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Bible Commentaries

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible
Exodus

Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7
Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11
Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15
Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19
Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23
Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27
Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 31
Chapter 32 Chapter 33 Chapter 34 Chapter 35
Chapter 36 Chapter 37 Chapter 38 Chapter 39
Chapter 40

Book Overview - Exodus

Author and Time of Writing

What has been said to the book of Genesis also applies to Exodus. In Genesis Moses depended on the revelations of God and possibly on the accounts of his ancestors while he was mostly able to write down the happenings of Exodus to Deuteronomy by his own view and experience under the guidance of the Holy Spirit (compare Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 31:22; Deuteronomy 31:24).

In the New Testament Moses is mentioned several times as author of Exodus (for example Luke 20:37; Mark 7:10).

Between the happenings at the end of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus there are nearly 300 years.

Purpose of Writing

In the book of Exodus we find no longer exclusively the dealings of God with individuals mentioned. We are coming to know a redeemed people of God. The origin and redemption of God's earthly people Israel is described. Israel is delivered from the slavery in Egypt and is led on to the way into the promised land of Canaan. Therefore Exodus is the book of redemption. Its landmarks are the Passover and the passage through the Red Sea (see explanation in 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Corinthians 10:1-2).

After the exodus out of Egypt the people of Israel received the law of Jehovah and erected the tabernacle of congregation according to His command. Through that the new relationship between the people and Jehovah were fixed:

  • God was now dwelling amidst His people

  • Israel was able to approach God and to worship Him (by means of the offerings)

  • the Glory of the Lord was typically revealed.

The epistles to the Romans and Galatians can be compared with the Book of Exodus, there subjects being redemption and the relation of the Christian to the law.

Peculiarities

a) Typology

The book of Exodus is especially rich in typical teachings. The following is of importance: Egypt is a picture of this present world (Galatians 1:4), the Red Sea is a picture of the death and resurrection of Christ and of the death of the old man with Christ (Romans 6:6). The stay in the desert describes the earthly circumstances in which the believer has to stand the test (John 17:14-15).

b) Date of Exodus out of Egypt

Most of today's scholars date the exodus of Israel in the 13th century BC, that is in the time of the 19th Dynasty (Ramses I. to Merenphthah, under whose reign the name of Israel is first mentioned in Egypt). This late date leaves much too little time for the period of conquest of the land and for the time of the judges. The different indications of time in the Bible also would be untrustworthy (see Jude 1:12; 1 Kings 6:1; Acts 13:20). But if we take the Biblical indications the time of the exodus can be dated to the year 1446 BC approximately.

Overview of Contents

I. Exodus 1-13 : Israel in Egypt

Chapter

1 Israel's Oppression
Chapter 2 Moses' Birth, Upbringing and Flight to Midian
Chapter 3 God reveals Himself to Moses as Jehovah (Jahwe) at (Mount) Horeb
Chapter 4 God's Commission to Moses
Chapter 5 Moses speaks to Pharaoh
Chapter 6 God encourages Moses; Pharaoh hardens his heart
Chapter 7 1st Plague: Water turned into blood
Chapter 8 2nd Plague: Frogs; 3rd Plague: Lice (Gnats), 4th Plague: (Dog-) Flies
Chapter 9 5th Plague. Very grievous Murrain ; 6th Plague: Boils; God hardens Pharao's heart; 7th Plague: Hail
Chapter 10 8th Plague: Locusts; 9th Plague: Darkness
Chapter 11 Announcement of the 10th Plague and of Israel's Exodus
Chapter 12 Institution of the Passover and Killing of all Firstborn in Egypt
Chapter 13 Sanctification of the Firstborn of Israel and Beginning of the Exodus

II. Exodus 14-18 : Israel's Journey to Mount Sinaï

Chapter 14 Jehovah saves Israel at the Red Sea
Chapter 15 The Song of Redemption
Chapter 16 The Manna (John 6:31-59)
Chapter 17 The Water out of the Rock (1 Corinthians 10:4); Battle against Amalek
Chapter 18 Jethro's Advice for Moses

III. Exodus 19-24 : Covenant and Giving of the Law at Sinaï

Chapter 19 The Covenant of Jehovah with Israel
Chapter 20 The Ten Commandments
Chapter 21 The Law - Personal Rights
Chapter 22 The Law - Rights of Property
Chapter 23 The Law - Rights in Social and Religious Life
Chapter 24 The Covenant is concluded

IV. Exodus 25-31 : Commandments for the Sanctuary and the Priesthood

Chapter 25 The Heave-Offering; the Ark of Covenant, the Table and Candle-stick
Chapter 26 The Tabernacle
Chapter 27 The Altar of Burnt Offering and the Court of Tabernacle
Chapter 28 Holy Garments for the Priests
Chapter 29 Hallowing of the Priests and the Continual Burnt Offering
Chapter 30 The Golden Altar of Incense; the Brazen Laver; the Oil of Holy Ointment and the Incense
Chapter 31 Bezaleel and Aholiab

V. Exodus 32-34 : Israel's Departure and the Grace of God

Chapter 32 The Golden Calf and the Broken Tables of Testimony
Chapter 33 Moses as Mediator
Chapter 34 The Second Law

VI. Exodus 35-40 : The Building of the Sanctuary

Chapter 35 The Heave-Offering
Chapter 36 The Building of the Tabernacle
Chapter 37 The Ark of Covenant; the Table; the Candle-stick and the Altar of Incense
Chapter 38 The Altar of Burnt Offering and the Court
Chapter 39 The Holy Garments for the Priests
Chapter 40 The Setting-Up of the Tabernacle

Arend Remmers


Lectionary Calendar
Friday, August 17th, 2018
the Week of Proper 14 / Ordinary 19
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