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Bible Commentaries

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible
Judges 5

 

 

Introduction

Chapter 5. Deborah’s Song.

This chapter contains a song of praise by Deborah and Barak over the victories gained over Jabin and his kingdom. An exhortation to praise is offered, and kings stirred to listen to it. Then the majestic appearance of God at Seir and on Sinai is described in awe-inspiring terms. This is followed by a description of the miserable state and condition Israel was in before these victories, until Deborah arose to deliver them, and the call went out to the tribes to respond in accordance with the covenant. Descriptions follow of those who responded and those who failed to respond. The latter are reproved, and even cursed. The battle is then described and blessing offered for Jael who as a foreigner dealt with the enemy general. It finishes with the sad picture of Sisera’s wife waiting hopelessly for her man to return, and a final plea that Yahweh’s enemies will all likewise perish and those who love Him be as the sun in its brilliance. Introduction (Judges 5:1-3).


Verse 1

Chapter 5. Deborah’s Song.

This chapter contains a song of praise by Deborah and Barak over the victories gained over Jabin and his kingdom. An exhortation to praise is offered, and kings stirred to listen to it. Then the majestic appearance of God at Seir and on Sinai is described in awe-inspiring terms. This is followed by a description of the miserable state and condition Israel was in before these victories, until Deborah arose to deliver them, and the call went out to the tribes to respond in accordance with the covenant. Descriptions follow of those who responded and those who failed to respond. The latter are reproved, and even cursed. The battle is then described and blessing offered for Jael who as a foreigner dealt with the enemy general. It finishes with the sad picture of Sisera’s wife waiting hopelessly for her man to return, and a final plea that Yahweh’s enemies will all likewise perish and those who love Him be as the sun in its brilliance. Introduction (Judges 5:1-3).

Judges 5:1

Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam, in that day, saying.’

That the song of Deborah was contemporary with the victory itself is recognised by most scholars. The song would appear to have been composed by Deborah herself (Judges 5:7), but it was a public song of victory in which all partook. It is an interesting example of Hebrew parallelism whereby each line is repeated in a different way.


Verse 2

“In that the leaders took the lead in Israel,

In that the people offered themselves willingly.

Bless you Yahweh.”

That leaders and people had responded to Yahweh’s command through Deborah was an occasion for ‘blessing’, that is giving praise and worship to, Yahweh. Without their willing response the victory would not have been achieved. We will learn later about those who did not respond.

The first phrase is difficult. It could be translated more literally ‘in that the loose (hair) hung loose in Israel’. This refers to the making of vows and the growing of the hair long, compare Samson (Judges 13:5), Samuel (1 Samuel 1:11) and the Nazirites (Numbers 6:5). Thus we could translate ‘in that those who made vows (to Yahweh) avowed themselves in Israel’. Compare the use of para‘ (loose) in Leviticus 10:6; Numbers 5:18.


Verse 3

“Hear, O you kings,

Give ear, O you princes,

I even I will sing to Yahweh,

I will sing praise to Yahweh, the God of Israel.”

The call now goes out for all princes and kings around, all who can hear, to hear her song, and to learn what Yahweh, the God of Israel, has done, and why she sings His praises. And sing His praises she will because of what He has done.


Verse 4-5

The Greatness of Yahweh (Judges 5:4-5).

Judges 5:4-5

“Yahweh, when you went out of Seir,

When you marched out of the field of Edom,

The earth quaked, the heavens also dropped,

Yes, the clouds dropped water.

The mountains flooded down at the presence of Yahweh,

Even yon Sinai, at the presence of Yahweh, the God of Israel.”

The greatness of Yahweh was now described in terms of natural phenomenon. The connection of Seir with Sinai suggests that we have here a picture of Yahweh marching with His people out of the wilderness to capture the land of Canaan for Himself. ‘Seir, the field of Edom’, was connected with the old Edom (Genesis 32:3) and that stretched right back into the wilderness.

The quaking earth was a reminder of God’s revelation of Himself at Sinai (Exodus 19:18), while the waters flooding down were particularly appropriate in view of the way in which He destroyed the Canaanites at the Kishon. The thought is of a mighty storm which she may reasonably have connected with the phenomena at Sinai (Exodus 19:16), while linking Sinai with what he had done at Kishon. For this is poetry. Compare Psalms 68:7-9 which clearly has the song of Deborah in view. Thus the God of the covenant fulfilled His part in the covenant at Kishon. The floods of water from the skies flowed down ‘from Mount Sinai’.

She may also have had in mind the blessing of Moses. There Moses had said, ‘Yahweh came from Sinai, And rose from Mount Seir to them, He shone forth from Paran, and He came from ten thousands of holy ones’ (Deuteronomy 33:2 compare Psalms 68:17). It is clear reference to the fact that their mighty covenant God, with Whom they had dealt at Sinai, had come with them. He was not a far off God in a holy mountain, He was One Who was with them, the ‘I am’.


Verses 6-8

The Condition of Israel and The Rise of Deborah (Judges 5:6-8).

Judges 5:6

“In the days of Shamgar, the son of Anath,

In the days of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite,

The highways were unoccupied,

And the travellers walked through byways.”

In the days, that is, before they acted (Judges 3:31; Judges 4:17). Israel in those days dared not be found in the plains where the caravans made their way between Mesopotamia and Egypt. They had had to trade secretly and keep to secret paths to avoid the enemy. For the Philistines were threatening from one angle and Hazor from another. Thus the actions of Shamgar and Jael are possibly seen as contemporary. Israel were a people who lived in terror until, along with Deborah, Shamgar and Jael arrived.

Judges 5:7 a

‘Those in open country ceased in Israel, they ceased.’

It was at this time not safe for Israelites to live in the open country for otherwise they would suffer raids and have had all they possessed taken away from them, while they themselves would have been left as dead. While we are dealing with poetic exaggeration, this all suggests the cruel way in which Jabin was dealing with them.

Judges 5:7 b

‘Until that I, Deborah, arose, that I arose a mother in Israel.’

It was the rise of Deborah, the Spirit-filled prophetess, that made the difference. She points to herself because she is the instrument of Yahweh. There may be here a deliberate contrast with the mother in verse 28 who waited in vain. Deborah had known what it was like to be such a mother, watching hopelessly, like the other mothers in Israel, while their sons were brutally treated and slain. But more probably it refers to her status as a prophetess. Compare the other wise woman, ‘the mother in Israel’, who waited to be destroyed along with her city, and saved it by her wisdom (2 Samuel 20:19). By her wisdom and guidance and judgments Deborah had been a true ‘mother in Israel’, and she would especially be so when she delivered her people.

Notice the repetition of ‘ceased’ and the repetition of ‘arose’, placed in parallel for contrast, and doubled for emphasis. The cessation had taken place some time before. Now had come the arising.

Judges 5:8

“They chose new gods, then was war in the gates.

Was there a shield or spear seen among forty eleph in Israel?”

The parlous state of Israel is now described. Instead of seeking to Yahweh, they had sought new gods, they had turned to the Baalim and the Ashtaroth. And the result for them was war, a war in which they could not defend themselves for they were without shield or spear. They were unarmed. Those who dominated them would not allow them to carry weapons.

“Forty eleph.” This is a general figure. It illustrates well the general use of numbers in ancient days. The forty represents trial and waiting, the ‘military units’ or ‘thousands’ represent a full number. It thus summarises the whole of Israel’s available fighting men without counting them, waiting and under trial.

Some would see it as referring to the forty thousand (one tenth of four hundred thousand - Judges 20:2 with Judges 20:10) who went against Benjamin in battle in the revenge for Gibeah (Judges 20:19-21). The passage would then refer to the new gods which led to the disgraceful behaviour of the men of Gibeah and the resulting war. The question about arms would then be answered ‘yes’.

“In the gates.” The gates of a fortified city were always its weak point which is why when kings were strong their gates were huge and complicated, like a heavily fortified tower. That was where an attacker would concentrate his attacks and the main fighting would take place.


Verses 9-11

Deborah Praises Those Who Responded to the Call to Arms (Judges 5:9-11).

Judges 5:9

“My heart is towards the governors of Israel,

Who offered themselves willingly among the people.

Bless you Yahweh.”

Deborah expresses her gratitude to those leaders who willingly offered themselves to fight for Yahweh, for whom Yahweh should be praised. Some see this as referring to those who in the times of trouble were willing to act as leaders and guides to the people, for it was a dangerous position to be in. The leaders were always the scapegoats when anything went wrong. But the end of Judges 5:11 would point to the first interpretation.

Judges 5:10

“Tell of it,

You who ride on white asses,

You who sit on rich carpets,

And you who walk by the way.”

To ride on an ass was a position of prestige (Judges 10:4), and a white ass was seen as even more prestigious, the ride of princes. But they rode on asses when riding in peace. Thus those who ride on white asses are those who are important and distinguished, yet live in peace. They know nothing of war. The carpet was used for sitting on, and rich carpets were lush and comfortable. Thus those who sit on rich carpets are those who are wealthy and loll around at ease.

“You who walk by the way.” These are the ordinary people, the wayfarers, who can use the ordinary paths openly, unlike the previous furtiveness of captive Israel (Judges 5:6). They should be grateful for their freedom.

The idea of all three descriptions is that Deborah is declaring that those who are at ease, far away and untroubled by war, will see what Yahweh will do for Israel, miserable in its captivity, revealing His rule over them, and it will be the talking point among them. All the world is called on to notice what God is doing.

Judges 5:11

“Far from the noise of archers,

In the place of drawing water,

There will they rehearse the righteous acts of Yahweh.

Even the righteous acts towards those who live in the open places in Israel.

Then the people of Yahweh went down to the gates.”

Those who gather at the wells and springs, well away from war and the twang of the deadly bow (‘archers’ - literally ‘those who divide’ - some refer this to ‘those who divide the strings on stringed instruments’), will speak with awe of what Yahweh has done for Israel. The wells were the places where news was passed on and discussed, where the latest gossip could be gathered as everyone came to draw water. That is why in the Bible people so often go to a well when they want to make contact with the people of the land.

“There will they rehearse the righteous acts of Yahweh, even the righteous acts towards those who live in the open places in Israel.” All will talk of what Yahweh has done as they draw their water and discuss the latest news, all will recognise the rightness of His actions which have resulted once more in the people of Israel being able to live again in the open places. (The word translated ‘those who live in the open places’ is found only here and in Judges 5:7 and nowhere else).

“Then the people of Yahweh went down to the gates.” The gates are the gates where there is war (Judges 5:8). Having described how all the world will know of what Yahweh has done, the crunch time has come. Yahweh’s people went down to the gates of war. They were ready to face the enemy.


Verses 12-17

The Call To Action and the Response (Judges 5:12-15).

Judges 5:12

“Awake, awake, Deborah.

Awake, awake, utter a song.

Arise Barak, and lead your captivity captive,

You son of Abinoam.”

Accordingly there now comes the call to the leaders to do their duty. Deborah, the prophetess, is to ‘utter a song’, in other words to prophesy. We can compare with this how the king of Moab called on Balaam to prophesy against Israel (Numbers 22:5-6). The words of such a prophet or prophetess were seen as mighty weapons of war. Barak is to remove captivity from Israel by making their captivity itself captive. Or alternately by capturing those who held them captive and leading them as a host of captives. Note again the comparative repetitions. Deborah is twice exhorted to stir her prophetic gift into action, and ‘captivity’ is repeated twice in the exhortation to Barak.

Judges 5:13-15 a.

“Then came down a remnant of the nobles.

The people of Yahweh came down for me against the mighty.

Out of Ephraim those whose root is in Amalek.

“After you, Benjamin,” among your peoples.

Out of Machir came down governors,

And out of Zebulun those who handle the marshal's staff.

And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah,

As was Issachar so was Barak,

Into the valley they rushed forth at his feet.’

Deborah describes the response of the tribes to the call to arms. The nobles may have been seen as a remnant because the remainder had been executed by the king of Hazor, but more probably because others (their tribes described later) did not respond. But the people of Yahweh did nobly respond (or at least some of them). Ephraim and Benjamin, Machir and Zebulun, and Issachar. Naphtali had, of course, made the call and would therefore be counted among them.

“Ephraim whose root is in Amalek.” Compare Judges 12:15. Ephraim appears to have taken over territory previously occupied by Amalekites, or possibly had Amalekites living among them. It may however refer to former Amalekites who had become Ephraimites by accepting the covenant with Yahweh. None are more zealous than the convert.

“After you (or ‘following you”) , Benjamin!’ Hosea 5:8 implies that this may have been their famous battlecry. Machir, this may have been the part of Manasseh west of Jordan (Machir is a son of Manasseh), but Joshua 17:1 places Machir in Gilead and Bashan. They had leaders who did respond. In Zebulun ‘those who handle the marshal’s staff,’ (or ‘scribal staff’), were possibly those who ensured and controlled supplies to the army, or it may be glorying in the fact that even their scribes responded to the call. But the parallel is what suggests ‘marshal’s’, leaders of the people.

Issachar’s princes were also there giving their support to Deborah, and so was Barak. He was the one they all followed as they rushed into the valley, the plain by the Kishon. Once he was committed, as a consequence of Deborah accompanying him, he led nobly as the great warrior he was.


The Roll of Dishonour - The List of Those Who Failed to Respond (Judges 5:15-17).

Judges 5:15-17 (15b-17).

“By the watercourses of Reuben,

There were great resolves of heart.

Why did you sit among the sheepfolds,

To hear the pipings for the flocks?

At the watercourses of Reuben,

there were great searchings of heart.

Gilead abode beyond Jordan,

And Dan, why did he remain in boats?

Asher sat still at the haven of the sea,

And abode by his creeks.”

The call had gone out to the tribes, but some had failed to respond. As in Genesis 49:4, Reuben was as usual two-minded, unable to decide what to do. Great resolve was followed by great heartsearching. Although to be fair to them, with Moab waiting on their borders they had much to think about. So in the end, rather than listening to the call of Yahweh, they sat among the sheepfolds listening to the shepherd boys calling their flocks by piping on their flutes. (This can still be heard today in the Near East). The spirit was willing but the flesh was weak. They listened at ease, enjoying the irrelevancies of life, rather than responding to Yahweh.

Gilead just refused to come. They stayed where they were. This represented Gad (Joshua 13:24) and parts of Manasseh (Joshua 17:1). (But see on Machir above). Dan too were not interested, they were too busy fishing (although another rendering of ‘in boats’ might be ‘at ease’, based on findings at Ugarit. But ‘in boats’ is a good parallel for ‘by his creeks’). They were a long way from the action. Asher stayed by the sea to the west. They were the more guilty because they were fairly close to the action. Perhaps they did not want to bring the wrath of Hazor on themselves.


Verse 18

The Victory of Yahweh (Judges 5:18-22).

Judges 5:18

“Zebulun were a people who jeopardised their lives unto death,

And Naphtali on the high places of the field.”

These (including Issachar with Naphtali) formed the main bulk of the units which climbed Mount Tabor, ‘the high places of the earth’, from which they could swoop down on their foes. They were the ones prepared to take the main bulk of the fighting.

“The high places of the field” may have been poetic licence as the singer looked at the hills among which was Tabor. Or it may even be that the battle did take them into the hills, seeking the fleeing enemy. Alternately it may poetically signify the hottest part of the fighting.


Verse 19

Judges 5:19

“The kings came and fought,

Then fought the kings of Canaan,

In Taanach by the waters of Megiddo.

They took no gain of wealth.”

Jabin’s confederacy, led by the kings of Canaan under Sisera, came to the fight, their hearts filled with the thought of booty. They fought in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo, that is, by the Kishon (Judges 4:7). This indicates that Megiddo was not standing at the time, suggesting a date around 1125 BC, Taanach, the largest city there, identifying the area.

“They took no gain of wealth.” Their expectations of booty from a glorious victory (compare Judges 5:30) turned to dust, they left the field with empty hands. Their hopes were totally dashed. Nor did they receive any reward of any kind for their activity, for they abysmally failed.


Verses 20-22

Judges 5:20-21 a.

“They fought from heaven,

The stars in their courses fought against Sisera.

The river Kishon swept them away,

That ancient river, the river Kishon.”

Earth and heaven combined to destroy their armies. Compare Joshua 10:13. The river Kishon was a river bed that wended its way through the Valley of Esdraelon. But when the rains pelted down in the hills around, and on the plain, it could quickly become a swollen river, overflowing its banks and flooding the plain. Some who have seen it have described the traces of where waters from the hills would make their way into the river in times of heavy rains. It was where Elijah destroyed the worshippers of Baal (1 Kings 18:40).

“The stars in their courses (highways).” Deborah may have had in mind the ‘ten thousands of holy ones’ who accompanied Yahweh in Deuteronomy 33:2. Or simply that nature was on their side. The stars are usually seen as affecting events by ceasing to shine (Isaiah 13:10; Ezekiel 32:7; Joel 2:10; Joel 3:15). Thus the idea might be that the skies became so blackened with rainclouds that although it was ‘night’ the stars could not shine. Clearly then they were ‘responsible’ for what happened. The darkness would aid the swift footsoldiers of Israel who knew exactly what they were doing, and who was who. And ‘the ancient river’ may possibly suggest that the river was deified in Canaanite eyes (similar to the Nile to Egyptians). That also fought against them, impeding them and sweeping away any caught up in it.

Judges 5:21 b

‘Oh my soul, march on with strength.’

For these occasional added comments see Judges 5:2; Judges 5:9. Exulted by what she visualises, Deborah encourages her soul to continued strength. If Yahweh has done this, what can He not do?

Judges 5:22

“Then did the horse hoofs stamp by reason of their prancings,

The prancings of their strong ones.”

As the horses sought to gallop the waters hindered them, causing them to stamp impatiently, and even rear up. And this too would affect the ‘men of strength’ who rode them and tried to drive them on. But they were stamping in defeat. However, if we compare Jeremiah 8:16 the ‘strong ones’ may be the horses themselves. Thus it may mean that the behaviour of the horses affected each other.


Verses 23-27

The Cursed and the Blessed (Judges 5:23-27).

Judges 5:23

“Curse you Meroz, said the angel of Yahweh,

Curse you bitterly (literally ‘curse cursing’) its inhabitants,

Because they came not to the help of Yahweh,

To the help of Yahweh against the mighty.’

Meroz is cursed because it was of the tribe of Naphtali. Meroz alone of Naphtali refused to contribute to the action, probably because they feared reprisals from Hazor. But thereby they brought a curse on their own heads, and probably vengeance as well.

Meroz was probably a town a few miles (kilometres) north of Kedesh-naphtali from which Barak came. Note the mention of the angel of Yahweh to demonstrate how closely Yahweh was involved in the action (and how the angel of Yahweh appears distinguished from Yahweh). The expression also indicates Deborah’s source of inspiration.

Judges 5:24

“Blessed above women shall Jael be,

The wife of Heber the Kenite.

Blessed shall she be,

Above women in the tent.”

In stark contrast to Meroz, the native born Israelites who refused help to Israel, was Jael the Kenite, who gave that help. Indeed she will be blessed above all women who live in tents, that is, semi-nomadic women. Or it may mean that in a tent of women she will be exalted because of what she did.

Judges 5:25

“He asked water, and she gave him milk,

She brought him yoghurt in a lordly dish.”

This may just be describing how she treated him right royally, but it may be metaphorical for what follows. That was milk indeed! ‘A lordly dish’ - a dish fit for a lord.

Judges 5:26-27.

“She put her hand to the nail,

And her right hand to the workmen's hammer,

And with the hammer she smote Sisera,

She smote through his head.

Yes she pierced and struck through his temples.

At her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay.

At her feet he bowed, he fell.

Where he bowed, there he fell down spoiled (become a spoil).”

The picture is triumphant. The nail in the left hand, the hammer in the right, she smote it through his head, yes, she pierced and struck through his temples. And like a beaten foe he fell at her feet (perhaps metaphorically - although it is possible that in his death throes he staggered up and then collapsed). Note the stress ‘she smote -- she smote’, ‘he bowed -- he bowed’. She had taken her spoil. No woman of her time would have doubted that this man, who violated her tent, deserved what he received, for all would read the implications behind it. There was no law of hospitality that catered for a situation like this.

Possibly significant are the verbs used. To ‘bow’ over a woman was to have intercourse with her (Job 31:10) and ‘to lay’ was used of rape (Deuteronomy 22:23; Deuteronomy 22:25; Deuteronomy 22:28). Perhaps there is here the suggestion of vengeance for previous rape, what he had done to her being connected with his fall. Note how rape is also prominent in Judges 5:30.


Verses 28-30

The Mother of Sisera, a Stark Contrast to Jael (Judges 5:28-30).

Looking back through the ages we rightly feel pity for this poor woman waiting for her son. But then they were not our daughters whom her husband would have raped and enslaved, decked in stolen finery (Judges 5:30-31). She had had no pity for them then, only delight in his doings. Her heart had been pitiless towards those less fortunate, and less pampered, than herself.

Judges 5:28

“Through the window she looked out and lamented,

The mother of Sisera cried out through the lattice.

Why is his chariot so long in coming?

Why linger the forward movements (‘steps’ of his chariots?’

The mother of Sisera looked out impatiently for her son’s return. His return with the spoils of war, and with all his chariots, in triumph. Why did he have to be so long? She had no thought for his victims, only for the rewards she would receive as a result of his activities.

“The lattice.” The window would have no glass, but be covered by a lattice.

Judges 5:29

“Her wise ladies answered her,

Yes, she returned answer to herself.”

There was no doubt among her ladies, only certainty. He had after all gone out with superior force against a rag tag of rebellious serfs. What could possibly have happened?

“Her wise women.” This is deliberately ironic, how wise they proved to be! Their wisdom was confounded by Yahweh. But she was just as confident as they. And what a contrast here between the lonely woman in her tent, who had possibly previously been ravaged, and this woman surrounded by protectors. No one would be able to enter her boudoir. No one could think of despoiling her. She was not just someone who was there to be used.

Judges 5:30

“Have they not found,

Have they not divided the spoil?

A damsel, two damsels to every man.

To Sisera a spoil of divers colours,

A spoil of divers colours of embroidery,

Of divers colours of embroidery,

On both sides on the necks of the spoil?”

She was well aware that part of the reason for the delay would be the time taken in dividing the spoil. And they would no doubt want to satisfy themselves, each taking one or two tasty virgins. She knew of it, for she had experienced it all before. She gave no thought to the poor damsels.

“A damsel”. Literally ‘a womb’. The word was used on the Moabite stone of temple slave girls. Someone to be used, and to produce unrecognised bastards, and bring them up in undesirable circumstances. Women available for their lusts. A correct translation would possibly be too crude for Christian readers. There was no compassion in her heart for them. They were ‘spoils’ of war. No wonder that Deborah, who had seen such behaviour among the Canaanites, rejoiced for the sake of such women in the action of Jael.

And not only women but multicoloured finery. And what was worse, finery which had bedecked the beautiful virgins (‘on both sides on the necks of the spoil’) before they were savagely raped, and their finery wrenched off them. While we are right to be sympathetic, we also recognise that she does not really deserve it. All she thought of was herself at great cost to others. And Deborah had in mind what had been done to virgins of Israel in the past, and what this woman’s husband had intended to do with them after the battle. What Yahweh’s action had saved them from.


Verse 31

The Cry of Triumph (Judges 5:31).

Judges 5:31 a

“So let all your enemies perish, Oh Yahweh.

But let those who love him be as the sun when he goes out in his might.”

Deborah finishes with a cry to Yahweh, that all His enemies will also be dealt with in the same way, that all might so perish. For only then can Israel be free. But for those who love Him she desires that they shine like the sun as it comes up in its strength, a picture of splendour and glory.

Judges 5:31 b

‘And the land had rest forty years.’

A comment added at the end of the song. The result of the victory of Yahweh was a generation of peace. But a period also of waiting and testing for the next episode in the story.

It is significant in the song that there is no mention of Judah and Simeon. They were clearly either not called on or not expected to respond to the call. This may have been because it was recognised that they could not because they were facing their own problems, the keeping at bay of the Philistine threat. Shamgar may have been connected with Judah (Joshua 15:59 - there was a Beth Anoth in the territory of Judah). This partial separation from the other tribes (although they assisted against Cushan-rishathaim (Judges 3:9) and in the Gibeah incident (Judges 20:18)) would come to fruition later on in the establishing of Israel and Judah as separate nations.

It is interesting to note the use of ‘Gilead’ to represent tribes across the Jordan, possibly a sign that territorial position was beginning partially to replace tribal designation, unless the reference is to the sub-tribe of Gilead (Numbers 26:29).

 


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Bibliography Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Judges 5:4". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/judges-5.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, November 15th, 2019
the Week of Proper 27 / Ordinary 32
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