the Old Testament Scriptures.

1. The Office of the Prophet- The books of the Old Testament were written under the office of the prophet. The Babylonian Talmud records the ancient Jewish traditions that ascribed authors to the books of the Old Testament.

"And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil'am , xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: "And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died." Samuel wrote his book, Judges , and Ruth. David wrote Psalm , with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah ,, Proverbs ,, Song of Solomon , and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel , the Twelve Prophets, Daniel , and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh's theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra's book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah... ...‘Joshua wrote his book'; but is it not written there: ‘And Joshua died'? This was written by Elazar. But is it not written there: ‘And Elazar died'? The book was finished by his son Pinchas. ‘Samuel wrote his book.' But is it not written: ‘And Samuel died'? The book was finished by Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet." (Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 9]

9] Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45-46.

According to Hebrews 1:1 the Old Testament was written by men who walked in the office of the prophet. Although some authors may have served as kings or priests, such as David, Solomon or Samuel, they spoke or wrote prophetically.

Hebrews 1:1-2, "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Song of Solomon , whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;"

Most, if not all, of the Old Testament was written by men who are called prophets. Prophecy became most prominent during period of Kingdom. Prophets moved the people to an inward relationship to God. They prophesied of the coming of Jesus and of future event. Unfortunately, during the period of the kingdom, the message from God did not come through the priests and kings. Corruption spoiled this means of delivering God's message to His people. It was the lineage of prophets whom God raised up a various times from various cities and from various genealogies and in various ways to deliver His messages and prophecies. God found men who would not fear the face of men to speak His Word. God literally raised up a lineage of prophets from Enoch until Malachi. There were periods when there were no prophets to prophesy ( 1 Samuel 3:1), but God was always faithful to search for men would represent Him.

1 Samuel 3:1, "And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD before Eli. And the word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision."

When the prophets under the Old Covenant ceased to prophesy after Malachi , then the canon of the Old Testament was closed.

2. Evidence of Composition After Authorship in the Old Testament Scriptures - Since the Old Testament was written over a period of about one thousand years by a multitude of authors, there were periods in Israel's history that demanded editing and compilation of their Sacred Scriptures to put them in a orderly fashion and so that later generations could understand its content. We can examine individual books of the Old Testament and find clear examples of later editing and composition after the book was written.

a) Genesis - In the book of Genesis , which was written by Moses, we see a reference to the later period of the kingdom of Israel.

Genesis 36:31, "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel."

In Genesis 12:6; Genesis 13:7 we find the statement that the Canaanite and Perizzite dwelled then in the land, implying at the time of writing (or compiling) that the Canaanites had been driven out by Israel. This refers to a date later than Moses.

Genesis 12:6, "And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land."

Genesis 13:7, "And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abram"s cattle and the herdmen of Lot"s cattle: and the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelled then in the land."

b) Exodus - In the book of Exodus , we see references to post-conquest authorship. For example, during the years following the Conquest of Canaan by Joshua , many of the names of cities and places were changed by the Israelites. The author of the book of Exodus appears to be writing to readers who are unfamiliar with the pre-conquest names of cities and places in Canaan. Note:

Exodus 16:1, "And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt."

c) Deuteronomy - Although we know that Moses wrote the book of Deuteronomy , someone authored the comments about his death.

Deuteronomy 34:5, "So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD."

d) Judges - The book of Judges covers the events in the history of Israel from the death of Joshua , around 1380 B.C, to the period just prior to the rising of the monarchy, around 1050 B.C. Internal evidence seems to indicate that it was written during the early part of Israel"s monarchy, because Judges 17:6 was penned when Israel did have a king, and it was written before David"s conquest of Jerusalem ( Judges 1:21). It was also written before Pharaoh gave the city of Gezer as a gift to Solomon ( Judges 1:29). A likely date of the writing of the book of Judges would be from 1050 to 1000 B.C.

Judges 17:6, "In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes."

Judges 1:21, "And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this day."

Judges 1:29, "Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them."

The epilogue of the book of Judges consists of two stories; (1) the idolatry of Micah and the migration of the Danites ( Genesis 17:1 to Genesis 18:31), (2) and the atrocity at Gibeah and the Benjamite War ( Genesis 19:1 to Genesis 21:25). We see Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron, alive during the time of the war with the Benjamites ( Judges 20:28), meaning that this story is not in chronological order, as the first sixteen books of the book of Judges appear to be. This may be evidence for a later writing of the epilogue.

Judges 20:28, "And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, stood before it in those days,) saying, Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother, or shall I cease? And the LORD said, Go up; for to morrow I will deliver them into thine hand."

One verse in this last section of Judges makes it apparent that it was composed and edited much later than it was written. This is because it refers to the "captivity of the land", which occurred three hundred (300) years later in the history of this nation. This is most likely a reference to the Assyrian captivity of Israel in 722 B.C.

Judges 18:30, "And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Prayer of Manasseh , he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land."

Therefore, since Judges 17-21are not in chronological order, and the fact that they show later authorship gives clear evidence to the fact that this book of the Holy Bible experienced later editing and composition.

The purpose of compiling or editing Sacred Writings would be for teaching the people of a later era. This is exactly what happened during the time of Ezra the scribe.

e) Psalm - We see evidence of later editing and composition in many of the Old Testament books. Although most scholars agree that the books of Psalm were written over a thousand-year period, from Moses to the Babylonian exile, it is evident that the final compilation did not take place until the exile, or shortly thereafter. This is because several books of Psalm refer to the Babylonian captivity ( Psalm 90:1; Psalm 137:1).

Psalm 90:1, (A Prayer of Moses the man of God.) "Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations."

Psalm 137:1, "By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion."

Another evidence that the books of Psalm was compiled later than when they were actually written is the fact that many of the Psalm are duplicated either within the book of Psalm , or in other Old Testament passages:

1. Psalm 14:1-7 and Psalm 53:1-6

2. Psalm 18:1-50 and 2 Samuel 22:1-51

3. Psalm 40:13-17 and Psalm 70:1-5

4. Psalm 42, 43are considered one Psalm

5. Psalm 60:5-12 and Psalm 108:6-13

6. Psalm 105:1-15 and 1 Chronicles 16:8-22

7. Psalm 108:1-13 is a combination of Psalm 57:7-11 and Psalm 60:5-12

Note that Psalm 14is in book 1 ( Psalm 1-41) and Psalm 53is in book 2 ( Psalm 42-72). This implies that the Psalm may have consisted of several separate, smaller books, with some of the same Psalm being found in several of these separate books. At some point, these books were compiled into a single, larger book of Psalm as we know it today. The ancient Jews who compiled these smaller groups of books reverenced the writings enough so as not to delete any particular Psalm just because it was duplicated in a different section of this larger compilation.

f) Proverbs - Proverbs shows clear internal evidence that it was put together, or compiled, over a number of years. The first evidence of compilation is the fact that the book of Proverbs was written by at least three authors, King Song of Solomon , Agur and King Lemuel.

Proverbs 1:1, "The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel;"

Proverbs 30:1, "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh, even the prophecy: the man spake unto Ithiel, even unto Ithiel and Ucal,"

Proverbs 31:1, "The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him."

A second evidence of compilation over many years is the fact that King Hezekiah compiled some of King Solomon"s writings around 720 B.C, about two hundred fifty (250) years after they were written. Note:

Proverbs 25:1, "These are also proverbs of Song of Solomon , which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied out."

A third confirmation of compilation is the fact that a number of verses in the book of Proverbs are duplicated. This in itself carries the idea that the entire book of Proverbs is a compilation of several writings, or books, by several authors over several generations. One possible reason that verses are duplicated is that when scholars were compiling these groups of writings, they did not want to drop any of the proverbs and risk altering the original text.

g) Others- There are a number of passages that are found in more than one book of the Holy Bible. For example, Isaiah 2:2-4 is identical to Micah 4:1-3. Isaiah 36:1 to Isaiah 39:8 is very similar in content to 2 Kings 18:13 to 2 Kings 20:19. Jeremiah 52:1-34 is practically identical to 2 Kings 24:18 to 2 Kings 25:30. 2 Samuel 18 is identical to Psalm 18.

C. Date- The books of the Old Testament were written over a period of approximately one thousand years. Josephus tells us that Moses wrote the first five books during his life and that the other books were written up to the reign of Artaxerxes (Josephus, Against Apion 18). 10] This would date the Holy Bible from around 1 ,500 B.C. to the fourth century B.C.

10] Flavius Josephus, Flavius Josephus Against Apion, in The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, William Whiston, trans. (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c 1987, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

1. The Oldest Manuscript (6th Century B.C.) - The oldest extant manuscript of the Old Testament Scriptures is dated around the sixth century B.C. It is a tiny, silver scroll found in an ancient amulet containing the Hebrew text of Numbers 6:24-26, "The Lord bless you, and keep you; the Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you; the Lord lift up His countenance on you, and give you peace." It was discovered by a team of archaeologists in 1979 led by Gabriel Barkay. His group was excavating on a rocky knoll on the Valley of Hinnon within sight of Old Jerusalem. When a group of 12-year-olds joined the group, Barkay sent one of them off in the distance to do the unimportant task of clearing out an ancient cave to prepare it for photographs. The child came back in a short while and told the archaeologist that his hammer had broken through the floor of the cave. Under this floor was discovered a repository containing ancient vessels dating from the fifth, sixth and seventh centuries B.C. Among them was a small cylinder the size of a cigarette butt. This was an amulet designed to be worn on the arm of forehead of the devout Jew. Inside this amulet was found this ancient, tiny scroll with Biblical text of the Aaroninc benediction from the book of Numbers. This text predates the Dead Sea Scrolls by four centuries. It is the oldest extant piece of Biblical literature in the world. 11]

11] Brent Thompson, "Respected Archaeologist Recounts Discovery of Oldest Bible Text," in Southwestern News, Spring 2007, Vol 65, no 3, 33; Clyde E. Fant, and Mitchell G. Reddish, Lost Treasures of the Bible: Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdman Publishing, 2008), page 405.

2. The Dead Sea Scrolls (2nd Century B.C.)

3. The Massoretic Text (10th Century A.D.)

INTRODUCTION TO THE PENTATEUCH

The word "Pentateuch" refers to the first five books of the Old Testament. The ISBE tells us that the word "Pentateuch" is derived from the word "pentateuchos," which literally means "5-volumed (book)." 12] These first five books comprise the first major division of the Old Testament, with the Writings and the Prophets making up the other two divisions. In fact, Jesus Christ refers to this three-fold division in the Gospel of Luke.

12] Harold M. Wiener, "Pentateuch 1 ," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Luke 24:44, "And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalm , concerning me."

A. Authorship- When we observe all evidences available regarding authorship and date the Pentateuch, it appears to have been written by Moses during the time of the wilderness journeys of Israel around 1450 B.C. 13] However, there are evidences that the Pentateuch, along with most, if not all, of the Old Testament books were edited and compiled at a later date. According to Jewish tradition, the Jews compiled their Sacred Writings after returning from the Babylonian Captivity in order to be able to copy them accurately and teach them properly to their generations. This compilation was initiated by Ezra the scribe, who returned to Jerusalem around 458 B.C.

13] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R.K. Harrison, in Nelson"s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Revised Edition (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "The Exodus."

a) Internal Evidence - Internal evidence overwhelmingly supports Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.

i) The Author Declares Himself to be Moses- Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is well testified within the Scriptures themselves. Note:

Exodus 17:14, "And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven."

Exodus 24:4, "And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel."

Exodus 34:27-28, "And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel. And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments."

Numbers 33:2, "And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of the LORD: and these are their journeys according to their goings out."

Deuteronomy 31:9, "And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel."

Deuteronomy 31:19, "Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach it the children of Israel: put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel"

Deuteronomy 31:22, "Moses therefore wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel."

Deuteronomy 31:24, "And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished,"

After writing this book of the law, it was placed inside the Ark of the Covenant:

Deuteronomy 31:24-26, "And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished, That Moses commanded the Levites, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, saying, Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee."

The book of Joshua testifies to Mosaic authorship. Joshua 1:7-8 tells us that the "book of the Law" was authored by Moses.

Joshua 1:7-8, "Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou goest. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."

The phrase "a copy of the law" means that this book was written prior to the time that Joshua wrote it on the stones:

Joshua 8:32-35, "And he wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote in the presence of the children of Israel….And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessings and cursings, according to all that is written in the book of the law. There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the congregation of Israel, with the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that were conversant among them."

Joshua 22:5, "But take diligent heed to do the commandment and the law, which Moses the servant of the LORD charged you, to love the LORD your God, and to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, and to cleave unto him, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul."

Joshua 23:6, "Be ye therefore very courageous to keep and to do all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, that ye turn not aside therefrom to the right hand or to the left;"

Other books in the Old Testament testify to his authorship:

1 Kings 2:3, "And keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself:"

2 Kings 14:6, "But the children of the murderers he slew not: according unto that which is written in the book of the law of Moses, wherein the LORD commanded, saying, The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children be put to death for the fathers; but every man shall be put to death for his own sin."

2 Kings 21:8, "Neither will I make the feet of Israel move any more out of the land which I gave their fathers; only if they will observe to do according to all that I have commanded them, and according to all the law that my servant Moses commanded them."

2 Chronicles 34:14, "And when they brought out the money that was brought into the house of the LORD, Hilkiah the priest found a book of the law of the LORD given by Moses."

Ezra 6:18, "And they set the priests in their divisions, and the Levites in their courses, for the service of God, which is at Jerusalem; as it is written in the book of Moses."

Daniel 9:11-13, "Yea, all Israel have transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against him. And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem. As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and understand thy truth."

Malachi 4:4, "Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments."

The New Testament testifies to Mosaic authorship. We read in the Gospels how Jesus testified as to Mosaic authorship.

Matthew 19:7-8, "They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so."

Mark 10:3, "And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you? And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away."

Mark 12:26, "And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?"

The Gospel of John states that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch.

John 1:17, "For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ."

John 5:46, "For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me."

John 7:19, "Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me?"

John 7:23, "If a man on the sabbath day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day?"

Peter testifies as to Mosaic authorship:

Acts 3:22, "For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you."

Stephen testifies as to Mosaic authorship:

Acts 7:37, "This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear."

Paul testifies as to Mosaic authorship:

Romans 10:5, "For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them."

ii) The Author was Hebrew- Also, the mention of the word "Gentiles" in Genesis 10:5 and Genesis 14:13 attests to Hebrew authorship, since the word "Gentiles" is used by the Hebrews to describe all other nations.

Genesis 10:5, "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations."

Genesis 14:13, "And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these were confederate with Abram."

Hebrew authorship is also seen in the important references to Jewish religious festivals ( Genesis 1:14) and the Sabbath day ( Genesis 2:2-3).

Genesis 1:14, "And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:"

Genesis 2:2-3, "And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made."

iii) The Author was an Eyewitness to the Events that took place in the Pentateuch - The details of accounts recorded within the Pentateuch suggest that the author knew the locations from personal locations and was an eyewitness of these events. These lengthy details of the wilderness journey are not something that could be invented by a later writer. 14]

14] F. C. Cook, ed, Genesis - Exodus , in The Holy Bible According to the Authorized Version (A. D 1611), With An Explanatory and Critical Commentary and a Revision of the Translation, vol 1part 1 (London: John Murray, 1871), 244.

Exodus 15:27, "And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters."

Numbers 2:1-31 - The details of the encampment of the children of Israel in the wilderness testify to an eyewitness account.

Numbers 11:7-8, "And the manna was as coriander seed, and the colour thereof as the colour of bdellium. And the people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in pans, and made cakes of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil."

iv) The Author Was Familiar with Ancient Egypt in Detail - The author of the Pentateuch provides descriptions about Egyptian culture that would have been difficult for a later writer to describe. For example:

Genesis 13:10, "And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto Zoar."

Genesis 16:1, "Now Sarai Abram"s wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar."

Genesis 41:43, "And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt."

The book of Acts testifies that Moses was learned in all the wisdom of Egypt, and therefore, would be qualified to describe the places and customs of this land, as is seen in the Pentateuch.

Acts 7:22, "And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds."

v) The Author Lived West of the Garden of Eden- It is interesting to note that the author of Genesis refers to the East as the location of the Garden of Eden. This means that the author lived in the land of Palestine or Egypt or the Wilderness during the time of writing.

Genesis 2:8, "And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed."

However, there is much evidence of later editing. For example, the closing epilogue in Deuteronomy 34:1-12, which refers to Moses" death, could not have been written by Moses himself. Therefore, at least this closing passage was written by someone other than himself. Moses told the children of Israel in Deuteronomy 27:2-3 to write down the words of this Law. Thus, this could account for the writing of Moses" death in the book of Deuteronomy.

Deuteronomy 27:2-3, "And it shall be on the day when ye shall pass over Jordan unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaister them with plaister: And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over, that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that floweth with milk and honey; as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee."

Song of Solomon , it is most probable that someone other than Moses composed the book into its final form. Scholars believe that the final composition of the Old Testament Scriptures as we know it today took place during the time of Ezra the scribe.

b) External Evidence- If we look outside of Biblical literature and into other ancient Jewish literature from which much Jewish tradition is found, there is also support for Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. The Babylonian Talmud says that Moses wrote the Pentateuch.

"And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil'am , xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: "And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died." Samuel wrote his book, Judges , and Ruth. David wrote Psalm , with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah ,, Proverbs ,, Song of Solomon , and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel , the Twelve Prophets, Daniel , and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh's theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra's book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah." (Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 15]

15] Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45.

The Book of Jubilees tells us that Moses was commanded by God on Mount Sinai to write the books of the Law.

"This is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their Jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as he said unto him, ‘Go up to the top of the Mount.'...And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages." (The Book of Jubilees 11; 22) 16]

16] The Book of Jubilees, trans. R. H. Charles, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 11, 13.

"‘And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell with them throughout eternity." And He said to the angel of the presence: Write for Moses from the beginning of creation till My sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity." (The Book of Jubilees 126-28) 17]

17] The Book of Jubilees, trans. R. H. Charles, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 13.

Regarding the stories found in the book of Genesis , scholars tell us that they were handed down through oral tradition. This is not unreasonable to believe at all. If you trace the genealogies in this book, you can see that Abraham was born before Noah died. Therefore, Abraham could have learned these stories from Noah himself. Abraham could have easily passed them down for several generations until the time of Moses.

Regarding oral tradition, we in the western civilization do not depend upon it too much; but the practical use of oral tradition is quickly seen by anyone having small children. My children do not go to bed, except they ask Daddy and Mommy to tell them a story. When a child sleeps on these stories, they seem to become deeply imbedded into their memory, for they remember Daddy"s stories for a long time.

If we look at the origin of the Hebrew language, we can approach it from two different perspectives. If we analyze it from a scientific linguistic approach, it becomes apparent that this language developed during the four hundred years of Egyptian bondage. Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldees and spoke that native language. Isaac and Jacob were born in the land of Canaan and probably spoke a local Canaanite language, or the language that Abraham brought from his homeland. The twelve patriarchs were born in the land of Syria. Yet, we see Moses coming out of Egypt and writing the Pentateuch in the Hebrew language. Therefore, the Hebrew language seems to have had its origin during this period of Egyptian bondage. However, ancient Jewish tradition takes a somewhat different approach to their language. They believe that it was the original language in the Garden of Eden. If we give this approach an open mind, we will understand their reasons. We believe that the language that Adam and Eve spoke was handed down to Noah and to the building of the Tower of Babel. Since we know that Abraham lived during the time of Noah, it is possible for Abraham to have spoken the language of Noah. Abraham would have handed down his language to the children of Israel. Thus, Hebrew could possibly have been the original language as stated in The Book of Jubilees (). 18]

18] The Book of Jubilees, trans. R. H. Charles, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 32.

B. Date- When we observe all evidences available to date the Pentateuch, it appears to have been written by Moses during the time of the wilderness journeys of Israel around 1450 B.C. 19] However, there are evidences that these books, along with most, if not all, of the Old Testament books being edited and compiled at a later date. According to Jewish tradition, the Jews compiled their Sacred Writings after returning from the Babylonian Captivity in order to be able to copy them accurately and teach them properly to their generations. This compilation was initiated by Ezra the scribe, who returned to Jerusalem around 458 B.C. 20]

19] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R.K. Harrison, in Nelson"s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Revised Edition (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "The Exodus."

20] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Ezra."

1. Internal Evidence For Dating the Book of Genesis - There are a number of verses that can lead to conclusions about the date of the writing of the book of Genesis. A number of passages that suggest later editing and compilation lead us to believe that Moses certainly wrote the book of Genesis , but during the final compilation of the Holy Scriptures, the Lord allowed some editing and clarification and compilation to bring it into its present form. This final editing very likely took place during the time of Ezra the scribe. For we know that there was a great effort during the time of Ezra to compile the Scriptures in order to teach them to the people who had returned from the Babylonian captivity.

a) A Reference to the Kings of Israel- We see in Genesis 36:31 a reference to the kings of Israel. This means that the book of Genesis was not fully compiled until the kings of Israel were reigning.

Genesis 36:31, "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel."

b) A Reference to the Conquest of Joshua - We see that the Canaanites were no longer in the land of Israel ( Genesis 1:6). Thus, the Conquest by Joshua had taken place. However, some scholars say that the Canaanites were not fully removed from the land until the days of King Solomon.

Genesis 12:6, "And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land."

Genesis 13:7, "And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abram"s cattle and the herdmen of Lot"s cattle: and the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelled then in the land."

c) Many References to the Author's Clarification of the Names of Cities and Places after the Conquest of Joshua - Several of the names of places used in the book of Genesis originate from the names of individuals that lived in a later period of Jewish history.

i) For example, Hebron is the name of the burial place for Abraham.

Genesis 13:18, "Then Abram removed his tent, and came and dwelt in the plain of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and built there an altar unto the LORD."

Yet, Hebron was the grandson of Levi, one of the twelve sons of Jacob.

Exodus 6:16, "And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and seven years."

Exodus 6:18, "And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years."

During the conquest of Canaan, many of the cities were renamed with Hebrew names. This was the case with the city of Hebron. Note:

Joshua 14:15, "And the name of Hebron before was Kirjatharba; which Arba was a great man among the Anakims. And the land had rest from war."

Joshua 15:13, "And unto Caleb the son of Jephunneh he gave a part among the children of Judah, according to the commandment of the LORD to Joshua , even the city of Arba the father of Anak, which city is Hebron."

Joshua 15:54, "And Humtah, and Kirjatharba, which is Hebron, and Zior; nine cities with their villages:"

Joshua 21:11, "And they gave them the city of Arba the father of Anak, which city is Hebron, in the hill country of Judah, with the suburbs thereof round about it."

Judges 1:10, "And Judah went against the Canaanites that dwelt in Hebron: (now the name of Hebron before was Kirjatharba:) and they slew Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai."

Thus, the name "Hebron" was not used for this city until after the conquest of Joshua. Song of Solomon , how does it appear in the book of Genesis? The most likely answer is the same one that explains this type of question in many of the Old Testament books. That Isaiah , the Old Testament probably received its final compilation during the period of Ezra , the scribe, after the return of the Jews from Babylonian captivity. During this final compilation, many of the books were edited to clarify questionable verses, or edited in order to tie books together historically, such as is done in the ending of 2Chronicles and the beginning of Ezra , whose text is the same.

ii) Dan is mentioned in Genesis 14:14. However, we know that the city of Laish was not called Dan until Judges 18:29, far after the Conquest of Joshua.

Genesis 14:14, "And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan."

Judges 18:29, "And they called the name of the city Daniel , after the name of Dan their father, who was born unto Israel: howbeit the name of the city was Laish at the first."

iii) The name of the city Bethlehem is used twice in the book of Genesis. It is used in a manner that clarifies for the readers an ancient name of a city that is now known by a more modern name.

Genesis 35:19, "And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem.

Genesis 48:7, "And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem."

Yet, we know that Salma, the son of Caleb, was the father of Bethlehem.

1 Chronicles 2:50-51, "These were the sons of Caleb the son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah; Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim, Salma the father of Bethlehem, Hareph the father of Bethgader."

Therefore, it appears that the name of this city was not given until after the Conquest of Canaan.

iv) The name of the city called Ephrath, or Bethlehem, is used three times in the book of Genesis.

Genesis 35:16, "And they journeyed from Bethel; and there was but a little way to come to Ephrath: and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour."

Genesis 35:19, "And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem."

Genesis 48:7, "And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem."

Yet, we find that this is a Hebrew name of Caleb"s wife. Thus, this city was probably given this name after the Conquest of Canaan.

1 Chronicles 2:19, "And when Azubah was dead, Caleb took unto him Ephrath, which bare him Hur."

Because of these name changes during the years following the conquest of the land of Canaan by Joshua , many of the names of cities and places were changed by the Israelites. The author of the book of Genesis appears to be writing to readers who are unfamiliar with the pre-conquest names of cities and places in Canaan. For this reason, he adds side notes to explain the more ancient title of a city or the location of a place.

Genesis 13:18, "Then Abram removed his tent, and came and dwelt in the plain of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and built there an altar unto the LORD."

Genesis 14:6, "And the Horites in their mount Seir, unto Elparan, which is by the wilderness."

Genesis 14:15, "And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. "

Genesis 23:17, "And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure"

Genesis 25:9, "And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre;"

Genesis 33:18, "And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city."

Genesis 35:6, "So Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan, that Isaiah , Bethel, he and all the people that were with him."

Genesis 49:30, "In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a buryingplace."

Genesis 50:10, "And they came to the threshingfloor of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and there they mourned with a great and very sore lamentation: and he made a mourning for his father seven days."

The book of Genesis has an unusually large amount of references to dual names of cities and places. This means that the author gives the recent name as well as an ancient name for many cities. Note:

Genesis 14:2, "That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar."

Genesis 14:3, "All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea."

Genesis 14:7, "And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar."

Genesis 14:8, "And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar;) and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim;"

Genesis 14:17, "And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, which is the king"s dale."

Genesis 35:6, "So Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan, that Isaiah , Bethel, he and all the people that were with him."

Genesis 35:19, "And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem."

Genesis 35:27, "And Jacob came unto Isaac his father unto Mamre, unto the city of Arbah, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac sojourned."

Genesis 48:7, "And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem."

Genesis 50:11, "And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians: wherefore the name of it was called Abelmizraim, which is beyond Jordan."

It is likely that these name changes did not take place until the children of Israel had conquered the land of Canaan under the leadership of Joshua. Otherwise, how could the Israelites impose new names on cities and places that were under someone else"s control?

d) References to the Davidic Royal Dynasty- The importance of the story of Judah and Tamar in Genesis 38:1-30 lies in the fact that David, the king of Israel, was of the lineage of one of the twins conceived in this wicked manner. The story of Judah and Tamar was especially important to the Israelites during the period of the kingdom as they sought to trace the genealogy of the royal Davidic lineage because of its emphasis upon his ancestors. Whether this story found itself within the book of Genesis immediately by the hand of Moses or later during the compilation of the Holy Scriptures after the Babylonian captivity or somewhere in between does not weaken its divine inspiration, for God has ultimately handed us the Old Testament as we have it today. Moses could have very easily selected and written the story of Judah and Tamar by inspiration. Or, like several passages in the book of Genesis , the story of Judah and Tamar may suggest later editing and compilation when the Davidic lineage was well established with the children of Israel.

In addition to evidences of later editing and compilation, we do find within the book of Genesis clear references to the state or condition of Canaan at the time of the writing of the book of Genesis. This appears with the use of the phrase "unto this day":

Genesis 19:37, "And the firstborn bare a Song of Solomon , and called his name Moab: the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day."

Genesis 19:38, "And the younger, she also bare a Song of Solomon , and called his name Benammi: the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day."

Genesis 22:14, "And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen."

Genesis 26:33, "And he called it Shebah: therefore the name of the city is Beersheba unto this day."

Genesis 32:32, "Therefore the children of Israel eat not of the sinew which shrank, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day: because he touched the hollow of Jacob"s thigh in the sinew that shrank."

Genesis 35:20, "And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: that is the pillar of Rachel"s grave unto this day."

Genesis 47:26, "And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the priests only, which became not Pharaoh"s."

2. Dating the Book of Exodus - We know from Exodus 16:35 that the book of Exodus was not fully written until the children of Israel finished their wilderness journey.

Exodus 16:35, "And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan."

In addition, during the years following the Conquest of Canaan by Joshua , many of the names of cities and places were changed by the Israelites. The author of the book of Exodus appears to be written to readers who are unfamiliar with the pre-conquest names of cities and places in Canaan. Thus, Exodus was at least compiled or edited after the Conquest when many names were changed. Note:

Exodus 16:1, "And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt."

3. Dating the Book of Numbers - In 1979 one of Israel's leading archaeologists named Gabriel Barkay found two small silver scrolls in a Jerusalem tomb, which were dated around 600 B.C. These tiny scrolls contained the priestly benediction from Numbers 6:24-26, "The Lord bless you and keep you. The Lord make his face shine upon you and be gracious to you. The Lord turn his face toward you and give you peace," which proves that the Old Testament was being copied in ancient Israel during the fifth-century B.C. 21]

21] Brent Thompson, "Respected Archaeologist Recounts Discovery of Oldest Bible Text," in Southwestern News, Spring 2007, Vol 65, no 3, 33; Clyde E. Fant, and Mitchell G. Reddish, Lost Treasures of the Bible: Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdman Publishing, 2008), page 405.

4. Dating the Book of Deuteronomy - The Exodus from Egypt took place about 1440 B.C. 22] The children of Israel arrived on the plains of Moab about 1400 B.C, forty years after Exodus. Here is where Moses spoke to the children of Israel the contents of the book of Deuteronomy. This book covers less than a two-month period, which includes a thirty-day mourning for the death of Moses.

22] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Exodus."

Deuteronomy 1:3, "And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spake unto the children of Israel, according unto all that the LORD had given him in commandment unto them;"

We find a reference to this writing during the time of King Josiah, who reigned over Judah circa 640-609 B.C. 23]

23] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Josiah."

2 Kings 22:8, "And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the LORD. And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it."

Note the phrase, "Unto this day":

Deuteronomy 2:22, "As he did to the children of Esau, which dwelt in Seir, when he destroyed the Horims from before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead even unto this day:"

Deuteronomy 3:14, "Jair the son of Manasseh took all the country of Argob unto the coasts of Geshuri and Maachathi; and called them after his own name, Bashanhavothjair, unto this day."

Deuteronomy 10:8, "At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day."

Deuteronomy 11:4, "And what he did unto the army of Egypt, unto their horses, and to their chariots; how he made the water of the Red sea to overflow them as they pursued after you, and how the LORD hath destroyed them unto this day;"

Deuteronomy 34:6, "And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day."

C. Recipients- According to ancient Jewish tradition which we can read in The Book of Jubilees (14-5), the Jews believed that during the forty days that Moses was with the Lord on Mount Sinai, the Lord taught him the history that is recorded in the book of Genesis and told him to write it down in a book so that it could be taught to the children of Israel and to their posterity. 24] So the primary recipients would be the Israelites. Of course, the New Testament Church also receives the Old Testament as Sacred Scripture and as recipients to these writings.

24] The Book of Jubilees, trans. R. H. Charles, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 11.

D. Literary Style - The discussion of the literary styles of the Pentateuch will deal with (1) Four Literary Styles are Woven Together, and (2) The Torah (Law).

1. Four Literary Styles are Woven Together - It is generally agreed that the Pentateuch consists of a combination of four genre, or literary types, the author having used narrative material, poetry, law, and genealogical lists woven together to produce the story of Israel's establishment as a nation.

2. The Torah (Law) - F. F. Bruce says, "[T]he Rabbis calculated that the Law consisted of 613precepts - 365 of them being negative (one for every day of the year), and 248 of them being positive (one for every part of the body)." 25] Sailhamer says that there are 611laws listed in the Pentateuch, which equals the numerical value of the Hebrew word "Torah" ( תורה). He notes that "the traditional number of laws in the Pentateuch (613) is obtained by treating both Deuteronomy 6:4 (the "Shema") and Exodus 20:2 ("I am the Lord your God") as ‘laws.'" He adds that the laws listed in the "Covenant Codes" ( Exodus 21:1 to Exodus 23:12) are 42 (7 x 6), which was in intentional multiple of seven. In addition, there are 375 proverbs in Solomon's First Collection ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 22:16), which equals the numerical value of Solomon's Hebrew name. He says there are His point is that such numerical coincidences reflect deliberate composition by the ancient Jewish scribes, and concludes that the laws, as well as the statutes, were not intended to be exhaustive. 26]

25] F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963), 142.

26] See John H. Sailhamer, Introduction to Old Testament Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, c 1995), 257.

E. Purpose - Scholars identify a number of purposes for the writing of the Pentateuch. They considered these books (1) Didactic, (2) Prophetic (Eschatological).

1. Didactic- The purpose of historical narrative material is to present past events for the purpose of instructing the reader in his present lifestyle. In such narrative material, we find that the events are recorded and structured in such a way that it presents the views of the writer as to why such events took place. In other words, this narrative material is written from the author's interpretation of such events. He will then place emphasis upon the particular events that support his views of history.

The author of the Pentateuch, which by strong tradition is Moses, will select historical events that reveal God's redemptive plan for mankind by establishing a holy nation, the people of Israel. He will leave out an enormous amount of history with which he was familiar in order to show the children of Israel their divine heritage.

2. Prophetic (Eschatological) - The structure of the Pentateuch reveals the message that the events of the past determine the events of the future. The Pentateuch consists of a combination of four literary types, the author having used narrative material, poetry, law and genealogical lists woven together to produce the story of Israel's establishment as a nation. We can clearly see that the book of Genesis is divided into ten major genealogies that take us from the creation of Adam to the birth of the nation of Israel. John Sailhamer makes an interesting comment on a pattern that can be seen in how these literary types are placed together throughout the Pentateuch. 27] He says that the author of the Pentateuch often ended his narrative material with poetry followed by an epilogue. For example, we find a brief poetic statement made by Adam ( Genesis 2:23) followed by a short epilogue ( Genesis 2:24) closing the story of the creation of Adam and Eve ( Genesis 2:4-25). He suggests that the story of the Fall ( Genesis 3:1-24) closes with a poetic discourse ( Genesis 3:14-19) followed by an epilogue ( Genesis 3:20-24). The story of Cain killing Abel ( Genesis 4:1-26) also ends with poetry ( Genesis 4:23-24) and closes with an epilogue ( Genesis 4:25-26). The genealogy of Noah ( Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29) ends with the poetic material which curses Canaan ( Genesis 9:25-27) followed by an epilogue ( Genesis 9:28-29). The genealogies of Adam ( Genesis 5:1 to Genesis 6:8) and of the sons of Noah ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9) both end with God's prophetic judgment and a closing remedy to judge mankind. The genealogy of Abraham (and Terah) ( Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 25:11) ends with the story of Isaac taking Rebekah as his wife. At the closing of this story, she receives a prophetic blessing from her people ( Genesis 24:60) and this genealogy ends with an epilogue ( Genesis 25:7-11). The story of Joseph (chpts 37-48) ends with a lengthy poetic prophecy by Jacob (chpt 49) followed by a closing epilogue (chpt 50).

27] John H. Sailhamer, Genesis , in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 2, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), comments in "Introduction: 4. Purpose: a. Compositional Analysis of the Pentateuch."

Sailhamer goes on to say that the story of the Exodus ( Exodus 1-14) is followed by poetry ( Exodus 15). At the end of Israel's forty-year wilderness journey, the author places the poetic prophecies of Balaam ( Numbers 23-24). Finally, the five books of the Pentateuch end with the song of Moses ( Deuteronomy 32-33) followed by a closing epilogue ( Deuteronomy 34).

Sailhamer also notes a common pattern in the lengthy poetic prophecies of Jacob ( Genesis 49), Balaam ( Numbers 23-24) and Moses ( Deuteronomy 32-33). All three of these men call together an audience and proclaim what will take place in the future of the history of the nation of Israel. All three prophecies use a common Hebrew phrase "in the days to come" which is found in only one other place in the Pentateuch, giving us a clue as to the fact that this material is structured in a common pattern. The fact that all three of these poetic passages give us a prophecy of the coming Messiah reveals that they all have a common eschatological theme. As we look back as the other brief poetic material, we find another Messianic prophecy ( Genesis 3:15). It appears as if the narrative material sets the course for the eschatological message found within the poetic material. In other words, the actions of mankind found in the narratives have divine consequences in the future history of mankind and particularly in the nation of Israel. This pattern could be explained as a customary way of writing narrative material during the time of the author, with the understanding that this was also the way that God inspired Moses to record this material for us.

This pattern is found outside of the Pentateuch. We see how the book of Joshua closes with a non-poetic, but prophetic speech, by Joshua followed by an epilogue. We also see how the life of David closes with a poetic farewell speech in 2 Samuel 22:1 to 2 Samuel 23:7.

F. The Three-fold Thematic Scheme of the Pentateuch: A Foundation to the Other Three Divisions of the Old Testament - The theme of the Holy Bible is the redemption of mankind by God the Father, Jesus the Song of Solomon , and God the Holy Spirit. The foundational theme of the Old Testament emphasizes the office and ministry of God the Father in His divine plan of redemption through His foreknowledge and divine election of men. More specifically, the Old Testament testifies of God's plan of redemption for the nation of Israel as His messenger to the nations. The Old Testament repeatedly established the fact that God the Father has a plan of redemption and that He continuously intervenes in the affairs of mankind in order to fulfill His plan of redemption.

The Pentateuch is woven together as the first major division of the Holy Scriptures with a three-fold thematic scheme. (1) Primary Theme- The primary, foundational theme of the Pentateuch is the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as "the Shema," a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. (2) Secondary Theme- Each book of the Pentateuch has a secondary theme that supports this central theme, providing the evidence to prove that the God of Israel is one God, who had dominion over all other gods worshipped by depraved humanity. Collectively, the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch reveal the establishment of the nation of Israel above the nations of the earth through worship of YHWH, who has chosen Israel through His foreknowledge and divine election to be His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. The five books of the Pentateuch form a thematic scheme of God's plan of redemption for the nation of Israel and for the heathen nations with their secondary themes. This thematic scheme follows the structure found in Romans 8:29-30, which is predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. (3) The Third Theme- The third theme of the Pentateuch is an imperative theme, and it is also found in the Shema, where Moses commands Israel to love YHWH their God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength ( Deuteronomy 6:5).

Some scholars suggest that Genesis 1-11serves as the introduction of the first five books of the Old Testament as this material lays the foundation for the birth of Abraham, who is the father of the nation of Israel. This introduction serves to tell the nation of Israel that the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is the same God who created all things in the beginning, in the Creation Story. With this point established in these early chapters of Genesis , the theme of God's plan to use the people of Israel to bring mankind and His creation back to its original purpose of a righteous people being fruitful, multiplying, and taking dominion of the earth. However, the Creation Story ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3) testifies of God's predestined plan for mankind, while Genesis 2-50 is structured into ten genealogies where God calls mankind into His plan of redemption.

The rest of the books of the Old Testament (the historical, poetic, and prophetic books) provide supporting evidence that Israel, as well as mankind, have failed to fulfill this basic commandment so that both Jew and Gentile stand in need of redemption. The historical books testify of Israel's efforts to love God with all of their strength, and having failed, these people stand in need of a redeemer, the Messiah. The books of poetry testify of Israel's efforts to love God with all of their heart, and having failed, these people stand in need of redemption. The books of prophecy help Israel understand their need of redemption by giving a clear testimony of their failure to love God. These prophetic books close with a prediction of Israel's future hope of redemption. It is this holy nation that will give birth to the Messiah who will again restore righteousness upon the earth. We can easily see the theme of the Pentateuch by examining the themes of the five books of the Pentateuch together. God's chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind comes through the nation of Israel. It is this holy nation that will give birth to the Messiah, who will again restore righteousness upon the earth through the restoration of Israel, as Paul the apostle explains in Romans 9-11.

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF GENESIS

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

Introductory Material- The introduction to the book of Genesis will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 28] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

28] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 29]

29] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Genesis will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Moses was the author of the book of Genesis , writing during the period of Israel's wilderness journey.

I. The Title

There are a number of ancient titles associated with the book of Genesis.

A. The Ancient Jewish Title "In the Beginning" - Henry Swete says ancient Jews titled the five books of the Pentateuch, Proverbs , and Lamentations by identifying a key word in the opening verses. 30] The Hebrew title for Genesis was "Bereshith" ( בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית), which comes from the opening Hebrew word of this book, meaning "in the beginning." Origen (A.D. c 185 - c 254) testifies to the use of this title by the ancient Jews until his day. 31] Jerome (A.D 342to 420) was familiar with this title as well. 32] The title ( בראשית) can be found in the standard work Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 33]

30] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 214.

31] Eusebius, the early Church historian, writes, "Farther on he says: ‘The twenty-two books of the Hebrews are the following: That which is called by us Genesis , but by the Hebrews , from the beginning of the book, Bresith, which means, ‘In the beginning';" see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6251-2, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 272-3.

32] Jerome says, "The first of these books is called Bresith, to which we give the name Genesis." See Jerome, "Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings," trans. W. H. Freemantle, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol 6, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893), 489-90.

33] Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, eds. A. Alt, O. Eifelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c 1967-77).

B. The Modern English Title "Genesis" - Today, English bibles use the title " Genesis ," which finds it origin in the Greek title used in the LXX " γένεσις ," which means "origination, genealogy," (Zodhiates). Henry Swete suggests this title came from Genesis 2:4, " αὕτη ἡ βίβλος γενέσεως οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς…" 34] Philo (20 B.C - A.D 50) called the book by its Greek name γένεσις,. 35] This Greek title was known by Melito, bishop of Sardis (d. c 190). 36] The Vulgate uses the Latin title "Genesis (liber)," 37] from which the English title "Genesis" is derived. There are some variations to this title. For example, the Codex Alexandrinus (5th C.) uses the longer title " γένεσις κόσμου ." 38] Since the title "Genesis" is used as far back as the LXX, Henry Swete and George Gray believe it is "of Alexandrian and pre-Christian origin." 39] The Greek/English title reflects the contents of the book, which deals with origin and genealogy of the nation of Israel.

34] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215.

35] Herbert E. Ryle, Philo and Holy Scripture (London: Macmillan and Company, 1895), xxii.

36] Eusebius writes, "‘I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis ,, Exodus ,, Numbers ,, Leviticus , Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges , Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalm of David; the Proverbs of Song of Solomon , Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes ,, Song of Solomon , Job; of Prophets, Isaiah , Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book; Daniel ,, Ezekiel , Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books.' Such are the words of Melito." See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 42614, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff, (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 206.

37] Biblia Sacra Juxta Vulgatam Clementinam, ed. electronica (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc, 2005), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

38] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 202.

39] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215; George B. Gray, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, editors Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903), xxi.

II. Historical Background

In the historical background, we will look at (A) the source of the historical material recorded in Genesis , (B) a comparison of ancient oriental laws with the culture of the patriarchs in the Book of Genesis , and (C) patriarchal worship in the book of Genesis prior to Mosaic Temple worship.

A. The Source of Historical Material Recorded in the Book of Genesis - One obvious question that arises as to the contents of the book of Genesis is how the author obtained such detailed history of the ancient world as far back as the Creation Story and Adam and Eve. (1) Oral Tradition- One of the most popular views is to suggest that the stories contained in the book of Genesis was handed down through oral tradition for generations until Moses finally recorded it under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. This is possible when one understands the high level of authority that oral tradition held in the oriental cultures. In addition, Abraham was born before the death of Noah, and he could have heard these ancient narratives directly from him. (2) Divine Revelation to Moses- If we research ancient Jewish writings outside the Holy Scriptures, we find another view on how he obtained the knowledge to write the book of Genesis. Written by a Pharisee in the early second century B. C, The Book of Jubilees (14) states that God revealed the entire contents of Genesis to Moses while he was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments, "And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony." In addition, this book tells us of how the patriarchs before Moses received divine visitations in which God revealed to them both past and future historical events, and it also tells of a number of writings that were handed down to the sons of Jacob from the time of Enoch (The Book of Jubilees 1227; 2110; 4516). Thus, it is not improbable that the children of Israel had a number of written historical documents while in Egyptian bondage.

B. A Comparison of Ancient Oriental Laws with the Culture of the Patriarchs in the Book of Genesis - Amraphel, king of Shinar ( Genesis 14:1), is commonly identified as Hammurabi (1945-1902 B.C.), who was a contemporary of Abraham (ISBE). 40] This is believed to be the same King Hammurabi who wrote The Code of Hammurabi, which reveals to us today the fact that a civilization existed in Abraham"s time that was highly organized, with civil laws, schools, an alphabet, a system of weights and measures, architecture, and irrigation. This Sumerian civilization ruled by King Hammurabi appears to reach its zenith during this period in history. It is believed that these laws were used throughout the entire Middle Eastern region. We find many instances throughout the book of Genesis in which Abraham and his sons followed these laws before God gave the nation of Israel the Mosaic Law. The Companion Bible by E. W. Bullinger provides list of similarities, of which some are provided below. 41] The translation of The Code of Hammurabi is taken from Robert Harper. 42]

40] T. G. Pinches, "Amraphel," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

41] E. W. Bullinger, Appendix 15: Law Before Sinai, in The Companion Bible Being The Authorized Version of 1611With The Structures And Notes, Critical, Explanatory and Suggestive And With 198 Appendixes (London: Oxford University Press, c 1909-22), 22-3.

42] Robert F. Harper, The Code of Hammurabi King of Babylon About 2250 B.C. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1904).

"The law of adoption made Eliezer Abram's heir ( Genesis 15:1-21). 191."

#191. If a Prayer of Manasseh , who has taken a young child as a son and reared him, establish his own house and acquire children, and set his face to cut off the adopted Song of Solomon , that son shall not go his way. The father who reared him shall give to him of his goods one third the portion of a son and he shall go. He shall not give to him of field, garden or house.

"The giving of Hagar to Abraham ( Genesis 16:1-16); and of Bilhah ( Genesis 30:4) and Zilpah ( Genesis 30:9) to Jacob, accorded with this code. 146."

#146. If a man take a wife and she give a maid servant to her husband, and that maid servant bear children and afterwards would take rank with her mistress; because she has borne children, her mistress may not sell her for money, but she may reduce her to bondage and count her among the maid servants.

"The purchase of Machpelah by Abraham ( Genesis 23:1-20) was conducted in strict conformity with its commercial enactments. 7."

#7. If H man purchase silver or gold, manservant or maid servant, ox, sheep or ass, or anything else from a man"s Song of Solomon , or from a man"s servant without witnesses or contracts, or if he receive (the same) in trust, that man shall be put to death as a thief.

"The taking of life for stealing, proposed by Jacob to Laban ( Genesis 31:32), was enacted by this code, which punished sacrilege with death. 6."

#6. If a man steal the property of a god (temple) or palace, that man shall be put to death; and he who receives from his hand the stolen (property) shall also be put to death.

"The taking of life by burning, with which Judah threatened his daughter-in-law Tamar ( Genesis 38:24), is also according to the Babylonian code. 110."

#110. If a priestess who is not living in a MAL.GE.A, open a wineshop or enter a wine-shop for a drink, they shall burn that woman.

"The proposal of Joseph's steward, that the one with whom the cup was found should die ( Genesis 44:9), harmonized with the law punishing with death any theft from a palace. 6."

#6. If a man steal the property of a god (temple) or palace, that man shall be put to death; and he who receives from his hand the stolen (property) shall also be put to death.

"The giving of a special portion by Jacob to his favourite son Joseph ( Genesis 48:22) was provided for by this code. 165."

#165. If a man present field, garden or house to his favorite son and write for him a sealed deed; after the father dies, when the brothers divide, he shall take the present which the father gave him. and over and above they shall divide the goods of the father"s house equally.

"The cutting off of Reuben from his birthright ( Genesis 49:4) was the prescribed way of punishing his offence according to Khammurabi's law. 158."

#158. It a man. after (the death of) his father, be taken in the bosom of the chief wife (of his father) who has borne children, that man shall be cut off from his father"s house.

"The inability of Abram to sell Hagar ( Genesis 16:6). 119."

#119. If a man be in debt and he sell his maid servant who has borne him children, the owner of the maid servant (i. e, the man in debt) shall repay the money which the merchant paid (him), and he shall ransom his maid servant.

C. Patriarchal Worship in the Book of Genesis Prior to Mosaic Temple Worship- The book of Genesis reveals to us the earliest forms of worship. Men of God built stone altars, sacrificed innocent animals by shedding blood, then made prayer and intercession unto God.

Genesis 3:8 Adam walked with God in the cool of the day
Genesis 4:4 Abel's blood sacrifice

Genesis 5:22 Enoch walked with God

Genesis 8:20 Noah - Built an altar

Genesis 12:7-8 Abram - Built an altar

Genesis 13:4; Genesis 13:18 Abram - Built an altar

Genesis 21:33 Abraham - Planted a grove

Genesis 22:9 Abraham - Built an altar

Genesis 24:63 Isaac - Built an altar

Genesis 26:25 Isaac - Built an altar

Genesis 28:18 Jacob - Built an altar

Genesis 31:54 Jacob - Built an altar

Genesis 33:20 Israel - Built an altar

Genesis 35:1; Genesis 35:7 Israel - Built an altar

Genesis 46:1 Israel - Built an altar

Others cried out to God without altars and burnt offerings ( Genesis 4:26).

Genesis 4:26, "Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord."

Note also that Job offered burnt offerings ( Job 1:5).

III. Authorship

See Introduction to the Pentateuch.

IV. Date

See Introduction to the Pentateuch.

V. Recipients

See Introduction to the Pentateuch.

VI. Occasion

According to ancient Jewish tradition, which we can read in The Book of Jubilees (14-5), the Jews believed that during the forty days that Moses was with the Lord on Mount Sinai, the Lord taught him the history that is recorded in the book of Genesis and told him to write it down in a book so that it could be taught to the children of Israel and to their posterity. This would have occasioned the writing of the book of Genesis.

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 43]

43] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the children of Israel in the wilderness, the author of the book of Genesis chose to write using the literary style of the historical narrative. Thus, the book of Genesis is assigned to the literary genre called "historical narrative literature."

There are a number of characteristics about the book of Genesis that distinguish it from the other books of the Old Testament canon. In the area of hermeneutics, we will look at the narrative genre of the book of Genesis. In the area of grammar and syntax, we will look at key words used in the book of Genesis. In the area of biblical theology, we will make a discuss the narrative genre of the book of Genesis , look at one aspect of its grammar and syntax, compare Genesis with the book of Revelation , look at Christ in the book of Genesis , evaluate the principle of sowing and reaping in the book of Genesis , and note the progressive depravity of mankind in the book of Genesis.

A. Hermeneutics: The Narrative Genre of the Book of Genesis - The book of Genesis is largely historical narrative material, recording the events in the lives of the Patriarchs who were the forefathers of the Jewish nation:

1. Abraham"s life

75 - Left Haran- Genesis 12:4

85 - Hagar given to Abram- Genesis 16:3

86 - Ishmael born- Genesis 16:3; Genesis 16:6

99 - Sarah was about 90 - Genesis 17:1

100 - Isaac born- Genesis 21:5; Genesis 17:21 (Sarah was about 90 yrs old- Genesis 17:17) about 137 - Sarah died- Genesis 23:1

140 - Isaac married at age 40 - Genesis 25:20 - hence "comforted" Genesis 24:67

175 - Abraham died- Genesis 25:7

2. Ishmael"s life

Age 14 - Isaac born

Age 54 - Isaac marries Rebecca

Age 89 - Abraham dies

Age 137 - Ishmael dies ( Genesis 25:17)

3. Isaac"s life

Age 40 - Marries Rebecca ( Genesis 25:20

Age 60 - Esau and Jacob born ( Genesis 25:26)

Age 75 - Abraham dies ( Genesis 25:7)

Age 180 - Isaac dies ( Genesis 35:28)

B. Grammar and Syntax: Key Words Used in the Book of Genesis - The Hebrew word for "name" occurs more times in the book of Genesis (at least one hundred times) than any other book of the Holy Bible. The book of Psalm comes close at ninety nine times. This word "name" is used often because this is the book of beginnings. All things are created by the spoken word, and everything has been given a name.

C. Biblical Theology: A Comparison of Genesis with the Book of Revelation - Perry Stone gives us an interesting comparison of the chronological events in the book of Revelation with the book of Genesis. In order to do this, he explains that the events recorded in Genesis are symbolic of and in reverse order to these comparable events in Revelation. 44] For example:

44] Perry Stone, interviewed by Rod Parsley, Breakthrough (Columbus, Ohio), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

Genesis 11shows the rise of Babylon. This is comparable with the rise of Antichrist (which is the spirit behind Islam) in Revelation that will persecute the Church of Jesus Christ.

Genesis 6-8 shows the story of the Flood, which he compares to the time of violence that covers the earth just before the Second Coming of Christ.

Genesis 5 mentions the rapture of Enoch, which he compares to the rapture of the Church that takes place during the midst of an era of violence upon the earth.

Genesis 4mentions Lamech's revenge that would be seven-fold. He suggests this is symbolic of the coming 7-year Tribulation Period.

Genesis 3gives us the account of the Fall in the Garden, and the Messianic prophecy of Christ putting His heel upon the head of the serpent. This would be symbolic of Christ defeating Satan at the end of the Tribulation Period and casting him into the bottomless pit.

Genesis 1-2gives us the account of creation when the earth was perfect and in order. This is comparable to the last chapters of Revelation when God will create a new heavens and a new earth.

D. Biblical Theology: Christ in the Book of Genesis - There are several prophetic references to the Lord Jesus Christ in the book of Genesis:

1. He will be born of a virgin, which is called the "seed of woman."

Genesis 3:15, "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."

2. He will suffer for the sins of His people, but He will rise from the dead and conquer Satan.

Genesis 3:15, "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."

3. He will offer Himself as a sacrifice and be raised from the dead.

Genesis 22:2, "And he said, Take now thy Song of Solomon , thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of."

4. He will bless all nations.

Genesis 22:18, "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice."

5. He shall be a ruler over His people.

Genesis 49:10, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be."

6. He will be a Judge and bring judgment on sin.

Genesis 49:11-12, "Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass"s colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes: His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk."

E. Biblical Theology: The Principle of Sowing and Reaping in the Book of Genesis - We find the principle of sowing and reaping throughout the book of Genesis. The book of Genesis shows us how God set the world in order and what seeds were planted which are now bearing fruits on this earth. We observe that the first two gifts that God gave man in Genesis were:

1. Dominion- Genesis 1:26-30.

2. Sowing and reaping - 2 Corinthians 9 shows that God will never leave a sower without seed.

2 Corinthians 9:10, "Now he that ministereth seed to the sower both minister bread for your food, and multiply your seed sown, and increase the fruits of your righteousness;"

God gave man these two gifts so that he could determine his own destiny.

F. Biblical Theology: The Progressive Depravity of Mankind in the Book of Genesis - The book of Genesis reveals the progressive degradation in the heart of the human race:

a. Genesis 1 - The creation of man. This is similar to Romans 1:19-20.

Romans 1:19-20, "Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:"

b. Genesis 4:16, "Cain went out of the presence of the Lord." This is similar to Romans 1:21.

Romans 1:21, "Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened."

c. Genesis 6:5, "every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." This is similar to Romans 1:21.

Romans 1:21, "Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened."

d. Genesis 11 - Tower of Babel. This is similar to Romans 1:22.

Romans 1:22, "Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,"

e. Joshua 24:2 - Abraham"s fathers served other gods. This is similar to Romans 1:23.

Romans 1:23, "And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible Prayer of Manasseh , and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things."

f. Genesis 19 - Sodom and Gomorrah. This is similar to Romans 1:23.

Romans 1:23, "And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible Prayer of Manasseh , and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things."

This same progression of degradation in the heart of man can be found in the book of Romans:

a. Man knows that there is a God by creation. ( Romans 1:19-20)

b. Man stop give God the glory He alone deserves. ( Romans 1:21)

c. Man lives life according to vain imaginations, which darkens his heart. ( Romans 1:21-23)

d. Man fills his life with impurity. ( Romans 1:24-25)

e. Man goes deeper into perversion, knowing no boundaries to sin. ( Romans 1:26-27)

f. Man"s mind loses its ability for moral judgment. ( Romans 1:28-32)

This progress of depravity can develop in a nation as well as in an individual. In the time of Noah, man had progressed to a state of depravity that God had to destroy them.

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 45]

45] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Genesis , an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the book of Genesis for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

VII. Purpose

A. Internal Evidence- The book of Genesis serves as an introduction to the Pentateuch in that it prepares the reader for the establishment of the "theocratic institution" called the nation of Israel. 46] The Pentateuch consists of a combination of four literary types, or genre in accomplishing this purpose. The author used narrative material, poetry, law, and genealogical lists woven together to produce the story of origin of mankind and the establishment of the nation of Israel. Within the literary structure of the book of Genesis , we can clearly see that it begins with the Creation Story followed by ten major genealogies that take us from the creation of Adam to the birth of the nation of Israel. Within this structure, we can identify several purposes.

46] Donald McDonald, Introduction to the Pentateuch: An Inquiry, Critical and Doctrinal, into the Genuineness, Authority, and Design of the Mosaic Writings, vol 1 (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1861), 216.

1. Historical- The book of Genesis clearly serves as a record of the history of the origin of mankind ( Genesis 1-11) and the nation of Israel ( Genesis 12-50). However, the history that Moses selected to record in the book of Genesis is redemptive in nature. That it, Moses recorded only the portion of history that revealed God's plan of redemption for mankind. The historical role of recording the origin of the nation of Israel in the book of Genesis reflects the foundational theme of the Pentateuch, a theme shared by all five books within this major division of the Holy Scriptures.

2. Didactic- The narrative material within the book of Genesis not only reveals ancient history; but as redemptive history, it reveals the depravity of mankind in general and the necessity of having faith in God and obedience towards Him. This book in didactic in that the reader is intended to learn from the mistakes of other men and follow in the faith of men like Abraham. This book teaches us that God is intimately involved in His creation, and that mankind is at the peak of His creation. The redemption of mankind is the focus of God's acts throughout history. The first aspect of the didactic purpose of Genesis is to establish God's original purpose and intent for His creation, which is to be fruitful and multiply, which is the central idea of the Creation Story ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3). The second didactic purpose of Genesis is to teach us that God called Abraham out from the midst of human depravity with a purpose of producing a nation of righteousness (the ten genealogies). The didactic role of Genesis reflects the secondary, structural theme of the book, which is two-fold: God predestined mankind to be fruitful and multiply righteousness offspring ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3), and God called men out of human depravity to fulfill a destiny in His plan of redemption, with Abraham becoming the father of the nation of Israel, a people chosen by God to bring redemption to mankind.

3. Prophetic (Eschatological) - The book of Genesis also contains prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah ( Genesis 3:15) and other future events ( Genesis 49) related to God's plan of redemption. We learn from the book of Genesis that there are certain events that are destined to take place in the future in fulfilment of these prophetic passages. Thus, we find an eschatological structure woven within the book of Genesis as well as the entire Pentateuch. The Pentateuch teaches us that the events of the past determine the events of the future. This prophetic role of the book of Genesis reflects it third, imperative theme, which is our response of faith in God's promises of seed of woman and the seed of Abraham redeeming mankind. We, too, are to walk in the faith of our father Abraham and fulfill our individual destinies.

B. External Evidence- The ancient Jewish writing called The Book of Jubilees states that the purpose for writing the book of Genesis is so that the generations following will know that God is righteous and has not forsaken His people in fulfilling His promises to them. The book of Genesis is to show us that God has continually intervened in the affairs of mankind so that His promises and plans would be fulfilled.

"And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony. And He said: "Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covenant which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto, thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers," (The Book of Jubilees 14-7).

VIII. Thematic Scheme

The Pentateuch is woven together as the first major division of the Holy Scriptures with a three-fold thematic scheme. (1) Primary Theme- The primary, foundational theme of the Pentateuch is the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as "the Shema," a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. (2) Secondary Theme- Each book of the Pentateuch has a secondary theme that supports this central theme, providing the evidence to prove that the God of Israel is one God, who had dominion over all other gods worshipped by depraved humanity. Collectively, the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch reveal the establishment of the nation of Israel above the nations of the earth through worship of YHWH, who has chosen Israel through His foreknowledge and divine election to be His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. The five books of the Pentateuch form a thematic scheme of God's plan of redemption for the nation of Israel and for the heathen nations with their secondary themes. This thematic scheme follows the structure found in Romans 8:29-30, which is predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. (3) The Third Theme- The third theme of the Pentateuch is an imperative theme, and it is also found in the Shema, where Moses commands Israel to love YHWH their God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength ( Deuteronomy 6:5).

The book of Genesis offers a three-fold thematic scheme that supports the central claim of the Pentateuch, the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as "the Shema," a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. Thus, the foundational theme of Genesis is the central claim of the Pentateuch, a theme shared by all five books in this division of the Holy Scriptures. The book of Genesis carries two secondary themes that emphasize predestination and calling. God predestined mankind to take dominion upon the earth and God calls out men of righteousness to establish the nation of Israel. Because the book of Genesis has two secondary themes, it also has two imperative themes. We are to be fruitful and multiply and we are to walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham to fulfill our individual destinies.

A. Primary Theme (Foundational): The Lord is the One, True God- The foundational, underlying theme of the book of Genesis is the central claim of the Pentateuch, a claim which states that the God of Israel is the one true and holy God, who is orchestrating a plan of redemption for mankind. The central claim of the Pentateuch supports the underlying theme of the Old Testament itself, which is the theme of God the Father's foreknowledge and divine election to redeem mankind through predestination, calling, justification, and redemption ( Romans 8:29-30).

The Primary Theme of Genesis - The book of Genesis reflects the primary theme of the Pentateuch as the Lord demonstrates His omnipotence and redemptive nature. He creates the earth, the heavens, and life as well as mankind, which took the form of seventy nations. He also called out Abraham to form a nation unto Himself.

B. Secondary Theme (Structural): (1) Predestination- God Predestined Mankind to Take Dominion upon the Earth and (2) Calling- God Calls Out Men of Righteousness to Establish the Nation of Israel- The secondary theme of the Pentateuch is the establishment of the nation of Israel by God's foreknowledge and divine election as His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. It is this holy nation that will give birth to the Messiah who will again restore righteousness upon the earth. We can easily see the secondary theme of the Pentateuch by examining the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch, which testify of predestination, calling, justification, indoctrination, divine service, perseverance, and glorification. The book of Genesis carries two of the secondary themes that make up the structure of the Pentateuch, that of predestination and calling.

The Secondary Theme of the Individual Books of the Pentateuch- The secondary theme of the first part of the book of Genesis is the predestination of mankind to take dominion upon the earth, and theme of the second part is the origin of the nation of Israel, God's seed of righteousness, which He plans to use to accomplish the redemption of mankind. God will use several men who fulfilled their divine destinies to create the nation of Israel. These patriarchs, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, will play leading roles in preparing for the establishment of this nation in much the same way the Gospels and the book of Acts reveals the origin of the Church and how men like Jesus Christ, Peter, Stephen, Philip the evangelist and Paul the apostle played leading roles in the establishment of the early Church. Thus, the book of Genesis is structured around the genealogies of these men of righteousness in order to explain its theme of the lineage of the nation of Israel. As the first part of the book of Exodus emphasizes deliverance, so do the Gospels testify of our redemption and set us apart from the world. As the last part of the book of Exodus emphasizes the doctrines of the nation of Israel, so to the Pauline Epistles establish Church doctrine. As the book of Leviticus establishes the order of worship for the Israelites, so does the Pastoral Epistles establish Church order. As the book of Numbers explains the perseverance of the "church" in the wilderness, so do the Catholic Epistles of Hebrews , James and 1Peter explain the perseverance of the Church. As the book of Deuteronomy is the second giving of the Law with stern warnings to persevere, so do the Catholic Epistles of 2Peter, 1, 2, 3John and Jude emphasize this same theme. Finally, the story of the conquest of Canaan in the book of Joshua is figurative of the Church entering into Heaven, as is emphasized in the book of Revelation. Note that we find two verses in the New Testament that allow us to look at the Old Testament in a figurative way of the Christian life.

Romans 15:4, "For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope."

1 Corinthians 10:11, "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come."

(1) The Secondary Theme of Genesis: Predestination- Within this unfolding plan of redemption, the Creation Story ( Genesis 1:2 to Genesis 2:3) reveals God's original plan for mankind, in which he was predestined to take dominion upon the earth (see Genesis 1:26-28). We see in the book of Revelation how God will bring mankind to this final destination of righteousness and earthly dominion in the final phase of man's glorification as He restores mankind to fellowship with Him.

(2) The Secondary Theme of Genesis: Calling- Another secondary theme, or structural theme, woven throughout the book of Genesis is origin of the nation of Israel, God's seed of righteousness, through His divine calling, through which He plans to accomplish the redemption of mankind. This theme of calling is found in the ten genealogies of the book of Genesis ( Genesis 2-50). God will call several men who then fulfilled their divine destinies to order to create the nation of Israel. These patriarchs, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, will play leading roles in preparing for the establishment of this nation in much the same way the Gospels and the book of Acts reveals the origin of the Church and how men like Jesus Christ, Peter, Stephen, Philip the evangelist and Paul the apostle played leading roles in the establishment of the early Church. Thus, the book of Genesis is structured around the genealogies of these men of righteousness in order to explain its theme of the lineage of the nation of Israel. We can even find Paul comparing Adam to Christ. He says in Romans 5:14 that Adam served as a figurate of the coming Messiah. He takes a number of comparisons between Adam and Jesus Christ in Romans 5:6-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:1-50.

Romans 5:14, "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam"s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come."

1 Corinthians 15:22, "For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive."

1 Corinthians 15:45, "And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit."

The book of Genesis will explain man's fallen state and show us God's plan to restore man to his original state of righteousness. Thus, to bring mankind to his destination of righteousness and eternal rest seen in the book of Revelation , God must produce a righteous offspring. Thus, the theme and emphasis of God's divine calling in Genesis shows how He intervened in the lives of righteous men to become fruitful and multiply, through which He will accomplish the founding of the nation of Israel, a holy people of God.

Regarding the role of human depravity revealed in the book of Genesis , John Sailhamer notes that the world revealed in the first book of the Holy Bible is different from the world depicted today by the unbelievers, who deny God's active role in the affairs of men. Genesis does not depict human reason as the source and answer to man's sorrows. Instead, there is a God in Heaven divinely intervening in the affairs of mankind, who is orchestrating His plan of redemption. He says the narratives in Genesis reveals "a world governed by a God who holds the people of this world responsible for their actions." 47]

47] John H. Sailhamer, Introduction to Old Testament Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, c 1995), 291.

C. Third Theme (Imperative): (1) Predestination- Be Fruitful and Multiply and (2) Calling- Walk in the Steps of the Faith of our Father Abraham to Fulfill Our Individual Destinies - Because the book of Genesis has two secondary themes, it also has two imperative themes that are based upon the themes of predestination and calling. These two themes reflect the third theme of the Pentateuch, which is the command to love the Lord God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength.

(1) The Imperative Theme in Predestination ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3) - In the Creation Story emphasizing predestination, which emphasizes predestination, God gives mankind the divine commission to be fruitful and multiply (righteous seed) and subdue the earth (in righteousness) (see Genesis 1:26-28). This theme is again declared to Noah after the Flood ( Genesis 9:1-7). We love the Lord God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength by being fruitful, multiplying righteous offspring, and subduing the earth.

(2) The Imperative Theme in Calling ( Genesis 2:2 to Genesis 50:26) - In the ten genealogies found in the book of Genesis , God calls mankind to faith and obedience to Him in order to fulfil a divine commission. Under the old and new covenants, man's initial response to God is to follow in the steps of Abraham, the father of our faith. We, too, are to walk in the faith of our father Abraham and fulfill our individual destinies. Illustration- Phil Edwards sums up the third theme of the book of Genesis by telling the story of when he was first given a pastorate at the age of twenty-seven. As he cried and prayed unto the Lord for help in this new position, the Lord said to him, "Walk in fellowship with me, stay humble, and you will bear seed after your kind." 48] We love the Lord God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength by walking in the same faith and obedience as our father Abraham.

48] Phil Edwards, "Meeting with Volunteers," First Assembly of God, Panama City, Florida, 12December 2010.

IX. Literary Structure

The book of Genesis is made up of an introduction ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3), which is often called The Creation Story, followed by a collection of ten distinct genealogies that serve to explain the origin of the nations, and in particular, the nation of Israel ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 50:26). These ten genealogies seem to link vast expenses of time together. They confirm the lineage of Jesus in Matthew 1:1-17 and Luke 3:23-38. Thus, God's plan of redemption was taking place through the lineage of Israel during these generations. The story of Genesis tells us the origin of the Gentile nations, with special emphasis upon the origin of the Hebrew nation, a people who are the descendants of Abraham and chosen by God to bear the Messiah. The divisions of each of these generations are distinctly marked within the text. The important generations of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob make up the largest portion of the book of Genesis.

Introduction: The Creation of the Heavens & the Earth Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3

1. The Generation of the Heavens and the Earth Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26

a. The Creation of Man Genesis 2:4-25

b. The Fall Genesis 3:1-24

c. Cain and Abel Genesis 4:1-26

2. The Generation of Adam Genesis 5:1 to Genesis 6:8

3. The Generation of Noah Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29

4. The Generation of the Sons of Noah Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9

5. The Generation of Shem Genesis 11:10-26

6. The Generation of Terah (& Abraham) Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 25:11

7. The Generation Ishmael Genesis 25:12-18

8. The Generation of Isaac Genesis 25:19 to Genesis 35:29

9. The Generation of Esau Genesis 36:1-43

10. The Generation of Jacob Genesis 37:1 to Genesis 50:26 49]

49] Note that there are other genealogies contained within the Holy Bible: the genealogy of Moses and Aaron from twelve sons of Jacob to Moses and Aaron ( Exodus 6:14-27), the genealogy of Moses and Aaron ( Numbers 3:1-4), the genealogy of Pharez to David the king ( Ruth 4:18-22), the numerous genealogies found in the book of 1Chronicles, the genealogy of Jesus Christ ( Matthew 1:1-17), the genealogy of Jesus Christ ( Luke 3:23-38).

The rest of the Pentateuch (Exodus to Deuteronomy) will show how God raised up this nation as a witness of His redemptive plan for mankind, who had been gathered into nations and scattered throughout the earth.

We can find two major divisions within the book of Genesis that reveal God's foreknowledge in designing a plan of redemption to establish a righteous people upon earth. Paul reveals this four-fold plan in Romans 8:29-30 : predestination, calling, justification, and glorification.

Romans 8:29-30, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Song of Solomon , that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified."

The book of Genesis will reflect the first two phase of redemption, which are predestination and calling. We find in the first division in Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3 emphasizing predestination. The Creation Story gives us God's predestined plan for mankind, which is to be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth with righteous offspring. The second major division is found in Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 50:25, which gives us ten genealogies, in which God calls men of righteousness to play a role in His divine plan of redemption.

I. Introduction: The Story of Creation (Predestination) ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3) - The book of Genesis opens with an introductory passage giving the story of the creation of the heavens and the earth ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3). The Story of Creation in the book of Genesis tells us that God created the heavens and the earth in six days and rested upon the seventh day. Hebrews 11:3 reveals the central message in this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when it says, announcing that God created all things by the power of His spoken word, saying, "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear." While the Story of Creation reveals God's plan for all of creation to be fruitful and multiply, particular emphasis is given to His charge to mankind to multiply and fill the earth. In this introduction, God commanded the plant kingdom to procreate ( Genesis 1:11); He also commanded the creatures to be fruitful and multiply ( Genesis 1:22); and He commanded Adam and Eve to be fruitful and multiply in order to take dominion over the earth ( Genesis 1:28). God created life in a progression of higher order with each order receiving a more important command. Thus, God's original destiny for each order of His creation was to be fruitful and to multiply with the lower orders serving the higher orders. The law of multiplication is still a fundamental law governing His eternal destiny for creation. One preacher said that if a person can believe the story of Creation, then he can believe the rest of the Bible.

Everything that God does, He does for a purpose. The calling and destiny of the plant kingdom was to procreate after itself ( Genesis 1:11). The calling and destiny of the animal kingdom was to be fruitful and to multiply ( Genesis 1:22). Man's calling and destiny was to be fruitful, and to multiply and to take dominion over the earth ( Genesis 1:28). It is interesting to note that God did not command the plant kingdom in the same way He did the animals and man plants do not have a mind and reasoning faculties as do the higher kingdoms. The next section of the book of Genesis called the Genealogy of the Heavens and the Earth ( Genesis 3:1 to Genesis 4:26) will show how man failed in his calling and brought all of creation into vanity and travail. While each of the ten genealogies recorded in the book of Genesis open with a divine commission and end with the fulfillment of that commission, the divine commission that God gave Adam in the Story of Creation remains incomplete until the fulfillment of biblical prophecy and the new heavens and earth restore man to his original purpose and intent.

In addition, everything that God created was designed to give itself in divine service in order to fulfill its destiny and purpose. The sun serves the divine role of giving its light in order to sustain life on earth. The heavenly bodies were created to serve as signs and wonders in the sky. The land was created to serve as a habitat for creeping creature and the beasts of the earth. The waters were created to serve as a habitat for fish. The sky was created to serve as a habitat for birds. Thus, the sun, moon, stars, earth, seas, and sky were created to support life on earth. The plant kingdom was created to serve as food and shelter for animals and mankind. The animal kingdom was created to serve man. In fact, every plant species and animal species was created to serve mankind in a unique way. Finally, man was created to serve God.

In addition, life was created in order to produce life. Each plant was created to produce seed after its kind. Each animal was commanded to be fruitful and multiply. The flowers were created to give forth beauty. Mankind was created to give God fellowship. Thus, each form of life was created with a role to play in God's overall creation.

Since Adam serves as a type and figure of Jesus Christ ( Romans 5:14), the message of Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3 to the New Testament Church is for the believer to be conformed unto the image of God's Son ( Romans 8:29). Every believer is predestined to become like Jesus Christ, and the writings of the New Testament take the believer on a spiritual journey in order to fulfill this divine destiny.

Romans 5:14, "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam"s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come."

Here is a proposed outline:

A. Introduction: God's Nature to Create ( Genesis 1:1-2) - The first two verses of the story of Creation tell us how empty and chaotic the earth was before God began to set it in order. Part of God"s nature is to create. We are made in God"s likeness, in His image. Man has natural desires to create and to organize. How would we feel in an empty, void environment? We go into a dirty house and we want to clean and organize it. Look at man's achievements in science, technology, hobbies, and crafts that he has created from his imagination. Man is born in the image of God to also create. God is the Creator. None can create more gloriously than God Himself. You can walk down a sidewalk and you notice man"s dry slabs of concrete, then you see God"s trees and shrubs, grass and insects and we see God"s creation compared to man"s creativeness.

B. The First Day of Creation ( Genesis 1:3-5) - Genesis 1:3-5 gives us the account of the first day of Creation. On the first day God created light. This light made a distinction between darkness and light, so that God called the light "day" and the darkness He called "night." This is the beginning of the existence of time. Before the first day of Creation time did not exist, although space existed because the heavens and the earth were of a constant size. There was no beginning and no end. Now, God still dwells in this realm where time and space do not exist, although His creation was made subject to time and space.

C. The Second Day of Creation ( Genesis 1:6-8) - Genesis 1:6-8 gives us the account of the second day of Creation. We read how God separated the waters into two bodies; the lower body consisted of liquid and solid, while the upper body consisted of vapor. He called space between these two gathering of elements by the name "heaven."

D. The Third Day of Creation ( Genesis 1:8-13) - Genesis 1:8-13 gives us the account of the third day of Creation. On the third day, God divided the liquid and solid mixture that existed below the firmament into water and dry land. This created the seas, lakes and other bodies of water as well as one large land mass which He called the "earth."

E. The Fourth Day of Creation ( Genesis 1:14-19) - Genesis 1:14-19 gives us the account of the fourth day of Creation. This passage tells us about the fourth day of Creation in which God created the heavenly bodies. What is interesting to note is that the earth was created first, before the sun, moon and stars were created. We see this same order of creation in Isaiah 48:13.

Isaiah 48:13, "Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together."

F. The Fifth Day of Creation ( Genesis 1:20-23) - Genesis 1:20-23 gives us the account of the fifth day of Creation. On the fifth day of creation God made the great creatures of the sea, the fish and the birds of the air.

G. The Sixth Day of Creation ( Genesis 1:24-31) - Genesis 1:24-31 gives us the account of the sixth day of Creation. On the sixth day of Creation, God created the land animals and He created man. Note that He did not create woman at this time, because His purpose was to create a man in His own image and after His likeness.

H. The Seventh Day of Rest ( Genesis 2:1-3) - Genesis 2:1-3 describes how God finished His creation in six days and rested on the seventh day. He ceased from His own works in order to enter into rest. One purpose of this rest was to allow His principles of faith that were made a part of the fabric of His creation to take effect and operate in His creation, particularly in mankind. We read in Hebrews 4:10 that we, too, enter into rest when we cease from our own works and serve the Lord.

Hebrews 4:10, "For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his."

II. Ten Genealogies (Calling) ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 50:26) - The Genealogies of Righteous Men and their Divine Callings (To Be Fruitful and Multiply) - The ten genealogies found within the book of Genesis are structured in a way that traces the seed of righteousness from Adam to Noah to Shem to Abraham to Isaac and to Jacob and the seventy souls that followed him down into Egypt. The book of Genesis closes with the story of the preservation of these seventy souls, leading us into the book of Exodus where we see the creation of the nation of Israel while in Egyptian bondage, which nation of righteousness God will use to be a witness to all nations on earth in His plan of redemption. Thus, we see how the book of Genesis concludes with the origin of the nation of Israel while its first eleven chapters reveal that the God of Israel is in fact that God of all nations and all creation.

The genealogies of the six righteous men in Genesis (Adam, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob) are the emphasis in this first book of the Old Testament, with each of their narrative stories opening with a divine commission from God to these men, and closing with the fulfillment of prophetic words concerning the divine commissions. This structure suggests that the author of the book of Genesis wrote under the office of the prophet in that a prophecy is given and fulfilled within each of the genealogies of these six primary patriarchs. Furthermore, all the books of the Old Testament were written by men of God who moved in the office of the prophet, which includes the book of Genesis. We find a reference to the fulfillment of these divine commissions by the patriarchs in Hebrews 11:1-40. The underlying theme of the Holy Scriptures is God's plan of redemption for mankind. Thus, the book of Genesis places emphasis upon these men of righteousness because of the role that they play in this divine plan as they fulfilled their divine commissions. This explains why the genealogies of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:12-18) and of Esau ( Genesis 36:1-43) are relatively brief, because God does not discuss the destinies of these two men in the book of Genesis. These two men were not men of righteousness, for they missed their destinies because of sin. Ishmael persecuted Isaac and Esau sold his birthright. However, it helps us to understand that God has blessed Ishmael and Esau because of Abraham although the seed of the Messiah and our redemption does not pass through their lineage. Prophecies were given to Ishmael and Esau by their fathers, and their genealogies testify to the fulfillment of these prophecies. There were six righteous men did fulfill their destinies in order to preserve a righteous seed so that God could create a righteous nation from the fruit of their loins. Illustration - As a young schoolchild learning to read, I would check out biographies of famous men from the library, take them home and read them as a part of class assignments. The lives of these men stirred me up and placed a desire within me to accomplish something great for mankind as did these men. In like manner, the patriarchs of the genealogies in Genesis are designed to stir up our faith in God and encourage us to walk in their footsteps in obedience to God.

The first five genealogies in the book of Genesis bring redemptive history to the place of identifying seventy nations listed in the Table of Nations. The next five genealogies focus upon the origin of the nation of Israel and its patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

There is much more history and events that took place surrounding these individuals emphasized in the book of Genesis , which can be found in other ancient Jewish writings, such as The Book of Jubilees. However, the Holy Scriptures and the book of Genesis focus upon the particular events that shaped God's plan of redemption through the procreation of men of righteousness. Thus, it was unnecessary to include many of these historical events that were irrelevant to God's plan of redemption.

In addition, if we see that the ten genealogies contained within the book of Genesis show to us the seed of righteousness that God has preserved in order to fulfill His promise that the "seed of woman" would bruise the serpent's head in Genesis 3:15, then we must understand that each of these men of righteousness had a particular calling, destiny, and purpose for their lives. We can find within each of these genealogies the destiny of each of these men of God, for each one of them fulfilled their destiny. These individual destinies are mentioned at the beginning of each of their genealogies.

It is important for us to search these passages of Scripture and learn how each of these men fulfilled their destiny in order that we can better understand that God has a destiny and a purpose for each of His children as He continues to work out His divine plan of redemption among the children of men. This means that He has a destiny for you and me. Thus, these stories will show us how other men fulfilled their destinies and help us learn how to fulfill our destiny. The fact that there are ten callings in the book of Genesis , and since the number "10" represents the concept of countless, many, or numerous, we should understand that God calls out men in each subsequent generation until God's plan of redemption is complete.

We can even examine the meanings of each of their names in order to determine their destiny, which was determined for them from a child. Adam's name means "ruddy, i.e. a human being" (Strong), for it was his destiny to begin the human race. Noah's name means, "rest" (Strong). His destiny was to build the ark and save a remnant of mankind so that God could restore peace and rest to the fallen human race. God changed Abram's name to Abraham, meaning, "father of a multitude" (Strong), because his destiny was to live in the land of Canaan and believe God for a son of promise so that his seed would become fruitful and multiply and take dominion over the earth. Isaac's name means, "laughter" (Strong) because he was the child of promise. His destiny was to father two nations, believing that the elder would serve the younger. Isaac overcame the obstacles that hindered the possession of the land, such as barrenness and the threat of his enemies in order to father two nations, Israel and Esau. Jacob's name was changed to Israel, which means "he will rule as God" (Strong), because of his ability to prevail over his brother Esau and receive his father's blessings, and because he prevailed over the angel in order to preserve his posterity, which was the procreation of twelve sons who later multiplied into the twelve tribes of Israel. Thus, his ability to prevail against all odds and father twelve righteous seeds earned him his name as one who prevailed with God's plan of being fruitful and multiplying seeds of righteousness.

In order for God's plan to be fulfilled in each of the lives of these patriarchs, they were commanded to be fruitful and multiply. It was God's plan that the fruit of each man was to be a godly seed, a seed of righteousness. It was because of the Fall that unrighteous seed was produced. This ungodly offspring was not then nor is it today God's plan for mankind.

A. The Genealogy of the Heavens and the Earth ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26) - The first genealogy of the book of Genesis after its introduction ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3) is called "The Generations of the Heavens and the Earth" ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26). In this passage, the Scriptures record the account of the creation of man ( Genesis 2:4-25), his fall ( Genesis 3:1-24), and the immediate progression of human depravity ( Genesis 4:1-26). Hebrews 11:4 reveals the central message in this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when it says, "By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh." While the divine commission of the Story of Creation is God's charge for man as well as the plant and animal kingdoms to be fruitful and multiply ( Genesis 1:26-28), the divine charge for man in the Genealogy of the Heavens and the Earth ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26) is to tend the Garden and name the animal, which is method by which mankind was to take dominion over the plant and animal kingdom in fulfillment of man's divine commission. Thus, the plants and animals would work in harmony with mankind as life multiplied across the earth. Therefore, the title "Genealogy of the Heavens and the Earth" shows us the original harmony of all of creation that existed prior to the Fall, being a part of this divine commission, and its subjection to vanity with the fall of man. The Heavens are included because they were to serve mankind as well, serving as light and as signs and seasons for mankind, and the Scriptures tell us that all of creation was subjected to vanity ( Romans 8:20), which included the heavens as well as the earth.

Romans 8:20, "For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,"

In addition to man's charge to tend the Garden of Eden, he was to take time to rest and have fellowship with God, who walked with him in the cool of the day ( Genesis 3:8). This dual lifestyle is reflected in the Song of Solomon as the Shulamite bride learned to labour in the vineyard of the king while retreating to the garden of solitude and prayer. This genealogy concludes with the birth of Seth and the statement that a seed of man was born who did begin to call upon the name of the Lord after the Fall.

This genealogy ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26) reveals God's original purpose and plan for creation, as well as showing us why it has been corrupted. This passage shows how corruption subjected all of Creation to vanity by emphasizing the two major sinful events that shaped the earliest history of the heavens and earth and brought sin and death upon the human race. This serves to explain why God's creation has fallen out of its original order. It was these two events that also brought the rest of God's creation into travail and vanity until the redemption of mankind as is discussed in Romans 8:18-23. Each of the subsequent genealogies making up the book of Genesis shows us how God is pursuing a seed of righteousness in order to fulfill His plan of redemption for mankind.

1. The Divine Commission of Adam and Eve ( Genesis 2:4-25) - The passage in Genesis 2:4-25 emphasizes the divine commission of Adam and Eve in their respective roles, which are to take dominion over the earth. After the Scriptures tells us about the creation of the world in chapter one, it then focuses upon the creation of man and his role in God's creation. This is because man was the highest order in God's creation and it is through man that His creation will be able to fulfill its purpose. Since the theme of Scriptures is the redemption of mankind, it quickly focuses upon the issues surrounding man's fall and ultimate redemption, for He will redeem His creation through mankind because of the Fall of Adam and Eve.

Thus, after the Scriptures open with the story of God's creation ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3), we then read a second but more detailed account of the creation of man ( Genesis 2:4-25). Although Genesis 1:26-28 mentioned the creation of man and woman on the sixth day of creation, then why are we given a second, more detailed, account of the creation of man and woman in chapter two; perhaps because this sets the stage for the genealogy of Adam, which takes us on a journey towards the fulfillment of the genealogy of Jesus Christ and His work of redemption on Calvary? Therefore, the book of Genesis will continue to narrow its stories down to the people Israel as His chosen people to carry out His plan of redemption for mankind. The New Testament will narrow God's focus to the Church of Jesus Christ. We then we find the nation of Israel being brought back into focus in Romans 9-11and the book of Revelation , which shows us that God will use this plan to bring redemption and restoration back to His entire creation. Thus, the Scriptures have taken us full circle in God's plan of redemption, for mankind first, then for His entire creation.

In Genesis 2:4-25 God called Adam to begin taking dominion over the earth. He was charged to dominion over the plant kingdom by tending the Garden of Eden ( Genesis 2:15), and he was charged to take dominion over the animal kingdom by naming each one of them as he determined their respective roles in serving mankind. Thus, Adam began to fulfill his divine calling.

2. The Entrance of Sin into God's Creation ( Genesis 3:1 to Genesis 4:24) - Since God's divine destiny for His creation would be fulfilled in the creation of mankind, emphasis Isaiah , therefore, given to their creation. However, two sinful events hindered God's plan, which are the Fall in the Garden ( Genesis 3:1-24), and the murder of Abel by Cain his brother ( Genesis 4:1-24). The fall of Adam and Eve brought God's creation into mortality and its subsequent vanity. Although Adam and Eve repented of their sins and produced a righteous offspring, they did bring all of creation into corruption and vanity. The murder of Abel caused sin to take root into humanity; for Cain was unrepentant of his sin and produced unrighteous offspring that sowed unrighteousness into the earth. Now we have two types of men living upon the earth, those who are righteous and those unrighteous before God.

a) The Fall of Adam and Eve: The Deception of Satan ( Genesis 3:1-24) - Genesis 3:1-24 records the fall of Adam and Eve. Note that before they fell into sin, they had no lack; for God had provided their every need in the Garden of Eden. At the time of the fall, their sin separated them from the provision of God. Therefore, sin is the root of all lack and poverty in the world today. It is the source of lack in our lives today. When we are reunited to fellowship with God and our sins are forgiven, we find God's divine provision at work in our lives. Satan told Eve that she lacked something that God had not provided for her. In her deception, she was trying to obtain something that she thought she needed. It was this sin of disobedience that brought true lack into her life. Satan beguiled Eve by taking advantage of a woman's desire for a relationship, for communication. A woman listens better than a man because she is more interested in communicating in a relationship.

The devil speaks doubt to us. He attempted to get the woman to listen to reason, which was the voice of the mind, rather than to her conscience, which is the voice of our spirit, or heart. She knew in her heart what was right, but eventually, the serpent convinced her to listen to reason rather than her conscience. The Serpent approached her through her senses, that Isaiah , what she heard, what she saw and perhaps what she felt, smelled, and tasted of the fruit once it was in her hand. God speaks to our hearts and not to our senses. But Satan knows that he can only win by approaching man through his mind. Once he captures the mind, he has the person in servitude to him.

The Garden of Eden was a place that God made in order to have fellowship with man. It was a sanctuary as much as it was a paradise. God created man in one location and then placed him in the Garden. God's plan was to walk in fellowship with man. But Satan's plan was to separate man from God. As a result of the Fall, man was driven from the presence of God. Once Satan can get a person separated from having time with God, he can then work deceptions and temptations in his life. As we follow man's history we see how Satan drove other men of righteousness from God's presence. Samson's heart fell into fornication and the presence of God left him ( Judges 13-16). David fell into adultery with Bathsheba and could no longer hear from God except by the prophet Nathan ( 2 Samuel 11-12). Solomon married the daughter of Pharaoh and many other strange women and his heart fell into idolatry ( 1 Kings 11:1-8). Gehazi coveted after the silver and garments that Naaman offered and he was struck with leprosy ( 2 Kings 5:1-27). We know that lepers were driven from the camp, or from the presence of God.

Valarie Owens once asked the Lord during a time of prayer and fasting while feeling the impact of sin in her life, "Lord, how far did man fall in the Garden?" The Lord answered her and said, "My daughter, you will never know until you start to climb back." 50]

50] Valarie Owens, Old Testament Series #1, Lesson 2, Calvary Cathedral Bible School, Fort Worth, Texas.

b) The Story of Cain and Abel ( Genesis 4:1-24) - Genesis 4:1-26 tells us of the story of how Cain slew Abel and of how God gave Adam and Eve another son named Seth to carry the seed of redemption to mankind.

3. Epilogue to the Genealogy of the Heavens and the Earth ( Genesis 4:25-26) - The Generations of the Heavens and the Earth ( Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26) concludes with God giving Adam and Eve a son to replace Abel. The significance of this son named Seth is that he is used to carry the redemptive seed of the Messiah to its fruition in Christ Jesus; thus, the closing statement, "Then men began to call upon the name of the Lord." The following genealogy of Adam ( Genesis 5:1-32) reveals that this redemptive seed is carried to Noah, at which time God destroys the rest of mankind because human depravity degenerated beyond hope of redemption.

B. The Genealogy of Adam ( Genesis 5:1 to Genesis 6:8) - The second genealogy found in the book of Genesis is entitled "The Genealogy of Adam" ( Genesis 5:1 to Genesis 6:8), which emphasizes the fact that God preserved for Himself a righteous seed in Noah ( Genesis 5:1-32) while mankind in general became exceedingly wicked until God repented that He had made man as a part of His creation ( Genesis 6:1-8). Hebrews 11:5-6 reveals the central message of this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when it describes Enoch's translation into Heaven and his acceptance by God. Adam's destiny, whose name simply means "mankind," was to begin the multiplication of mankind, which divine commission is seen in Genesis 5:2, "Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created." Of course, God's plan was for Adam to produce a godly offspring. Thus, we see in the genealogy of Adam this seed of righteous men whom he fathered ( Genesis 5:1-32), in which the author of Hebrews particularly Enoch as a fulfillment of this divine commission, who walked with God ( Hebrews 11:5), and which list in Genesis closes with Noah, another blessed man ( Genesis 5:29-32). Adam's genealogy also reveals that many other people were born during this time-period who became exceedingly wicked ( Genesis 6:1-8), particularly from the seed of Cain; however, this list emphasizes the fulfillment of God's divine commission to bless Adam and his offspring, who were to father righteous offspring. Thus, the fulfillment of Adam's genealogy is found in the man Noah, whom God would use to repopulate the earth after destroying all of mankind for their wickedness. In a sense, we have to look far down the generations to see how Adam fulfilled his destiny in the man Noah, so that Adam succeeded in populating the earth with a righteous seed.

1. The Descendants of Adam ( Genesis 5:1-32) - In Genesis 5:1-32 we find the genealogy of Adam, which covers a period of 1 ,556 years (from Adam to the birth of Noah's sons). The manner in which this genealogy is given reveals how God preserved a righteous seed in each generation in order to preserve the coming of the promised "seed of woman" ( Genesis 3:15) while the rest of mankind grows exceeding wicked ( Genesis 6:1-8). This genealogy says that each man lived a certain amount of years and bore a son. Then he lived so many more years before he died. Thus, the emphasis on this genealogy is different from any other genealogy in the Scriptures in that it reveals the destiny of each of these men, which was to produce a righteous seed. There were many events that took place during each of the lives of these individuals, but the event that is recorded in the Scriptures is the birth of a righteous Song of Solomon , and this event reveals the destiny of each of these fathers. Their destiny was to keep a seed of righteousness upon this world. Each one fulfilled this destiny. All other events were secondary to this issue and so were not recorded in Scripture.

2. The Depravity of Mankind ( Genesis 6:1-8) - After the Scriptures show us that God is preserving a righteous seed in each generation ( Genesis 5:1-32) in order to preserve the coming of the promised "seed of woman" ( Genesis 3:15), we are then shown how the rest of mankind as a whole grows exceeding wicked until God repents that He made man in His divine plan of creation.

C. The Genealogy of Noah ( Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29) - The third genealogy in the book of Genesis is entitled "The Genealogy of Noah" ( Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29), which gives us the account of the Noah's fulfillment of the divine commission to be fruitful and multiply. Hebrews 11:7 reveals the central message in this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when it describes Noah's obedience to God in building the ark. Noah's destiny, whose name means "rest," was to be fruitful and bear a righteous offspring. His genealogy opens with a divine commission to build the ark and save a remnant of mankind so that God could restore peace and rest to the fallen human race. Immediately after the Flood, Noah built an altar and God spoke to him and commanded him to "be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth" ( Genesis 9:1). Hebrews 11:7 tells us how Noah fulfilled his divine commission by building the ark and saving his household.

Hebrews 11:7, "By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith."

Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Lord Commands Noah ( Genesis 6:9-22) - In Genesis 6:9-22 the Lord commands Noah to build the ark.

2. The Destruction of the Flood ( Genesis 7:1-24) - In Genesis 7:1-24 God calls Noah and his family into the ark, and the flood-gates of heaven and the deep are opened so that the flood destroys every living thing upon the earth.

3. Noah and His Family Leave the Ark ( Genesis 8:1-22) - In Genesis 8:1-22 Noah and his family leave the ark.

4. Be Fruitful and Multiply ( Genesis 9:1-7) - After the Flood, God reinstated the command that He had first given to man in Genesis 1:28-29, which was to be fruitful and multiple and take dominion over the earth.

Genesis 1:28, "And God gave them his blessing and said to them, Be fertile and have increase, and make the earth full and be masters of it; be rulers over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing moving on the earth."

After the flood, God also allows man to eat meat from the animal kingdom. In the beginning God allowed man to eat only from the plant kingdom. Now he is allowed to each any animal of the as long as its blood was not still in its flesh. One possible reason is that disease is easily passed from an animal to a person through the blood and other body fluids. Song of Solomon , God was giving man a standard of hygiene.

5. God's Covenant with Noah and His Seed and with Every Living Creature ( Genesis 9:8-17) - In Genesis 9:8-17 the Lord makes a covenant with Noah. This is God's covenant to Noah and every living creature.

6. Noah Curses Canaan ( Genesis 9:18-27) - Genesis 9:18-27 gives us the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curst that he placed upon Canaan. Noah planted a vineyard and drank of the wine and was drunk. His son Ham found Noah in his nakedness and went and told his two brothers who were outside. Shem and Japheth responded by laying a garment upon their shoulders and walked in backwards so as not to see his nakedness and covered their father Noah. When Noah awoke he cursed Canaan the son of Ham.

7. Epilogue to the Genealogy of Noah ( Genesis 9:28-29) - Genesis 9:28-29 gives us the closing epilogue of the genealogy of Noah ( Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29). It simply gives us the dates of his life after the Flood and the total life span that he lived. When the Scriptures tell us that a patriarch dies in a ripe old age in peace, it implies that he fulfilled the destiny that God had given him. I believe that we can see this in epilogues to the genealogies of the lives of Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and in the life of Joseph.

D. The Genealogy of the Sons of Noah ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9) - The fourth genealogy in the book of Genesis is entitled "The Genealogy of the Sons of Noah" ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9), which tells us how the sons of Noah fulfilled the divine commission to be fruitful and multiply. The previous genealogy of Noah tells us that the calling and destiny of Noah was to multiply and to replenish the earth ( Genesis 9:1). This genealogy shows the fulfillment of this commission in his sons. This passage of Scripture contains the Table of Nations, which show us that God divided mankind up into seventy nations in order to fulfill this commission. This table lists the genealogies of the sons of Noah, but only one of them would carry the seed of righteousness, which was Shem. All of their genealogies are listed briefly in this table because Noah had favor with God, so that God's blessings would come upon his children; however, only Shem fulfilled his divine destiny that was a part of God's eternal plan of redemption in that the seed of righteousness descended from him through Abraham. The other sons of Noah failed to fulfill their destinies, bearing wicked seed that continued the seed of corruption upon the earth. After reading in the Table of Nations concerning the seventy nations that were divided by their families and their tongues ( Genesis 10:1-32), we read the story of Babel of how the tongues of man were divided, which caused in the division of the nations ( Genesis 11:1-9). The Genealogy of the Sons of Noah closes by saying that God spread the seventy nations upon the earth ( Genesis 11:9), which would be to fulfill the divine commission for mankind to be fruitful and multiply.

1. The Table of Nations ( Genesis 10:1-32) - Genesis 10:1-32 tells us the names of the nations that descended from the three sons of Noah. We are told in the ancient Jewish writing of The Book of Jubilees that there were seventy nations and seventy languages divided upon the earth prior to the time of Abraham.

"And all the souls of Jacob which went into Egypt were seventy souls. These are his children and his children"s children, in all seventy, but five died in Egypt before Joseph, and had no children. And in the land of Canaan two sons of Judah died, Er and Onan, and they had no children, and the children of Israel buried those who perished, and they were reckoned among the seventy Gentile nations." (The Book of Jubilees 4432-34)

2. The Tower of Babel ( Genesis 11:1-9) - We know the seventy nations listed in Genesis 10:1-32 spoke many languages (see Genesis 10:31). Thus, the story of the Tower of Babel ( Genesis 11:1-9) gives an explanation to the readers of how the descends of Noah listed in chapter 10 became divided into tongues and nations. Therefore, the events of Genesis 10:1-32 do not necessarily precede all of the events in Genesis 11:1-9. For example, the Tower of Babel probably took place during the time of Peleg when the nations of the earth were divided ( Genesis 10:25).

Genesis 10:25, "And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother"s name was Joktan."

E. The Genealogy of Shem ( Genesis 11:10-26) - The fifth genealogy in the book of Genesis is entitled "The Genealogy of Shem" ( Genesis 11:10-26), which reveals the role of Shem in producing Abraham has a descendant, through which God would produce a righteous seed. Shem's destiny was not marked by a personal, divine intervention. He simply was called to be fruitful and multiply a righteous seed. Thus, his genealogy culminates with the birth of the sons of Terah, one of which was Abraham.

The Calling of the Patriarchs of Israel ( Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 50:26) - We can find two major divisions within the book of Genesis that reveal God's foreknowledge in designing a plan of redemption to establish a righteous people upon earth. Paul reveals this four-fold plan in Romans 8:29-30 : predestination, calling, justification, and glorification.

Romans 8:29-30, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Song of Solomon , that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified."

The book of Genesis will reflect the first two phase of redemption, which are predestination and calling. We find in the first division in Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3 emphasizing predestination. The Creation Story gives us God's predestined plan for mankind, which is to be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth with righteous offspring. The second major division is found in Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 50:25, which gives us ten genealogies, in which God calls men of righteousness to play a role in His divine plan of redemption.

The foundational theme of Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 11:26 is the divine calling for mankind to be fruitful and multiply, which commission was given to Adam prior to the Flood ( Genesis 1:28-29), and to Noah after the Flood ( Genesis 9:1). The establishment of the seventy nations and the genealogy of Shem prepares us for the calling out of Abraham and his sons, being a descendant of Shem, which history fills the rest of the book of Genesis. Thus, God's calling through His divine foreknowledge ( Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 50:26) will focus the calling of Abraham and his descendants to establish the nation of Israel. God will call the patriarchs to fulfill the original purpose and intent of creation, which is to multiply into a righteous nation, for which mankind was originally predestined to fulfill.

The generations of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob take up a large portion of the book of Genesis. These genealogies have a common structure in that they all begin with God revealing Himself to a patriarch and giving him a divine commission, and they close with God fulfilling His promise to each of them because of their faith in His promise. God promised Abraham a son through Sarah his wife that would multiply into a nation, and Abraham demonstrated his faith in this promise on Mount Moriah. God promised Isaac two sons, with the younger receiving the first-born blessing, and this was fulfilled when Jacob deceived his father and received the blessing above his brother Esau. Jacob's son Joseph received two dreams of ruling over his brothers, and Jacob testified to his faith in this promise by following Joseph into the land of Egypt. Thus, these three genealogies emphasize God's call and commission to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their response of faith in seeing God fulfill His word to each of them.

F. The Genealogy of Terah (and Abraham) ( Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 25:11) - The genealogies of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob have a common structure in that they open with God speaking to a patriarch and giving him a commission and a promise in which to believe. In each of these genealogies, the patriarch's calling is to believe God's promise, while this passage of Scripture serves as a witness to God's faithfulness in fulfilling each promise. Only then does the genealogy come to a close.

Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 25:11 gives the account of the genealogy of Terah and his son Abraham. (Perhaps the reason this genealogy is not exclusively of Abraham, but rather of his father Terah, is because of the importance of Lot and the two tribes descended from him, the Moabites and the Ammonites, who will play a significant role in Israel's redemptive history.) Hebrews 11:8-19 reveals the central message in this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when it describes Abraham's acts of faith and obedience to God, culminating in the offering of his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. The genealogy of Abraham opens with God's promise to him that if he would separate himself from his father and dwell in the land of Canaan, then God would make from him a great nation through his son ( Genesis 12:1-3) and it closes with God fulfilling His promise to Abraham by giving Him a son Isaac. However, this genealogy records Abraham's spiritual journey to maturity in his faith in God, as is typical of each child of God. We find a summary of this genealogy in Hebrews 11:8-19. During the course of Abraham's calling, God appeared to Abraham a number of times. God reappeared to him and told him that He would make his seed as numerous as the stars in the sky ( Genesis 15:5). God later appeared to Abraham and made the covenant of circumcision with him and said, "I will make My covenant between Me and you, and will multiply you exceedingly." ( Genesis 17:2) After Abraham offered Isaac his son upon the altar, God reconfirmed His promise that "That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies." ( Genesis 22:17) The event on Mount Moriah serves as a testimony that Abraham fulfilled his part in believing that God would raise up a nation from Isaac, his son of promise. Thus, Abraham fulfilled his calling and destiny for his generation by dwelling in the land of Canaan and believing in God's promise of the birth of his son Isaac. All of God's promises to Abraham emphasized the birth of his one seed called Isaac. This genealogy testifies to God's faithfulness to fulfill His promise of giving Abraham a son and of Abraham's faith to believe in God's promises. Romans 9:6-9 reflects the theme of Abraham's genealogy in that it discusses the son of promise called Isaac.

G. The Genealogy Ishmael ( Genesis 25:12-18) - Genesis 25:12-18 gives the account of the genealogy of Ishmael, Abraham's son. The book of Genesis lists the genealogies of the Abraham's two first-born sons Ishmael and Isaac, but as with Esau and Jacob, only the second-born would carry the seed of righteousness. Because God loved Abraham, and because Ishmael was his firstborn, God promised to bless him also with twelve sons to become a nation ( Genesis 17:20; Genesis 21:13). Ishmael saw his father Abraham's faith and knew about his God; yet, he chose not to serve him. There is no record of Ishmael building an altar and worshipping the God of his father Abraham. Therefore, this genealogy records no event of God giving Ishmael a divine commission, since Ishmael did not seek the Lord, and the Lord knew that his heart was not set on fulfilling it. Because of his wicked heart, Ishmael failed to receive a divine commission as a part of redemptive history. He and his offspring did not produce a righteous offspring, but rather persecuted Isaac and his offspring. Therefore, Ishmael's genealogy is only briefly listed in the book of Genesis because of its prophetic role in God's plan of redemption. The descendants of Ismael did not contribute to the propagation of God's plan of redemption for mankind, rather, they hindered it; yet, his seed contained a promise from God that would be fulfilled, as recorded in Ishmael's genealogy. The angel of the Lord promised Hagar that God would make a nation from the loins of Ishmael ( Genesis 21:9-21), and the fulfillment of this divine promise is revealed within this genealogy, just as God's promise is fulfilled within the other genealogies recorded in the book of Genesis.

Genesis 17:20, "And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation."

Genesis 21:13, "And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed."

The fact that God records the names of the twelve sons of Ishmael testifies to the honor that God has given Ishmael as the son of Abraham. Such a list of names may be compared to the acknowledgments that an author often includes in a book by listing the names of those who contributed to the work in an effort to honor them.

H. The Genealogy of Isaac ( Genesis 25:19 to Genesis 35:29) - The genealogies of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob have a common structure in that they open with God speaking to a patriarch and giving him a commission and a promise in which to believe. In each of these genealogies, the patriarch's calling is to believe God's promise, while this passage of Scripture serves as a witness to God's faithfulness in fulfilling each promise. Only then does the genealogy come to a close.

We find in Genesis 25:19 to Genesis 35:29 the genealogy of Isaac, the son of Abraham. Hebrews 11:20 reveals the central message in this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when Isaac gave his sons redemptive prophecies, saying, "By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come." As Abraham's genealogy begins with a divine commission when God told him to leave Ur and to go Canaan ( Genesis 12:1), so does Isaac's genealogy begin with a divine commission predicting him as the father of two nations, with the elder serving the younger ( Genesis 25:23), with both nations playing roles in redemptive history, Jacob playing the major role. The first event in Isaac's genealogy has to do with a God speaking to his wife regarding the two sons in her womb, saying that these two sons would multiply into two nations. Since his wife Rebekah was barren, Isaac interceded to God and the Lord granted his request. The Lord then told Rebekah that two nations were in her womb, and the younger would prevail over the elder ( Genesis 25:21-23). Isaac, whose name means laughter ( Genesis 21:6), was called to establish himself in the land of Canaan after his father Abraham, and to believe in God's promise regarding his son Jacob. During the course of his life, Isaac's genealogy testifies of how he overcame obstacles and the enemy that resisted God's plan for him. Thus, we see Isaac's destiny was to be faithful and dwell in the land and father two nations. God's promise to Isaac, that the elder will serve the younger, is fulfilled when Jacob deceives his father and receives the blessings of the first-born. The fact that Isaac died in a ripe old age testifies that he fulfilled his destiny as did Abraham his father. Romans 9:10-13 reflects the theme of Isaac's genealogy in that it discusses the election of Jacob over Isaac. We find in Hebrews 11:20 that Isaac expressed his faith in God's promise that two nations were born through Rebekah because he blessed his sons regarding the future promises of God. We read in Hebrews 11:20 how Isaac expressed his faith in God's promise of two nations being born through Rebekah because he blessed his sons regarding these future promises.

Genesis 12:1, "Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father"s house, unto a land that I will shew thee:"

Genesis 21:6, "And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me."

Genesis 25:23, "And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger."

I. The Genealogy of Esau ( Genesis 36:1-43) - Genesis 36:1-43 gives the account of the genealogy of Esau, Isaac's son and the twin of Jacob. The book of Genesis lists the genealogies of the two sons of Isaac, but only one of them would carry the seed of righteousness, which was Jacob. Because these were the sons of Isaac, God blessed Esau so that he became a nation, and He gave him the land of Edom ( Deuteronomy 2:5, Joshua 24:4). Isaac their father also blessed both sons with prophetic utterances ( Hebrews 11:20). Because of his wicked heart, Esau failed to fulfill his divine destiny. Like Ishmael, he did not produce a righteous offspring, but rather persecuted Jacob. Therefore, his genealogy is only briefly listed in the book of Genesis because these people did not contribute to the propagation of God's plan of redemption for mankind; rather, they hindered it. However, God gave Esau a promise, which fulfillment is reflected in this genealogy.

J. The Genealogy of Jacob ( Genesis 37:1 to Genesis 50:26) - The genealogies of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob have a common structure in that they open with God speaking to a patriarch and giving him a commission and a promise in which to believe. In each of these genealogies, the patriarch's calling is to believe God's promise, while this passage of Scripture serves as a witness to God's faithfulness in fulfilling each promise. Only then does the genealogy come to a close.

Genesis 37:1 to Genesis 50:26 gives the account of the genealogy of Jacob, Isaac's son. Hebrews 11:21-22 reveals the central message in this genealogy that stirs our faith in God when Jacob and Joseph gave redemptive prophecies, saying, "By faith Jacob, when he was a dying, blessed both the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff. By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones." As Abraham's genealogy begins with a divine commission when God told him to leave Ur and to go Canaan ( Genesis 12:1), and Isaac's genealogy begin with a divine commission predicting him as the father of two nations ( Genesis 25:23), so does Jacob's genealogy begin with a divine encounter in the form of his son Joseph's two dreams. These dreams make it clear that Jacob's divine commission was to bring his clan of seventy souls into Egypt through Joseph for four hundred years while the people multiply into the nation of Israel. This genealogy closes with the fulfillment of Joseph's dreams. Jacob's name was changed to Israel, which means "prince of God," because his destiny was to father a multitude of godly seed. He fathered the twelve sons, or "princes," who multiplied into the twelve tribes of Israel. His ability to father twelve righteous seeds earned him his name as a prince of God, as a man who ruled over a multitude of godly seed. The Scriptures testify to Jacob's faith in God's promise that Joseph would rule over his brethren by the fact that he followed his son into Egypt ( Genesis 49:22-26), and he blessed the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh ( Hebrews 11:21-22). The fact that Jacob died in a ripe old age testifies that he fulfilled his destiny as did his fathers, Abraham and Isaac.

Comments on Purpose of Ten Genealogies Recorded in Genesis - The ten genealogies given in the book of Genesis will shape the destiny of the rest of the children of God found within the Scriptures. For each of the heads of these genealogies, their primary destiny and calling was to be fruitful and to multiply a righteous offspring, which was the original purpose and intent of God's plan for mankind ( Genesis 1:26-28). God called each of them to accomplish this task in a unique manner. Adam is charged to tend the Garden of Eden and not partake of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. When mankind falls into depravity, God finds several men of righteousness to deliver divine commissions in order to set in motion His divine plan of redemption. Noah's genealogy opens with a charge to build an ark to save his family, and given the charge again to be fruitful and multiply. Abraham's genealogy opens with a charge to leave his family and dwell in the land of Canaan. Isaac's genealogy opens with a prophecy that Rebecca's twins will form two nations. Jacob's genealogy opens with two redemptive dreams by his son Joseph predicting Jacob's journey into Egypt for four hundred years where the children of Israel will multiply into a nation.

Abraham gave birth to Isaac, who gave birth to Jacob, who gave birth to twelve sons, who became the seventy souls that founded the nation of Israel, a righteous nation. In addition, Joseph's destiny was rule over his family as their redeemer by bringing them in Egypt. Moses' destiny was to bring the Jews out of Egyptian bondage.

Those who died in a ripe old age, such as Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph and Moses, are the men who fulfilled their destinies. Others, such as Ishmael and Esau, failed to fulfill their divine destinies.

We can now learn from the book of Genesis that God has given to each of us a similar destiny. Our general calling and destiny is to be fruitful and multiply righteous offspring, both within the framework of the institution of marriage as well as within the institution of the Church. Each one of us will be given a particular destiny as we work together as one body in Christ Jesus. The failure of us to fulfill our particular destines will cause the entire body of Christ to suffer loss.

Another important aspect of the life of the patriarchs and their genealogies is the fact they each of them passed down an inheritance to their sons. To the son who was to carry the seed of the Messiah was given a special blessing. It was this blessing that Isaac was given instead of Ishmael. It was this same blessing that Jacob obtained over his brother Esau by deception. Jacob passed it down through Judah prophetically. Thus, these prophecies of the coming of the Messiah create a thread of redemption woven through the genealogies of Genesis.

The Nation of Israel (Exodus to Malachi) - At the close of the book of Genesis , we learn that the reason God brought the seventy souls into Egypt was so that the righteousness seed would be preserved during a time of divine judgment so that they could be fruitful and multiply. The book of Exodus opens with the story of how this nation multiplied into millions of souls. The book of Exodus emphasizes the story of how Moses took the children of Israel out of Egyptian bondage and gave them the Mosaic Law. This Law was implemented so that the nation of Israel, God's righteous seed, could walk in the divine blessings listed in Deuteronomy 28:1-14, which promises were for this nation to become fruitful and multiply and take dominion over the earth. The way that they were to take the entire land of Canaan that was promised them was to become numerous enough to occupy the land. For Moses had told them that God would drive out those nations from before them little by little, and not all at once, lest the beasts of the field become too numerous ( Deuteronomy 7:22).

We can clearly see the importance of godly offspring in the life of the nation of Israel. For Israel's destiny was determined each generation by its leadership. We see that that the events in the life of Israel were shaped and molded by its leaders as they led the nation into either obedience and divine blessings or into disobedience and divine curses. These men set the course for the nations. When the nation was obedient, it multiplied and when it was disobedient, it diminished in number. Each book of the Old Testament centers on particular leaders. The books of Exodus thru Deuteronomy focus on the leadership of Moses. The book of Joshua emphasizes the leadership of Joshua. The book of Judges gives us a list of leaders who judged Israel. The books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles can be divided into sections according the kings of Israel. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah show us how the destiny of those returning from the Babylonian captivity was shaped by the leadership of these two men. Thus, the need to produce a godly offspring becomes the purpose of each generation of leadership in the nation of Israel.

The Great Commission to the Church ( Matthew 28:18-20) is Embedded in God's Command to Be Fruitful and Multiply ( Genesis 1:26-28) - Each of the destinies of the six righteous men emphasized in the book of Genesis are given at the beginning their genealogies. It begins with their divine calling and ends with their deaths, which shows that each of them fulfilled their destiny. The fact that these righteous men died in a good old age and gave up the ghost indicates that they fulfilled their individual destinies. Each of these destinies is a part of God's first command to be fruitful and multiply found in the story of Creation. Therefore, it must be that the Great Commission of Matthew 28:18-20 is also a part of God's original plan for His creation to be fruitful and multiply. Therefore, each of our destinies is related to the fulfillment of these commandments of God. We are children of destiny, born for a purpose, which is to procreate seeds of righteousness. Everyone's destiny is in some way contained within God's original command to Adam to be fruitful and multiply and take dominion of the earth. Our calling in life is to produce righteous seed. We are to fulfill this command within the God-given laws of the institutions of the family and the Church. No one's divine destiny will fall outside of these boundaries.

Composition Criticism: Narrative, Poetic Speech and Short Epilogue Structure- John Sailhamer makes an interesting comment about how the literary genre in the book of Genesis are placed together throughout the Pentateuch. Using composition criticism, 51] he arranges the book of Genesis into literary units called "the poetic speech--short epilogue pattern." He suggests that the Pentateuch is written in a literary manner where each narrative unit closes with a poetic speech, followed by an epilogue. 52] In other words, the author of the Pentateuch often ended its narrative material with poetry followed by an epilogue. For example, at the end of the Creation account (1-2) we find a brief poetic statement made by Adam ( Genesis 2:23) followed by a short epilogue ( Genesis 2:24) closing the story of the Creation of Adam and Eve ( Genesis 2:4-25); the story of the Fall ( Genesis 3:1-24) closes with "a poetic discourse" ( Genesis 3:14-19) followed by an epilogue ( Genesis 3:20-24); the story of Cain killing Abel ( Genesis 4:1-26) ends with poetry ( Genesis 4:23-24) and closes with an epilogue ( Genesis 4:25-26); the genealogy of Noah ( Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29) ends with the poetic material which curses Canaan ( Genesis 9:25-27) followed by an epilogue ( Genesis 9:28-29); the genealogies of Adam ( Genesis 5:1 to Genesis 6:8) and of the sons of Noah ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9) both end with God's prophetic judgment and a closing remedy to judge mankind; the genealogy of Abraham (and Terah) ( Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 25:11) ends with the story of Isaac taking Rebekah as his wife; at the closing of this story, she receives a prophetic blessing from her people ( Genesis 24:60), and this genealogy ends with an epilogue ( Genesis 25:7-11); the story of Joseph (chpts 37-48) ends with a lengthy poetic prophecy by Jacob (chpt 49) followed by a closing epilogue (chpt 50).

51] John Sailhamer discusses composition criticism in his book Introduction to Old Testament Theology. See John H. Sailhamer, Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zonderan Publishing House, c 1995), 98-9.

52] John H. Sailhamer, Genesis , in vol 2of The Expositor's Bible Commentary, ed. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), comments in "Introduction: 4. Purpose: a. Compositional Analysis of the Pentateuch."

Sailhamer goes on to say that the story of the Exodus ( Exodus 1-14) concludes with a poem ( Exodus 15); the author places the poetic prophecies of Balaam ( Numbers 23-24) at the end of Israel's forty-year wilderness journey; and, the five books of the Pentateuch end with the song of Moses ( Deuteronomy 32-33) followed by a closing epilogue ( Deuteronomy 34).

Sailhamer also notes a common pattern in the lengthy poetic prophecies of Jacob ( Genesis 49), Balaam ( Numbers 23-24) and Moses ( Deuteronomy 32-33). All three of these men call together an audience and proclaim what will take place in the future of the history of the nation of Israel. All three prophecies use a common Hebrew phrase "in the days to come" which is found in only one other place in the Pentateuch, giving us a clue as to the fact that this material is structured in a common pattern. The fact that all three of these poetic passages give us a prophecy of the coming Messiah reveals that they all have a common eschatological theme. As we look back as the other brief poetic material, we find another Messianic prophecy ( Genesis 3:15). It appears as if the narrative material sets the course for the eschatological message found within the poetic material. In other words, the actions of mankind found in the narratives have divine consequences in the future history of mankind and particularly in the nation of Israel. This pattern could be explained as a customary way of writing narrative material during the time of the author, with the understanding that this was also the way that God inspired Moses to record this material for us.

This pattern is found outside of the Pentateuch as well. We see how the book of Joshua closes with a non-poetic, but prophetic speech, by Joshua , followed by an epilogue. We also see how the life of David closes with a poetic farewell speech in 2 Samuel 22:1 to 2 Samuel 23:7.

X. Outline of Book

Here is a proposed brief outline of the book of Genesis organized by themes:

God is the Creator of all things (1-2)

Mankind is sinful by nature (3-5)

God will always judge sin (6-11)

God has revealed to man a plan of redemption (12-50)

However, the most widely accepted outline for the book of Genesis is to organize the major divisions by the ten genealogies listed within the book with an account of the story of creation laying the context and historical background for these genealogies. It is important in identifying the breaks in these major divisions to note that the titles of each genealogy are given at the beginning of these major divisions and not at the end, just as Matthew does in the opening chapter of his Gospel.

I. Predestination: The Creation Story— Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3

A. Introduction: God's Nature to Create — Genesis 1:1-2

B. The First Day of Creation — Genesis 1:3-5

C. The Second Day of Creation — Genesis 1:6-8

D. The Third Day of Creation — Genesis 1:8-13

E. The Fourth Day of Creation — Genesis 1:14-19

F. The Fifth Day of Creation — Genesis 1:20-23

G. The Sixth Day of Creation — Genesis 1:24-31

H. The Seventh Day of Rest — Genesis 2:1-3

II. Calling: Ten Genealogies— Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 50:26

A. The Origin of the Earth & the 70 Nations— Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 11:26

1. The Generations of the Heavens & Earth— Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 4:26

a) The Creation of Adam & Eve— Genesis 2:4-25

b) The Entrance of Sin into God's Creation— Genesis 3:1 to Genesis 4:26

i) The Fall of Adam & Eve— Genesis 3:1-24

ii) Cain and Abel— Genesis 4:1-24

c) Epilogue— Genesis 4:25-26

2. The Generations of Adam— Genesis 5:1 to Genesis 6:8

a) The Descendants of Adam— Genesis 5:1-32

b) The Depravity of Mankind— Genesis 6:1-8

3. The Generations of Noah — Genesis 6:9 to Genesis 9:29

a) The Lord Commands Noah — Genesis 6:9-22

b) The Destruction of the Flood — Genesis 7:1-24

c) Noah and His Family Leave the Ark — Genesis 8:1-22

d) Be Fruitful and Multiply — Genesis 9:1-7

e) God's Covenant with Noah — Genesis 9:8-17

f) Noah Curses Canaan — Genesis 9:18-27

g) Epilogue to the Genealogy of Noah — Genesis 9:28-29

4. The Generations of the Sons of Noah — Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9

a) The Table of Nations— Genesis 10:1-32

i) Introduction — Genesis 10:1

ii) The Sons of Japheth (Fourteen Nations) — Genesis 10:2-5

iii) The Sons of Ham (Thirty Nations) — Genesis 10:6-20

iv) The Sons of Shem (Twenty-Six Nations) — Genesis 10:21-31

b) The Tower of Babel— Genesis 11:1-9

5. The Generations of Shem— Genesis 11:10-26

B. The Calling of the Patriarchs & Nation of Israel— Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 50:26

6. The Generations of Terah (& Abraham)— Genesis 11:27 to Genesis 25:11

a) The Genealogy of Terah— Genesis 11:27-32

b) Abraham's Divine Commission— Genesis 12:1-9

c) Abraham in Egypt— Genesis 12:10-20

d) Abraham and Lot Separate— Genesis 13:1-18

e) Abraham and Melchizedek— Genesis 14:1-24

f) God's Covenant with Abraham— Genesis 15:1-21

g) Abraham Takes Hagar— Genesis 16:1-16

h) God Reconfirms His Covenant with Circumcision— Genesis 17:1-27

i) The Lord's Promise of a Son— Genesis 18:1-15

j) Abraham's Intercession for Sodom— Genesis 18:16-33

k) The Destruction of Sodom & Gomorrah— Genesis 19:1-29

l) Lot's Descendants— Genesis 19:30-38

m) Abraham Dwells in Garar— Genesis 20:1-18

n) The Birth of Isaac— Genesis 21:1-7

o) Hagar's Departure— Genesis 21:8-21

p) Abraham's Covenant with Abimelech— Genesis 21:22-34

q) Abraham Offers Issac— Genesis 22:1-19

r) The Genealogy of Nahor— Genesis 22:20-24

s) The Death of Sarah— Genesis 23:1-20

t) Isaac and Rebekah— Genesis 24:1-67

u) The Genealogy of Abraham & Keturah— Genesis 25:1-6

v) The Death of Abraham— Genesis 25:7-11

7. The Generations of Ishmael — Genesis 25:12-18

8. The Generations of Isaac — Genesis 25:19 to Genesis 35:29

a) The Birth of Esau and Jacob— Genesis 25:19-28

b) Esau Sells His Birthright— Genesis 25:29-34

c) Isaac Dwells in Gerar— Genesis 26:1-35

d) Jacob Deceives Isaac— Genesis 27:1 to Genesis 28:9

e) Jacob's Dream — Genesis 28:10-22

f) Jacob and Rachel— Genesis 29:1-30

g) The Birth of Jacob's Sons— Genesis 29:31 to Genesis 30:24

h) Jacob Serves Laban— Genesis 30:25-43

i) Jacob Flees— Genesis 31:1-55

j) Jacob Prepares to Meet Esau— Genesis 32:1-32

k) Jacob Meets Esau— Genesis 33:1-20

l) Dinah Defiled by Shechem— Genesis 34:1-31

m) Jacob Moves to Bethel— Genesis 35:1-15

n) The Death of Rachel— Genesis 35:16-22

o) The Death of Isaac— Genesis 35:23-29

9. The Generations of Esau — Genesis 36:1-43

a) The Family of Esau— Genesis 36:1-14

b) The Dukes of Edom— Genesis 36:15-19

c) The Sons of Seir the Horite— Genesis 36:20-30

d) The Kings of Edom— Genesis 36:31-39

e) The Chiefs of Edom— Genesis 36:40-43

10. The Generations of Jacob — Genesis 37:1 to Genesis 50:26

a) God's Divine Call to Jacob— Genesis 37:1-11

b) Joseph Sold in Slavery— Genesis 37:12-36

c) Judah and Tamar— Genesis 38:1-30

d) Joseph in Prison— Genesis 39:1-23

e) Joseph Interprets Dreams— Genesis 40:1-23

f) Joseph Exalted over Egypt— Genesis 41:1-57

g) Joseph's Brothers Visit Egypt— Genesis 42:1-38

h) Joseph's Brothers Return to Egypt— Genesis 43:1-34

i) Joseph Reveals Himself— Genesis 44:1 to Genesis 45:28

j) Isaac Journeys to Egypt— Genesis 46:1-34

k) Jacob Blesses Pharaoh— Genesis 47:1-12

l) Egypt's Prosperity Under Joseph— Genesis 47:13-26

m) Jacob's Request to Be Buried in Canaan— Genesis 47:27-31

n) Jacob Blesses Manasseh and Ephraim— Genesis 48:1-22

o) Jacob's Prophecies Over His Sons— Genesis 49:1-28

p) Jacob's Death and Burial— Genesis 49:29 to Genesis 50:14

q) Joseph Reassures His Brothers— Genesis 50:15-21

r) The Death of Joseph— Genesis 50:22-26

BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Sailhamer, John H. Genesis. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 2. Eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992. In Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM]. Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001).

Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 1. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004.

Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 16-50. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 2. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004.

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Lectionary Calendar
Monday, October 14th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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