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Bible Commentaries

The Pulpit Commentaries
2 Timothy 4

 

 

Verses 1-22

EXPOSITION

2 Timothy 4:1

In the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus for therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, A.V. and T.R.; and by for at, A.V. and T.R. I charge thee ( διαμαρτύρομαι); as 2 Timothy 2:14 and 1 Timothy 5:21 (where see note). The words οὖν ἐγώ, wanting in some of the best manuscripts, are "rejected by Griesbach, Tischendorf, Lachmann," and by Huther, Alford, Ellicott, and others. The chapter opens rather abruptly without the connecting "therefore." And by his appearing and his kingdom. The reading of the T.R., κατὰ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν κ. τ. λ.., "at his appearing and kingdom," makes such excellent sense, and is in such perfect accordance with the usual grammar, and with the usual connection of events, that it is difficult not to believe that it is the right reading (see Matthew 27:15, κατὰ ἑορτήν, "at the feast;" κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον, "on every sabbath;" Acts 13:27, κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν, "in the day;" Hebrews 3:8 for the grammar; and the universal language of Scripture and the Creeds connecting the judgment with the Lord's appearing and kingdom). On the other hand, the reading καὶ is almost impossible to construe. No two commentators scarcely are agreed how to do so. Some take τὴν ἐπιφανείαν καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν as the object governed by διαμαρτύρομαι as in the LXX. of Deuteronomy 4:26, "I call to witness… Christ's epiphany and kingdom," taking διαμαρτύρομαι in two senses or two constructions. Others take them as the accusatives of the things sworn by, "I charge thee before God and Jesus Christ, and by his epiphany and kingdom," as Mark 5:7, τὸν θεόν, "by God;" Acts 19:13, τὸν ̓ιησοῦν, "by Jesus;" 1 Thessalonians 5:27, τὸν κύριον, "by the Lord." But how awkward such a separation of the thing sworn by from the verb is, and how unnatural it is to couple with καὶ the two ideas, "before God" and "by Christ's epiphany," and how absolutely without example such a swearing by Christ's epiphany and kingdom is, nobody needs to be told. Others, as Huther, try to get over part at least of this awkwardness by taking the two και's as "both:" "by both his epiphany and his kingdom." Ellicott explains it by saying that as you could not put "the epiphany and the kingdom" in dependence upon ἐνώπιον (as if they were persons like God and Christ), they "naturally pass into the accusative." But surely this is all thoroughly unsatisfactory. The T.R. is perfectly easy and simple. Appearing ( ἐπιφανεία); 1 Thessalonians 5:8; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. His kingdom. So in the Nicene Creed: "He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end" (comp. Matthew 25:31, followed by the judgment).

2 Timothy 4:2

Teaching for doctrine, A.V. Preach the Word ( κήρυξον τὸν λόγον). It is impossible to exaggerate the dignity and importance here given to preaching by its being made the subject of so solemn and awful an adjuration as that in 2 Timothy 4:1 (compare the designation of κήρυξ which St. Paul gives to himself in 1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11). Be instant ( ἐπίστηθι). The force of the exhortation must be found, not in the verb itself taken alone, but by coupling εὐκαίρως ἀκαίρως closely with it. Be at your work, attend to it always, in and out of season; let nothing stop you; be always ready, always at hand. Reprove ( ἔλεγξον); see 2 Timothy 3:16, note (comp. Matthew 18:15; Ephesians 5:11; 1 Timothy 5:20). Generally with the idea of bringing the fault home to the offender. Rebuke ( ἐπιτίμησον); a stronger word than ἔλεγξον, implying more of authority and less of argument (Matthew 8:26 : Matthew 17:18; Luke 19:39; Jud Luke 1:9, etc.). Exhort ( παρακάλεσον). Sometimes the sense of "exhort," and sometimes that of "comfort," predominates (see 1 Timothy 2:1; 1 Timothy 6:2, etc.). Every way of strengthening and establishing souls in the fear and love of God is to be tried, and that with all long suffering and teaching. (For μακροθυμία, see 2 Timothy 3:10, note.) For "teaching" or "doctrine" ( διδαχή), St. Paul more frequently uses διδασκαλία in the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 1:10; 1 Timothy 4:6, 1 Timothy 4:13, 1 Timothy 4:16; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Timothy 3:10, 1 Timothy 3:16, etc.); but there does not seem to be any great difference of meaning. Possibly διδαχή points more to the act of teaching. The use of it here, coupled with "long suffering," directs that the man of God, whether he preaches, reproves, rebukes, or exhorts, is always to be a patient teacher of God's Word and truth.

2 Timothy 4:3

The sound for sound, A.V.; having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts for after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears, A.V. The sound ( τῆς ὑγιαινούσης). Nothing is gained by the addition of the article in English. The phrase, ἡ ὑγιαίνουσα διδασκαλία, is characteristic of the pastoral Epistles, having arisen, no doubt, from the growth of heresy (see 1 Timothy 1:10; 1 Timothy 6:3. 2 Timothy 1:13; Titus 1:9, Titus 1:13; Titus 2:1; also Titus 2:8). In classical Greek, ὑγιής is frequently applied to words, sentiments, advice, etc., in the sense of "sound," "wise;" and ὑγιαίειν is also applied to the mind and character. Endure ( ἀνέξονται); usually, as Bishop Ellicott observes, applied by St. Paul to persons as the object, as elsewhere in the New Testament (Matthew 17:17; Acts 18:14; Ephesians 4:2, etc.); but not invariably (see 2 Thessalonians 1:4; so too Hebrews 13:22). In classical Greek, ἀνέχεσθαι, followed by persons or things, usually governs an accusative case, if any, but a genitive frequently in Plato. Having itching ears ( κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν); only here in the New Testament. The phrase, κνησέως ὤτων, is ascribed by Plutarch to Plato (Alford), "scratching the (itching) ear;" κνᾶσθαι τὰ ὧτα, "to tickle the ears" (Lucian); ἀποκναίουσιν ἡμῶν τὰ ᾤτα (Philo, ap. Ellicott). The verb κνήθω (i.q. κνάω) means "to scratch;" "to tickle," and in the passive "to itch." Will heap to themselves ( ἐπισωρεύσουσι); a contemptuous word (found only here in the New Testament, and nowhere in early classical Greek), implying the indiscriminate multiplication of teachers (compare our use of "exaggerate"). The simple σωρεύειν occurs in 2 Timothy 3:6. After their own lusts. The measure of the number or the quality of their self-chosen teachers will be their own insatiable and ever-varying fancies and mental appetites, not the desire to be taught God's truth by teachers sent from God. Compare Jeroboam's conduct in ordaining a feast "in the mouth which he had devised of his own heart" (1 Kings 12:33).

2 Timothy 4:4

Will turn for they shall turn, A.V.; turn aside for shall be turned, A.V. Will turn away, etc. The sober, sound doctrine of the Word of God, teaching self-discipline, humility, and purity of heart and life, will not assuage their itching ears, and therefore they will turn away from it, and go after more congenial fables—those taught by the heretics. Turn aside ( ἐκτραπήσοναι); as 1 Timothy 1:6, note. Fables ( μύθους); see 1 Timothy 1:4; 1 Timothy 4:7; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:16 (on the Jewish origin of these fables, see Bishop Ellicott's note on 1 Timothy 1:4).

2 Timothy 4:5

Be thou sober for watch thou, A.V.; suffer hardship for endure afflictions, A.V.; fulfil for make full proof of, A.V. Be thou sober ( νῆφε); as 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8. The adjective νηφάλιος occurs in 1 Timothy 3:2 (where see note), 11; Titus 2:2. Here "Be sober in all things" clearly does not refer to literal sobriety, which Timothy was in little danger of transgressing (l Timothy 5:23), but comprehends clearness, calmness, steadiness, and moderation in all things. Suffer hardship ( κακοπάθησον); as 2 Timothy 2:3 (T.R.) and 9. An evangelist ( εὐαγγελιστοῦ); one whose business it is to preach the gospel, according to Matthew 11:5. The verb εὐαγγελίζειν, "to preach the gospel," and αὐαγγέλιον, "the gospel," are of very frequent use in the New Testament. But εὐαγγελιστής, an evangelist. occurs elsewhere only in Acts 21:8 and Ephesians 4:11. Fulfil thy ministry. This is rather a weak rendering of the Greek πληροφόρησον,, adopted also in the R.V. of Luke 1:1. The verb occurs elsewhere in Luke 1:1; Romans 4:21; Romans 14:5, and Romans 14:17 of this chapter. The phrase is metaphorical, but it is uncertain whether the metaphor is that of a ship borne along by full sails, or of full measure given. If the former is the metaphor, then the derived meaning, when applied to persons, is that of full persuasion, entire and implicit faith, which carries men forward in a bold and unwavering course; or, when applied to things, that of being undoubtedly believed. But if the metaphor is taken from "bringing full measure;" then the sense in the passive voice when applied to persons will be "to be fully satisfied," i.e. to have full assurance, and, when applied to things, "to be fully believed" (Liddell and Scott). Applying the last metaphor to the passage before us, the sense will be "discharge thy ministry to the fall." Let there be no stint of ministerial labour, but carry it out in its completeness, and to the end.

2 Timothy 4:6

Already being offered for now ready to be offered, A.V.; come for at hand. A.V. I am already being offered. The ἐγώ is emphatic, in contrast with the σύ of 2 Timothy 4:5 : "Thou, who hast still life before thee, suffer hardship, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry. I can do so no longer, for my martyrdom has already commenced, and my end is close at hand. Thou must take my place in the great conflict." Am being offered ( σπένδομαι); am being poured out, as the drink offering, or libation, is poured out. St. Paul uses the same figure in Philippians 2:17, where he couples it with the sacrifice and service (or offering up) of the faith of the Philippians by himself as the priest, and looks upon the pouring out of his own life as the completion of that sacrifice (see Ellicott on Philippians). "The libation always formed the conclusion of the sacrifice, and so the apostle's martyrdom closed his apostolic service" (Huther), which had been a continual sacrifice, in which he had been the ministering priest (Romans 15:16). So that the use of σπένδομαι here exactly agrees with that in Philippians 2:17. "My sacrificial work," St. Paul says," being now finished and ended, I am performing the last solemn act, the pouring out of my own life in martyrdom, to which I shall pass out of the prison where I now am." The time of my departure ( τῆς ἐμῆς ἀναλύσεως). The word is found nowhere else in the New Testament, but St. Paul uses the verb ἀναλῦσαι, "to depart," in Philippians 1:23, where, the verb being in the active voice, the metaphor clearly is from weighing anchor, as in common use in classical Greek; hence simply "to depart." The classical use of ἀνάλυσις rather favours the sense, either of" release" or of " dissolution." But St. Paul's use of ἀναλύω in Philippians 1:23, and the frequent use of the same verb in the LXX. and by Josephus, in the sense of "to depart," favours the rendering of ἀνάλυσις by "departure," as in the A.V. and R.V. Is come; rather, is at hand ( ἐφέστηκε); the same verb as ἐπίστηθι in Philippians 1:2. (On the difference between ἐνέστηκε ("is come") and ἐφέστηκε ("is at hand"), see Alford on 2 Thessalonians 2:2, and comp. Acts 22:20.)

2 Timothy 4:7

The for a, A.V.; the for my, A.V. I have fought the good fight; as 1 Timothy 6:12 ( τὸν ἀγῶνα τὸν καλόν), meaning that, however honourable the contests of the games were deemed, the Christian contest was far more honourable than them all. The word "fight" does not adequately express by agora, which embraces all kinds of contests—chariot race, foot race, wrestling, etc. "I have played out the honourable game" would give the sense, though inelegantly. The course ( τὸν δρόμον); Acts 13:25; Acts 20:24. The runner in the race had a definite δρόμος, or course to run, marked out for him. St. Paul's life was that course, and he knew that he had run it out. I have kept the faith. St. Paul here quits metaphor and explains the foregoing figures. Through his long eventful course, in spite of all difficulties, conflicts, dangers, and temptations, he had kept the faith of Jesus Christ committed to him, inviolable, unadulterated, whole, and complete. He had not shrunk from confessing it when death stared him in the face; he had not corrupted it to meet the views of Jews or Gentiles; with courage and resolution and perseverance he had kept it to the end. Oh! let Timothy do the same.

2 Timothy 4:8

The for a, A.V.; to me for me, A.V.; only to me for to me only, A.V.; also to all them for unto all them also, A.V.; have loved for love. Henceforth ( λοιπόν); as Hebrews 10:13. The work of conflict being over, it only remains to receive the crown. The crown of righteousness means that crown the possession of which marks the wearer as righteous before God. The analogous phrases are, "the crown of glory" (1 Peter 5:4) and "the crown of life" (James 1:12; Revelation 2:10). The righteousness, the glory, and the life of the saints are conceived as displayed in crowns, as the kingly dignity is in the crown of royalty. The righteous Judge ( κριτής). In Acts 10:42 the Lord Jesus is said to be ordained of God κριτὴς ζώντων καὶ νεκρῶν. "the Judge of quick and dead;" and in Hebrews 12:23 we read, κριτῇ θεῷ πάντων, "God the Judge of all." But nowhere else, either in the Old Testament or the New Testament, is this term applied directly either to God or to Christ. Surely its use here is influenced by the preceding metaphor of the ἀγών and the δρόμος and the στέφανος; and "the righteous Judge" is the impartial βραβεύς, or "judge," who assigned the prizes at the games to those who had fairly won them. And this is the proper meaning of κριτής, "the umpire," applied, especially at Athens, to the "judges" at the poetic contests (Liddell and Scott). Thucydides contrasts the κριτής and the ἀγωνιστής; Aristophanes the κριταί and the θεαταί, the "spectators;" and the word "critic" is derived from this meaning of κιτής and κριτικός. The whole picture is that of the apostle running his noble race of righteousness to the very end, and of the Lord himself assigning to him the well earned crown of victory in the presence of heaven and earth assembled for the solemnity of that great day. That have loved his appearing. It will be a characteristic of those who will be crowned at that day that all the time they were lighting the good fight they were looking forward with hope and desire for their Lord's appearing and kingdom. "Thy kingdom come" was their desire and their petition. They will be able to say at that day, "So, this is our God; we have waited for him, and he will save us: this is the Lord; we have waited for him, we will be glad and rejoice in his salvation" (Isaiah 25:9). His appearing; as in Hebrews 12:2.

2 Timothy 4:9

Do thy diligence ( σπούδασον); see 2 Timothy 2:15, note. St. Paul's affectionate longing for Timothy's company in present danger and desertion is very touching. (For the chronological bearing of this passage, see Introduction.)

2 Timothy 4:10

Forsook for hath forsaken, A.V.; went for is departed, A.V.; to for unto, A.V. (twice). Demas. Nothing more is known of Demas than what is gathered from the mention of him in Colossians 4:14 and Philemon 1:24. We learn from those passages that he was a fellow labourer of the apostle, and it is remarkable that in them both he is coupled, as here, with Luke and Mark (Colossians 4:10). (See Introduction.) Having loved this present world. It would appear from this that Demas had not the faith or the courage to run the risk of sharing St. Paul's imminent martyrdom at Rome, but left him, while he was free to do so, under pretence of an urgent call to Thessaloniea; just as Mark left Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:13). But there is no ground to believe that he was an apostate from the faith. The coupling together of Demas and Aristarchus in Philemon 1:24 suggests that Demas may have been a Thessalonian, as we know that Aristarchus was (Acts 20:4). Demas is thought to be a shortened form of Demarchus. If so, we have a slight additional indication of his being a Thessalonian, as compounds with archos or arches would seem to have been common in Thessalonica (compare Aristarchus and πολιτάρχης, Acts 17:6, Acts 17:8). Crescens ( κρήσκης); only mentioned here. It is a Latin name, like πούδης, Pudens, in Philemon 1:21. There was a cynic philosopher of this name in the second century, a great enemy of the Christians. The tradition ('Apost. Constit.,' 7.46) that he preached the gospel in Galatia is probably derived from this passage. Titus, etc. The last mention of Titus, not reckoning the Epistle to Titus, is that in 2 Corinthians 12:18, from which it appears that St. Paul had sent him to Corinth just before his own last visit to that city. How the interval was filled up, and where Titus passed the time, we know not. He is not once named in the Acts of the Apostles, nor in any of St. Paul's Epistles written during his first imprisonment. But we gather from Titus 1:5 that he accompanied St. Paul to Crete, presumably after the apostle's return from Spain; that he was left there for a time to organize the Church; that later he joined the apostle at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12),and, doubtless by St. Paul's desire, went to Dalmatia, as mentioned in this tenth verse. And here our knowledge of him ends. Tradition pretty consistently makes him Bishop of Gortyna, in Crete, where are the ruins of a very ancient church dedicated to St. Titus, in which service is occasionally performed by priests from the neighbourhood (Dean Howson, in 'Dict. of Bible:' art. "Titus").

2 Timothy 4:11

Useful for profitable, A.V.; ministering for the ministry, A.V. Luke; probably a shortened form of Lucanus. Luke was with St. Paul in his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:1; Acts 28:11, Acts 28:16), and when he wrote the Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon (Colossians 4:14; Philemon 1:4), having doubtless composed the Acts of the Apostles during St. Paul's two years' imprisonment (Acts 28:30). How he spent his time between that date and the mention of him here as still with St. Paul, we have no knowledge. But it looks as if he may have been in close personal attendance upon him all the time. if he had been permitted to write a supplement to the Acts, perhaps the repeated "we" would have shown this. Take Mark. Mark had apparently been recently reconciled to St. Paul when he wrote Colossians 4:10, and was with him when he wrote Philemon 1:24. We know nothing more of him till we learn from this passage that he was with or near to Timothy, and likely to accompany him to Rome in his last visit to St. Paul. He is mentioned again in 1 Peter 5:13, as being with St. Peter at Babylon. The expression, "take" ( ἀναλαβών), seems to imply that Timothy was to pick him up on the way, as the word is used in Acts 20:13, Acts 20:14; and, though less certainly, in Acts 23:31. He is useful to me, etc. ( εὔχρηστος); as Acts 2:21 (where see note). This testimony to Mark's ministerial usefulness, at a time when his faithfulness and courage would be put to a severe test, is very satisfactory. For ministering ( εἰς διακονίαν). It may be doubted whether διακονία here means "the ministry," as in the A.V. and 1 Timothy 1:12, or, as in the R.V., more generally "for ministering," i.e. for acting as an assistant to me in my apostolic labours. The words, "to me," favour the latter rendering. The sense would then be the same as that of the verb in Acts 19:22, where we read that Timothy and Erastus "ministered unto him," i.e. to St. Paul, and that of ὑπηρέτης applied to Mark in Acts 13:5.

2 Timothy 4:12

But for and, A.V.; sent for have sent, A.V. Tychicus was with St. Paul when he wrote the Epistle to the Colossians (Colossians 4:7), as was also Timothy (Colossians 1:1). The presence of Luke, Timothy, Tychicus, Mark, with Paul now, as then, is remarkable (see verse 10, note). I sent to Ephesus. Theodoret (quoted by Alford, 'Proleg. to 2 Timothy,' ch. 9. sect. 1) says, "It is plain from this that St. Timothy was not at this time living at Ephesus, but somewhere else." And that certainly is the natural inference at first sight. But Bishop Ellicott suggests the possibility of Tychicus being the bearer of the First Epistle to Timothy, written not very long before, and this being merely an allusion to that well known fact. Another and more probable idea is that he was the bearer of this Epistle, that the object of his mission, like that of Artemas (Titus 3:12), was to take Timothy's place at Ephesus during Timothy's absence at Rome, and that he is thus mentioned in the Epistle in order to commend him to the reverent regard of the Ephesian Church (Wordsworth). It is argued against this that πρός σε would have been the more natural expression after the analogy of Colossians 4:7 and Titus 3:12. But this objection would be removed if we suppose that the Epistle was sent by another hand, and that it was very possible that Timothy might have started for Rome before Tychicus could arrive at Ephesus. He might have orders to visit Corinth or Macedonia on his way. (For the arguments for and against Timothy being at Ephesus at this time, see Alford's 'Proleg.,' as above.)

2 Timothy 4:13

Bring when thou comest for when thou comest bring with thee, A.V.; especially for but especially, A.V. The cloke ( τὸν φελόνην, more properly written φαινόλην); the Latin paenula, the thick overcoat or cloke. Only here in the New Testament. Some think it was the bag in which the books and parchments were packed. The parchments ( τὰς μεμβράνας). This, again, is a Latin word. It occurs only here in the New Testament. They would probably be for the apostle to write his Epistles on. Or they may have been valuable manuscripts of some kind. In 2 Timothy 4:20 we learn that St. Paul had lately been at Miletus; and in 1 Timothy 1:3 that he was then going to Macedonia. Tress would be on his way to Macedonia, Greece, and Rome (Acts 16:8, Acts 16:9, Acts 16:11), as it was on the return journey from Macedonia to Miletus (Acts 20:5, Acts 20:15). It should further be observed that the journey here indicated is the same as that referred to in 1 Timothy 1:3, which confirms the inevitable inference from this chapter that St. Paul, on his way to Rome from Miletus, whither he had come from Crete (Titus 1:5), passed through Tress, Macedonia, and Corinth (1 Timothy 1:20), leaving Timothy at Ephesus. (See Introduction.)

2 Timothy 4:14

Will render to him for reward him, A.V. and T.R. Alexander; apparently an Ephesian, as appears by the words, "of whom be thou ware also." It seems probable, though it is necessarily uncertain, that this Alexander is the same person as that mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:20 as "a blasphemer," which agrees exactly with what is here said of him, "he greatly withstood our words" (comp. Acts 13:45, "contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed"). He may or may not be the same as the Alexander named in Acts 19:33. Supposing the Alexander of 1 Timothy 1:20 and this place to be the same, the points of resemblance with the Alexander of Acts 19:33 are that both resided at Ephesus, that both seem to have been Christians (see note on 1 Timothy 1:20), and both probably Jews, inasmuch as 1 Timothy 1:1-20 relates entirely to Jewish heresies (1 Timothy 1:4, 1 Timothy 1:7, 1 Timothy 1:8), and Acts 19:33 expressly states that he was a Jew. The coppersmith ( ὁ χαλκεὺς; only here in the New Testament); properly, a coppersmith, but used generally of any smith—silversmith, or goldsmith, or blacksmith. Did me much evil ( πολλά μοι κακὰ ἐνδείξατο). This is a purely Hellenistic idiom, and is found in the LXX. of Genesis 1:15, Genesis 1:17; Song of the Three Children, 19; 2 Macc. 13:9. In classical Greek the verb ἐνδείκυυμαι, in the middle voice, "to display," can only be followed by a subjective quality, as "good will," "virtue," "long suffering," an "opinion," and the like (see Alford, in loc.). And so it is used in 1 Timothy 1:16; Titus 2:10; Titus 3:2. The question naturally arises—When and where did Alexander thus injure St. Paul?—at Ephesus or at Rome? Bengel suggests Rome, and with great probability. Perhaps he did him evil by stirring up the Jews at Rome against the apostle at the time of "his first defence;" or by giving adverse testimony before the Roman tribunal, possibly accusing him of being seditious, and bringing up the riot at Ephesus as a proof of it; or in some other way, of which the memory has perished. Will render. The R.T. has the future, ἀποδώσει for the optative ἀποδώη, "a late and incorrect form for ἀποδοίη" (Ellicott, in loc.).

2 Timothy 4:15

Withstood for hath withstood, A.V. Of whom be thou ware ( ὃν φυλάσσου). This is the proper construction in classical Greek, the accusative of the person or thing, after φυλάσσομαι. But it is only found in Acts 21:25. In Luke 12:15 the equally correct phrase, φυλάσσεσθε ἀπὸ τῆς πλεονεξιας, is used. The inference from this caution to Timothy is that Alexander had left Rome and returned to his native Ephesus. The Jews were always on the move. He greatly withstood our words ( ἀντέστη). For an exactly similar use, see Acts 13:8, where Elymas "withstood" Paul and Barnabas; and 2 Timothy 3:8, where Jannes and Jambres "withstood" Moses. In this case we may be sure that Paul, in pleading for his life, did not omit to preach the gospel to his Gentile audience. Alexander tried to refute his words, not without effect. The apostle says "our words" (not "my words"), perhaps to associate with himself those other Christians who were with him. It certainly cannot mean "yours and mine," as Timothy was not with him when the "words" were spoken.

2 Timothy 4:16

Detente for answer, A.V.; no one took my part for no man stood with me, A.V.; all for all men, A.V.; may it not for I pray God it may not, A.V.; account for charge, A.V. Defence ( ἀπολογίᾳ). "The technical word in classical Greek for a defence in answer to an accusation;" as Acts 22:1 (where see note for further illustration), and Philippians 1:7. Took my part; παρεγένετο R.T., for συμπαρεγένετο T.R., which occurs elsewhere in the New Testament only in Luke 23:48, in a somewhat different sense. The simple παραγίνομαι is very common in the New Testament, but nowhere in the technical sense in which it is used here. In classical Greek both forms are common in the sense of "coming to aid," "standing by any one," "assisting." Here it represents the Latin assistere or adesse in its technical sense of "standing by" an accused person as friend or assistant, to aid and abet them in their defence. Powerful men sometimes brought such a multitude of assistants as to overawe the magistrate, as Orgetorix the Helvetian, when summoned to trial, appeared with ten thousand followers, and so there was no trial. Paul, like his Lord and Master, of whom it is written, "All his disciples forsook him and fled," had no one to stand with him in his hour of need.

2 Timothy 4:17

But for notwithstanding, A.V.; by for with, A.V.; through for by, A.V.; message for preaching, A.V.; proclaimed for known, A.V. Stood by me ( μαοὶ παρέστη); as in Acts 27:23; Romans 16:2 (where see also the use of προστάτις, a helper). παρίσταμαι means simply to stand by the side of a person—to be present. But, like παραγίνομαι, it acquires the meaning of standing by for the purpose of helping. The contrast between the timid faithless friends who failed him like a deceitful brook (Job 6:15), and the faithfulness of the Lord who was a very present Help in trouble, is very striking. Strengthened me ( ἐνεδυνάμωσέ με); see 1 Timothy 1:12, note, and Acts 6:8. The message ( κήρυγμα). The A.V. preaching is far better. St. Paul means that gospel which he was commissioned to preach, and which tie did preach openly in full court when he was on his trial (see Acts 6:15, note). Might be fully proclaimed ( πληροφορήθη); see 2 Timothy 4:5, note; and comp. Romans 15:19. All the Gentiles might hear (comp. Philippians 1:12-14). The brave, unselfish spirit of the apostle thinking more of the proclamation of the gospel than of his own life, is truly admirable. I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. Surely there can be no doubt that, as Bengel says, this is a quotation from Psalms 22:20, Psalms 22:21. The verb ἐῤῥύσθην, "I was delivered," comes from the twentieth verse, "Deliver my soul from the sword," and the phrase, ἐκ στόματος λέοντος, is found verbatim in Psalms 22:21. The apostle means his deliverance from the executioner's sword. In the next verse we find both the words ρύσεται and σώσει, and the whole tone of the psalm breathes the same spirit as the saying, "The Lord stood by me." Dean Alford's suggestion that the lion here is Satan, as in 1 Peter 5:8, and the danger which the apostle escaped was not death, which he did not fear, but betraying the gospel under the fear of death, is ingenious, but rather far fetched, though not impossible. It may possibly have been part of what was in St. Paul's mind.

2 Timothy 4:18

The Lord for and the Lord, A.V. and T.R.; will for shall, A.V.; save for preserve, A.V.; the glory for glory, A.V. Deliver me... save me (see preceding note). The language here is also very like that of the Lord's Prayer: ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ σοῦ γὰρ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλείακαὶ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας ἀμήν (Matthew 6:13). Every evil work. Alford goes altogether astray in his remarks on this passage. Interpreted by the Lord's Prayer, and by its own internal evidence, the meaning clearly is, "The Lord, who stood by me at my trial, will continue to be my Saviour. He will deliver me from every evil design of mine enemies, and from all the wiles and assaults of the devil, in short, from the whole power of evil, and will bring me safe into his own kingdom of light and righteousness." There is a strong contrast, as Bengel pithily observes, between "the evil work" and "his heavenly kingdom." A triumphant martyrdom is as true a deliverance as escape from death. Compare our Lord's promise, "There shall not an hair of your head perish" (Luke 21:18 compared with Luke 21:16). St. Paul's confidence simply is that the Lord would, in his own good time and way, transfer him from this present evil world, and from the powers of darkness, into his eternal kingdom of light and righteousness.

2 Timothy 4:19

House for household, A.V. Prisca and Aquila. Prisca is elsewhere always called Priscilla (Acts 18:2, Acts 18:18, Acts 18:26; Romans 16:3; 1 Corinthians 16:19). A similar variation of names is seen in Drusa and Drusilla, Livia and Livella, etc. She is named before her husband, as here in Acts 18:18; Romans 16:3. The mention of them here is in favour of Timothy being at Ephesus at this time, as Ephesus is one of the places where they were wont to sojourn (Acts 18:19, Acts 18:26). The house (as in A.V. Romans 1:16) of Onesiphorus (see Romans 1:16, Romans 1:18, note). This repetition of the "house of Onesiphorus" is almost conclusive as to the recent death of Onesiphorus himself.

2 Timothy 4:20

I left for have I left, A.V.; Miletus for Miletum, A.V. Erastus abode at Corinth. We learn from Romans 16:3 that Erastus was the chamberlain of Corinth, which accounts for his abiding there, lie was one of St. Paul's companions in his missionary journey, and we learn from Acts 19:22 that he was sent by St. Paul with Timothy into Macedonia just before the great riot at Ephesus. The mention of him here clearly indicates that St. Paul had gone from Troas, where he left his cloke, to Corinth on his way to Rome. Trophimus is first mentioned in Acts 20:4, where we learn that he was an Asiatic, and more definitely in Acts 21:29, that he was an Ephesian. He had travelled with St. Paul's party from Macedonia to Troas, and thence to Miletus and Jerusalem, where we lose sight of him till we find him again in this passage journeying towards Rome with St. Paul and others, but stopped at Miletus by sickness. Miletus, not Miletum, is the correct form.

2 Timothy 4:21

Saluteth for greeteth, A.V. Do thy diligence ( σπούδασον); see 2 Timothy 4:9 and 2 Timothy 2:15, note. Before winter; lest, when winter storms come, it be impossible to do so. St. Paul's longing to have Timothy with him is apparent throughout. Eubulus; mentioned nowhere else. The name is not uncommon as a Greek name, and appears also in the patronymic Eubulides, and the female name Eubule. And Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia. Of these persons Linus is probably the same as is mentioned by Irenaeus and Eusebius as the first Bishop of Rome. Irenaeus (3:111, 3) says, "When the apostles, therefore, had founded the Church (of Rome) they entrusted the office ( λειτουργίαν) of the episcopate to Linus, of whom Paul makes mention in his Epistles to Timothy." Eusebius ('Ecc. Hist.,' Ecclesiastes 3:2) says, "Linus was ordained the first Bishop of Rome ( πρῶτος κληροῦται τὴν ἐπισκοπήν) after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter" (see, too, § 4 of the same book). Some identify him with a certain Llin in Welsh hagiography, said to be the son of Caractacus. As regards Pudens and Claudia, nothing is known about them unless the very ingenious and interesting theory of Archdeacon Williams is true, which is necessarily very uncertain. According to this theory, Claudia is the foreign lady, a Briton, whose marriage with Pudens is spoken of by Martial in two epigrams, and who also bore the cognomen of Rufina. It is supposed that she was the daughter of the British king Cogidubnus, the ally of the Romans and of the Roman governor, Aulus Plautius, whose wife Pomponia is said by Tacitus to have been impeached of the crime of embracing a "foreign superstition," which was probably Christianity. Cogidubnus appears by an ancient inscription now at Goodwood to have taken the name of the Emperor Claudius, being called Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, which would naturally lead to his daughter being called Claudia. And if further she was adopted by the wife of her father's ally, the name Rufina would be accounted for, as a distinguished branch of the gens Pomponia bore the name of Rufus. And Martial's epigram is addressed to "Rufus," as one interested in the marriage. Claudia may either have learnt Christianity from Pomponia, or may have conveyed the knowledge of the gospel to her. On the other hand, the name of Pudens appears on the Goodwood inscription as having given, while still a heathen, a site for a temple of Neptune and Minerva, which was built "pro salute" of the imperial family under the authority of King Cogidubnus—curiously connecting him with the British king. It is probable that Pudens and Claudia were not yet married. Thus it will be seen that, while this theory is borne out by many coincidences, it cannot by any means be adopted as certain. Lewin warmly espouses the theory, but hesitates between Caractacus and Cogidubnus as the father of Claudia. Farrar rejects the whole theory "as an elaborate rope of sand". If Linus was the son, and Claudia the daughter, of Caractacus, they would be brother and sister.

2 Timothy 4:22

The Lord for the Lord Jesus Christ, A.V. and T.R. The Lord be with thy spirit, etc. The manuscripts vary. The salutation as it stands in the R.T. is like the versicles, "The Lord be with you. A. And with thy spirit." It is a peculiarity of the salutation here that it is double—one to Timothy personally, μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου; the other to the Church, ἡ χάρις μεθ ὑμῶν. 1 Corinthians 16:24 exhibits another variety. Grace (see 1 Timothy 6:21, note). The R.T. omits the "amen" at the end, as in 1 Timothy 6:21. Thus doses our last authentic account of this great apostle; these are, perhaps, the last words of him who wrought a greater change in the condition of mankind by his speech than any man that ever lived. All honour be to his blessed memory!

HOMILETICS

2 Timothy 4:1-8

The last charge.

The words of this chapter have the peculiar interest which attaches to the last words of one who was prominent above his fellow men, and they have this striking character, that the apostle, knowing that the time of his departure was at hand, when the great work of his life must cease as far as he was concerned, was intensely solicitous that the work should go on after his death with uninterrupted course and with undiminished force. It is one of the features of the holy unselfishness of St. Patti's character that he was not anxious for the success of the gospel only as far as that success was connected with his own labours, and was the fruit of his own apostolic energy; but that the growth of Christ's kingdom, and the increase of Christ's Church, and the salvation of souls, were things that he intensely longed for for their own sake, and without the slightest reference to himself. Accordingly, in the words before us, he throws his whole soul into the task of urging Timothy to carry on the work of the ministry with a vigour equal to his own. By the most solemn motives. speaking as in the immediate presence of the great Judge of the quick and the dead, with the expectation of the great epiphany in full view, with all the glories of the mediatorial kingdom spread out before his mind's eye, he urges him to the work—the ministerial work; the evangelistic work; the work in which Paul had spent his strength, and ungrudgingly used his splendid faculties; the work which is described in three words, "Preach the Word." For these words do really comprehend all the details which are added. Go as God's herald, and deliver to the people God's message—his message of abounding grace, his Word of pardon and forgiveness, his Word of love and reconciliation. Preach the Word which tells of Jesus Christ, of death to sin by his death upon the cross, of life to God by his resurrection from the dead. Preach the Word of holy obedience, of charity, and purity, and patience, and gentleness, and peace; the Word of like mindedness with Christ, of conformity to the will of God; the Word of truth and righteousness; the unerring Word, which is like God, and cannot lie. Preach the Word as erie who knows its worth and its power; as one who knows that the issues of life and death are bound up with it; as one who will brook no delay in preaching it. Preach it with special application to the varying needs of those who hear it. Reprove sin by its searching light. Rebuke offenders by its sharp two-edged blade. Exhort the weak and sluggish by its comforting and animating truths. Exemplify its excellence by the spirit in which you teach it. And be prepared for hardships and opposition and contradiction in your work. You may have to stand alone. You may see popular preachers all around you, leading astray silly souls by hundreds and thousands; tickling their ears with foolish fancies; ministering to their idle lusts; leading them away from the truth. But do thou "preach the Word." Flinch not, shrink not, wince not. Do the work of an evangelist, faithfully, steadfastly, boldly. Fill my place; take up my work; witness for Christ as I have witnessed; suffer for Christ as I have suffered; and then join me in the kingdom of glory. Such is the tenor of the last apostolic charge. The Lord grant to his Church an unfailing succession of men to carry out its directions, and to fulfil it in its spirit and in its letter!

2 Timothy 4:9-22

"Orpah kissed her mother-in-law; but Ruth clave unto her."

In this little social incident of some three thousand years ago, which may have passed at the time with little observation, we have a pithy and pregnant example set before us, with the usual searching wisdom of Holy Scripture, of the difference between friendship and friendship, religion and religion, according as they lie deep in the roots of the heart or merely lie on the surface. The contrast between Demas and Luke affords another example of this important difference. We may believe that Demas had faith in Christ, and also that he had a measure of friendship for St. Paul. We need not suppose that, when he was a "fellow worker" with St. Paul in the good work of evangelizing the world, when he was his companion with Luke and others during his first imprisonment at Rome, and travelled with him again Romewards, he was playing the hypocrite, and that he was either false in his profession of faith to the Lord Jesus or of attachment to his apostle. But neither his faith nor his friendship had been put to a severe test. The force of St. Paul's character had hitherto borne him along like an impetuous torrent, he had confidence in his star; he felt sure, perhaps, that the cause which Paul espoused would triumph; and no difficulties had arisen sufficient to make him waver in his purpose. But suddenly all was changed. This second imprisonment, with its ominous trial, with the defection of the Asiatic Christians, and the desertion of friends, had altered the whole aspect of affairs. Instead of the triumphs of the faith and the supremacy of the great apostle, he saw the probability of a cruel death for St. Paul and his nearest companions. The trial was too great for his weak faith and his superficial friendship. Without denying Christ, and without withdrawing from his outward attachment to St. Paul, we can fancy him, perhaps, with protestations of undiminished love, and regrets at the necessity which called him away, hurrying off to Thessalonica, his native place. But Paul felt it to be, what it was, a desertion. "Orpah kissed her mother-in-law; but Ruth clave unto her." In the words, "Only Luke is with me," we see the different stamp both of his faith and of his friendship. Luke the physician was as loving as he was loved. With admirable fidelity and unshaken constancy, he had followed his great master from Philippi to Troas, and from Troas to Jerusalem. In the graphic narratives of St. Paul's trials before the Sanhedrim, before Felix, before Festus and Agrippa; in his account of the shipwreck and of the arrival at Rome,—we trace his presence at all those eventful scenes. Through the two whole years of imprisonment he had never left him. And now that the end of that great career was drawing nigh, and the clouds were gathering up and darkening the evening of that glorious life, and various sorrows were thickening around that noble spirit, we read still, not in the inferences of Luke's modest narratives, but in the testimony of St. Paul himself, "Only Luke is with me." "Ruth clave unto her." "Whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God The Lord do so to me, and more also, if aught but death part me and thee." We see, too, how he who had recorded in such graphic words "all that Jesus began both to do and teach, until the day in which he was taken up," had imbibed the spirit of his Divine Master. He had not taught others to know Jesus Christ, without coming to the knowledge of him himself. And so his faith was firm in that day of shaking. He was ready to lose his life that he might gain it; and he stands before us, not only as the evangelist who teaches and delights us, but as the strong believer and the faithful friend, whose example is as persuasive as his words.

HOMILIES BY T. CROSKERY

2 Timothy 4:1, 2 Timothy 4:2

A solemn charge to Timothy to make full proof of his ministry.

The prospect of his approaching death led the apostle to address his young disciple with deep and earnest feeling.

I. THE SOLEMN ADJURATION. "I charge thee in the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus, who shall judge the quick and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom." The object of the apostle is to impart to Timothy a solemn sense of responsibility in the discharge of his ministry.

1. All preachers must one day give an account of their stewardship. Such a thought ought to stimulate them to greater faithfulness.

2. Their responsibility is to God and Jesus Christ, who are Witnesses of their work, as they have made them good ministers of the New Testament.

3. Jesus Christ is the Judge of the two classes of living and dead saints, who in the last day shall appear before his judgment seat. All judgment is committed to him, and he will exercise it righteously.

4. The judgment will take place at "his appearing and his kingdom;" that is, at his second coming.

5. The reward of fidelity is also held out to faithful servants in connection with the glory of" his kingdom."

II. THE DUTIES OF THE FAITHFUL MINISTER. "Preach the Word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all long suffering and teaching."

1. His first and pre-eminent duty is to preach the gospel, because it is the power of God to salvation. There is no injunction to administer the sacraments, though that would be included in his duties. There is nothing, therefore, to justify the higher place which Tractarians assign to the sacraments beside the Word. It is a significant fact that the success of the apostles, as recorded in the Acts, is never once attributed to the sacraments, but always to the Word.

2. The minister must have an earnest urgency in every part of his work. He must create opportunities where he cannot find them; he must work at times both convenient and inconvenient to himself; he must approach the willing opportunely and the unwilling inopportunely.

3. He must reprove, or convince, those in error as to doctrine.

4. He must rebuke the unruly, or immoral in life.

5. He must "exhort with all long suffering and teaching"exercising due patience, and using all the resources of a sanctified understanding, to encourage men to keep to the ways of good doctrine and holiness.—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:3, 2 Timothy 4:4

The waywardness and restiveness of so called Christians afresh incentive to fidelity in ministers.

This is an argument from the future to tell upon present duty.

I. THE REASON OF THE APOSTASY. "For the time will come when they will not endure the sound doctrine."

1. The gospel doctrine is sound, because it necessitates a holy life, and holds the gratification of sinful passions to be inconsistent with the hopes of salvation.

2. Evil men cannot endure it, because it is so opposed to the corruption of human nature, and therefore treat it with neglect, if not with contempt.

3. The apostle foresees the growth of evil in the Church, and therefore seeks to prepare ministers to war against it.

II. THE EFFECT OF THIS MORAL DISGUST AT THE GOSPEL. "But, having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts."

1. They will not discard the ministry absolutely. They will only exchange one class of ministers for another. But they will vastly multiply the number of their religious guides.

2. The itch for novelty led to the multiplication of teachers. They were fickle, unsettled, and uneasy. They wanted to hear new things or smooth things, such as would reflect the caprices of a corrupt nature.

3. The reason for the whole rabble of teachers that they gathered to themselves is to be found in their wish to have their fancies gratified—"after their own lusts." They wanted indulgent guides, who would flatter the pride of human nature, and not lay too great a stress upon the importance of a holy life. The sound doctrine was necessarily allied to a pure morality.

III. THE RETRIBUTION THAT AWAITS ON SUCH A PERVERSION OF JUDGMENT. "And will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables."

1. It is a solemn fact in Divine providence, that when men do not like to return to the knowledge of the truth, God gives them up to a reprobate mind, so that they lose all relish for sound doctrine.

2. It is an equally solemn fact that, if the truth is repudiated, the heart will not therefore cease to exercise itself about religious concerns. The heart cannot long remain empty. Fables rush in to occupy the place which denies a footing to truth, just as infidelity has a vacuum-creating power, which superstition immediately rushes in to fill up. What a waste of soul!—profitless fables taken in exchange for soul-saving truth!—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:5

The duty of Timothy in trying times.

I. "BUT BE THOU SOBER IN ALL THINGS."

1. The presence of false teachers necessitated a wakeful attitude, a constant presence of mind, a quick discernment of opportunities for advancing the truth.

2. There ought to be a consistently sober and watchful care extending through the whole life of the minister, who has to "give account of souls."

II. "SUFFER HARDSHIP."

1. If the minister fears the anger of men, he will not be faithful to God.

2. There is a reward for brave suffering. (1 Timothy 2:3-12.)

3. The example of the apostle's life was ever before Timothy as a powerful incentive to endurance. (1 Timothy 3:10-12.)

III. "DO THE WORK OF AN EVANGELIST."

1. There was a separate class of officers called evangelists in the apostolic Church (Ephesians 4:11), whose special business was to break new ground in the open fields of heathenism or the narrower confines of Judaism. They preached the gospel, while pastors shepherded the flocks. But we are not to suppose that pastors did not also "do the work of an evangelist." They had saints and sinners under their care in all places.

2. As Timothy had been lately occupied in organizing the Church life of Ephesus, the admonition was not needless that he should henceforth devote himself to the direct work of evangelization, as the best antidote to heresy and impiety.

IV. "MAKE FULL PROOF OF THY MINISTRY." This was to be done:

1. By constant labours.

2. By unswerving faithfulness to God and man.

3. By efforts to save sinners and edify saints, which were seen to be successful. Such a man fulfils his ministry, for he seeks not his own things, but the things of Christ.—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:6-8

The nearness of the apostle's death, and his prospects in connection with it.

He urges Timothy to increased zeal on account of his own approaching departure.

I. THE IMMINENCE OF HIS DEATH. "For I am already being offered, and the time of my departure is at hand."

1. Mark the calmness with which the apostle contemplates a violent death. There is no tremor, or hurry, or impatience in his last days. The language is singularly composed. He knew that Nero would soon put an end to his life, for that monster of cruelty and crime was even then striking out wildly against the Christians. Nothing but an assured hope and a living faith could maintain the spirit in such trying circumstances.

2. The apostle is not too preoccupied with his own approaching sufferings to forget the cause for which he is now about to surrender his life. He is now more urgent than ever in his instructions to Timothy.

II. THE HAPPY RETROSPECT OF A USEFUL LIFE. "I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith."

1. The good fight ended.

2. The race ended.

3. The faith preserved.

III. THE BLESSED PROSPECTS IN STORE FOR HIM. "Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give to me at that day: and not only to me, but also to all them that have loved his appearing."

1. The reward. "The crown of righteousness."

It was not a crown of ambition. It was not won by inflicting miseries on the human race.

2. The certainty and manner of its bestowal.

(a) as matter of grace, for the Judge "awards" it of grace; and

(b) as matter of righteousness, for, as righteous Judge, he will not allow the works of believers to go unrewarded (Revelation 14:13).

3. The character of those receiving the reward. "Them that have loved his appearing."

2 Timothy 4:9-12

The apostle's loneliness and need of assistance and comfort.

The longing for sympathy and help in his hour of trial was natural. "Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me." There were several reasons for his desire to see Timothy, apart from the natural anxiety to see the most attached of his faithful disciples.

I. THE APOSTLE HAD BEEN DESERTED BY DEMAS. "Demas hath forsaken me."

1. This brought great distress to the apostle:

2. The cause of the desertion was more distressing. "Having loved this present world." It may have been love of life or love of ease, or the desire to get back to old associations at Thessalonica (probably his native place), or the desire for pleasure or wealth. But it was a fatal passion. The love of this world is inconsistent with the true life, for all that is in the world is evil—"the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life." It is all, in the present order of things, opposed to God and destructive to man. Nothing but Christ can deliver us from the power of this present evil world (Galatians 1:4).

II. THE APOSTLE WAS NOW ALMOST ALONE. Other fellow labourers had gone on their errands of usefulness to various quarters—no doubt with his heart's consent: Crescens to Galatia; Titus to Dalmatia, on the Adriatic; Tychicus, an old friend, and once before sent to Ephesus, goes back there by the apostle's directions. Luke alone of all the ministers of Christ keeps the aged apostle company; for though such brethren as Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, and Claudia now dutifully attend upon him, yet the apostle is anxious to see Timothy, and begs that Mark may accompany him, for "he is useful to me for ministering," both in evangelistic and in personal service.—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:13

The apostle's directions concerning his cloke.

It has been considered beneath the dignity of inspiration that there should be such a trivial record. But the criticism is singularly superficial.

I. THE APOSTLE'S DIRECTIONS. "The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, bring when thou comest, and the books, especially the parchments."

1. There is no evidence that the cloke was an ecclesiastical vestment; for there is no evidence of vestments being worn at all in the primitive Church. It was a thick cloke or mantle which the apostle needed in view of the approaching winter. His death might be near at hand, but, as its day was uncertain, it was natural he should provide against the winter cold.

2. It was a precious consignment that was left with Carpus, the Christian disciple, at Troas. It included, besides his cloke, books and parchments.

II. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE APOSTLE'S DIRECTIONS.

1. The request concerning his cloke implied that he was a poor man, as well as exposed to hardship and cold.

2. It suggests that he was partially deserted by the Yeoman Christians. Why could they not give him or lend him a cloke? What had become of the Roman Christians who met him, so many years before, fifty miles from the city, and gave him such a hearty welcome?

3. It proves his personal independence. He will not ask a cloke from any one.—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:14, 2 Timothy 4:15

The warning against Alexander the coppersmith.

I. THE CHARACTER OF THIS MAN. "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil… for he greatly withstood our words." This implies that he had been at Rome, and was still an enemy to the gospel (1 Timothy 1:20), as in the day when the apostle delivered him and Hymenaeus over to Satan at Ephesus. Probably trade interests may have inspired the fierceness of his hatred to the apostle, for he may have been an idol maker. He was insulting and spiteful and obstinate in his gainsaying.

II. THE RETRIBUTION THAT WOULD OVERTAKE HIM. "The Lord will render to him according to his works."

1. This is to state a fact in Divine providence, quite irrespective of the apostle's wishes or feelings.

2. Transgressors against the cause of God have to reckon in the last resort, not with humble apostles, but with God himself.

III. WARNING AGAINST HIS WAYS. "Of whom be thou ware also." He was a heretic and a blasphemer, and as such had been delivered to Satan, and was still perversely opposed to the truth. Timothy was warned to be watchful against his devices. It was no personal injury, but resistance to the gospel, that dictated this counsel.—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:16-18

The apostle's trial before Nero, with its memorable incidents.

I. His DESERTION BY MAN. "At my first defence no one took my part, but all forsook me; may it not be laid to their account."

1. The apostle had to make his defence before the emperor. There is no record of the nature of the charge. It was probably a charge of sedition or disobedience to the pagan authorities, which, on account of the close complication of civil and religious duties in the state, could not be explained to the satisfaction of a ruler jealous of civil obedience.

2. The saints at Rome deserted the apostle through fear. They failed to support him either by their presence, their sympathy, or their witness in his favour. Their weakness and timidity must have been a sore trial to the apostle. Yet he could remember that his Divine Master had been similarly deserted in his last hours.

3. The apostle's prayer for these timorous saints. "May it not be laid to their account." This implies:

(a) He would be concerned for the great weakness of their faith, with its accompanying depression and discomfort;

(b) for the effects of their weakness on the high repute of the gospel;

(c) and he would seek their restoration in the very spirit of his Divine Master.

II. IF MAN FORSOOK HIM, HE WAS NOT FORSAKEN BY GOD. "But the Lord stood by me, and strengthened me; that through me the message might be fully proclaimed, and that all the Gentiles might hear." Like his Divine Master, he might say, "Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me."

1. The Divine support accorded to him. The secret but gracious presence of the Lord delivered him from all unworthy fears of man. He would feel, "If God be for us, who can be against us?" He was strengthened inwardly unto all long suffering with joyfulness; so that he could make his defence with all clearness and courage, with all presence of mind, and with all freedom of thought and expression.

2. The end of this Divine support was that the gospel might be still more fully known at Rome and elsewhere by all Gentiles.

III. THE EFFECT OF HIS DEFENCE. "And I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion." He had, for a time, escaped condemnation. Nero was the cruel lion out of whose power the Lord had delivered him.

IV. THE APOSTLE'S ANTICIPATION OF A STILL HIGHER DELIVERANCE. "And the Lord will deliver me from every evil work, and will save me unto his heavenly kingdom."

1. This is no declaration that the apostle shall escape death, for he had already spoken of himself as "already being offered." (2 Timothy 4:6.)

2. It is a declaration that he shall be carried beyond the sphere of evil in every form, and translated securely into the heavenly kingdom. All the evil influences at work around him would not affect him. There is not a note of fear in his last days.

V. ASCRIPTION OF GLORY TO HIS DIVINE DELIVERER. "To whom be the glory forever and ever."

1. The glory is here ascribed to the Son of God, an express evidence of his Divinity.

2. There is no time more appropriate for such an ascription of glory as after deliverance from death and evil.—T.C.

2 Timothy 4:19-22

Salutations and personal notices.

I. SALUTATIONS. "Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus."

1. The apostle remembers his absent friends in his solitude, but especially those who gave him such hearty cooperation at Corinth or Ephesus.

2. He likewise transmits to Timothy the Christian salutations of Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, and Claudia, Roman saints, of eminence and grace in the Church, yet who failed to stand by him on his memorable trial.

II. NOTICES. "Erastus abode at Corinth." Probably the chamberlain of that city (Romans 16:22), who once showed much kindness to the apostle, and afterwards accompanied Timothy on a journey into Macedonia (Acts 19:22). "Trophimus I left at Miletus sick." This was a Gentile Christian of Ephesus, whose presence with the apostle at Jerusalem caused such an uproar (Acts 21:29). Miletus was a seaport of Caria, thirty miles from Ephesus. Trophimus would have been with the apostle at Rome, probably, but for his sickness. The apostle left him at Miletus, probably, shortly before his present imprisonment.

III. FINAL WORDS FOR TIMOTHY. "Do thy diligence to come before winter." We see here the tender anxiety of the apostle to see his young friend before death. If he did not come at once, the severities of the winter might prevent his journey altogether. "The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you." We have here a double benediction—one addressed singly to Timothy, the other to Timothy and the Ephesian Church. The presence of Christ would be his comfort and stay in every difficulty, and strengthen him forevery duty.—T.C.

HOMILIES BY W.M. STATHAM

2 Timothy 4:2

The apostolic injunction.

"Preach the Word." Timothy had not to create a gospel, but to preach one; and the "Word" is broad and vast enough for any preacher. The cross has for its circumference all truth, and is to be carried into all spheres of life.

I. PREACH IT WITH INSTANCY. It is not a mere philosophy to interest students as an esoteric study; nor is it a mere elaborate theological thesis to be proven true. It has to do with "the present salvation" and the future well being of man. Instancy: for:

1. The season may be only now. Tomorrow preacher or hearer, or both, may be gone.

2. The truth can never be out of season. We need it always—in all places, in all our duties, temptations, and trials.

II. PREACH IT WITH AUTHORITY. That is, with the authority of truth, not your own ex-cathedra authority. "Meekly;" but not as though your congregations were patrons to be pleased, or Sanhedrims to try your opinions. Modestly; but with authority; not, as I said, your own authority, but the authority of truth, which has its own witness within. So you will reprove men fearlessly, never hiding them from themselves by cunning words of flattery. And you will "rebuke"—for evil soon spreads if it be not exposed and condemned at once—just as Nathan boldly faced David, and said, "Thou art the man."

III. PREACH IT WITH EXHORTATION. The teacher is not to be merely a scornful satirist of immorality—a sort of Juvenal. Nor is he to be a lightning conductor of Divine wrath; he is to seek to save men. He has not done his work when he has revealed the Law of God against evil. He is to remember that the Christ he preaches is the Son of man who is come, "not to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved."

1. Long suffering is to be the spirit of his method. Remembering that humanity is frail and fallen, the preacher must be sympathetic, as himself needing mercy.

2. Doctrine is to be his remedy. The great revelation of a Divine Saviour and the promised Spirit, the Comforter.—W.M.S.

2 Timothy 4:6

Life's evening hour.

"For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand." St. Paul felt sure that the enemies of the gospel would be successful in their designs upon his life. Sooner or later he knew that the lions or the flames, the executioner's axe or the cruel cross, would complete his earthly course. But as he had made an "offering" of his life to Christ, so he was ready in death to be offered up for the Master's sake.

I. THE APOSTOLIC READINESS. Although a prisoner, he had been permitted to be a preacher in the neighbouring camp of Caesar's palace during his first imprisonment at Rome. But not so now. Amid the Praetorian Guard alone could he testify now; and as the soldier to whom he was chained by the wrist would often be changed, he had the opportunity of speaking to each one in turn the good word of the kingdom of God. His imprisonments had been preceded by missionary journeys, in which he had planted Churches of Christ everywhere—Churches which had become centres of evangelization and edification. He was "ready;" for his character had been moulded by "great tribulation;" so that his soul was purified by the grace of God working there the self-conquests of his nature. The righteous indignation of a strong nature—which we know full well once in his apostolate would have been aroused at his adversaries—had been softened into a calm submission to the Divine will, and he was conscious that God would take care of his own Church in the perilous times which had come. Moreover, Timothy was there to take up the great work and to preach the Word. Paul was ready for the "rest;" and the "rest" was ready for him.

II. THE APOSTLE'S TIME. "The time of my departure." All our times are in God's hand: "the time to be born and the time to die." This was with Paul no fatalistic creed; he did not forget that there was a divinely wise will ordering all.

1. Death was a departure. It was not the habit of St. Paul to dwell on death in itself, but rather on its glorious issues to the Christian. The faith was strong in him. The motto—Mors janua vitoe—"Death is the gate of life," was the spirit of his creed.

2. But death was not the departure of the Christ. He was here. By his Spirit he was still working in the hearts of all who believed. The Christ in him was the Christ in Timothy too; and St. Paul well knew that the triumphant chariot of the Redeemer stops at no man's grave.—W.M.S.

2 Timothy 4:7

The battle finished.

"I have fought a good fight." Nothing in nature is more beautiful than the all-glorious sunset; even the storm clouds make it a more magnificent scene. So it was with St. Paul. Amid the threatening clouds of persecution the Saviour's glory shone all around and about him, and lighted up the dark firmament of the martyr experiences.

I. THE PAST FIGHT. He was a man of war in the best sense, and had fought a good fight. He had conflicts in himself—"fightings without, and fears within." He had opposition from the Jews of the ancient Church, and from the Judaistic Christians, who were trying to pervert the gospel! Rome, that dreaded sedition, looked upon him as a stirrer-up of strife, and though St. Paul was not an enemy of Caesar, this gave Caesar's enemies an opportunity for casting opprobrium on him. He had, too, as we all have, invisible enemies, so that he did not war only "against flesh and blood." The past fight was a lifelong one with him, for he had at first to withstand even his Christian coadjutors in his determination to proclaim and to preserve the universality and spirituality of the gospel kingdom; he boldly and triumphantly withstood even Peter to the face, and so gave to the Church of all ages the Magna Charta of its Divine freedom.

II. THE FINISHED COURSE. He could look back upon the racecourse now, and he varies his imagery. Now he introduces the idea of the Grecian games. We can see the eager athlete girding his loins for the race—a race which taxed all his energies. In heat and cold, amidst enemies and friends, St. Paul "pressed toward the mark." There is no tone of finality, however, about his language in the strictest sense. The end was only a post which he had to pass, not a grave in which he had to sleep. For to him to live was Christ, and to die was gain.—W.M.S.

2 Timothy 4:8

The great reward.

"Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness." This is the keynote. Many successful Roman generals and some of the philosophers of the old world committed suicide in weariness and disgust of life. To live was ennui, and worse; for all was "vanity and vexation of spirit."

I. THE FUTURE IS PROVIDED FOR. "Henceforth for, [or, 'as to the rest'] there is laid up for me." Christ will not let any one of his faithful servants go uncrowned; all receive the prize—only their crown will be the perfecting of character, as the flower blossoms in its summer beauty. Heaven is the everlasting summer of the saints; and there "the crown of righteousness," which never was fully attained upon earth, will be given to all those who endure unto the end. Sometimes it is called "the crown of glory," sometimes "the crown of righteousness," and sometimes "the crown of life;" for the crowns of God are not the tinsel of earth's corruptible gold, but crowns of conscience, mind, and character—in one word, crowns of life.

II. THE RIGHTEOUS JUDGE WILL BE THERE. He before whom all hearts are open, he whose judgment is according to knowledge, and who understands all the unknown and unnoticed conflicts of every earnest soul. He is the righteous Judge. Human judgment at its best cannot be perfectly righteous—it may approach to it, but "What man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him?" None, indeed, but himself and God.

III. THE UNIVERSAL CHURCH WILL SHARE IN THE CORONATION. "And not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing." Some men dread that appearing. They never have liked thoughts of God, and how shall they like the presence of God? Those who have lived in pleasure, and said to God, "Depart from us!" may well tremble at his appearing. But the true Christian, who has walked by faith, loves Christ's appearing.

1. We long to see equity or righteous judgment triumphant in the universe. So much judgment seems to miscarry now.

2. We long to see the Saviour, whom not having seen, we love; for at his appearing "we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is." St. Paul was no rhapsodist, but he desired to depart and be with Christ, which was far better.—W.M.S.

2 Timothy 4:21

Timothy's presence desired.

"Do thy diligence to come before winter." Travelling would be difficult then, if not impossible, and perhaps the white snow would be the shroud of the apostle. Anyway, he has been delivered once for a brief space out of the mouth of that lion—Nero. But it is not easy to believe that this ferocious lion, satiated for the time with blood, should seek to devour him no more. But a Roman prison in winter is a very desolate place, and he who has been hurried from place to place by his keepers has left even his warm cloke behind him, and hopes to cover himself with that black goat's-hair skin when winter comes. Bring the cloke, Timothy, and the papyrus books—old vellum manuscripts, perhaps the roll of Isaiah and the prophets; let not Timothy forget them, for there are songs of prisoners in those inspired prophetic rolls. And let Timothy remember that St. Paul wants to see his face again.

I. HERE IS ABSENCE OF MURMURING. We may and ought to learn what the gospel can achieve. Here is Paul prevented from preaching, with arrest laid on all his missionary work. In a dreary Roman dungeon he is "persecuted, but not forsaken;" "struck down, but not destroyed." Yet mark this—he never suffered one murmuring word to pass his lips.

II. HERE IS PRESENCE OF GREETING. He would cheer Timothy, and sends him various greetings, from the Roman saints, as we may see by their names—Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren—send greeting. What sublime self-abnegation there was in St. Paul! Forgetful always of himself! How like the Master! In the hour of expected dissolution he is thinking only of others.—W.M.S.

HOMILIES BY R. FINLAYSON

2 Timothy 4:1-8

Solemn charge to Timothy.

I. CHARGED TO BE FAITHFUL IN THE PERFORMANCE OF HIS OFFICIAL DUTIES.

1. Witnessing the charge.

2. Particulars of the charge. These are given in rapid succession, without connecting words, by which there is gain in force.

II. ARGUMENT DRAWN FROM A DISTURBED FUTURE.

1. The intolerableness of sound doctrine. "For the time will come when they will not endure the sound doctrine." The sound or healthful teaching, according to 1 Timothy 3:16, is that which, founded on the facts of redemption, leads to godliness. Men find it intolerable, because it binds them down to thoughts and courses which are contrary to "their own lusts."

2. The teachers that spring up for those who find sound doctrine intolerable. "But, having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts." Their relief is not to get rid of all teachers (which would be too drastic), but to get teachers after their own lusts. These teachers are the birth and reflection of their own depraved sentiments. Those who strive to have their desires regulated by the Word of God are satisfied with the gospel teachers; those who have their desires unregulated (i.e. in the state of lusts) are not easily satisfied. "Having itching ears, they heap to themselves teachers." They have a constant uneasy feeling which seeks to be gratified with new teachers, both many and indiscriminate.

3. The abandonment of those who have itching ears to myths. "And will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside unto fables." Their duty is to turn their ears to the truth, but, as they have itching ears, they turn aside to listen to fables—not truth, but inventions. When men do not find the truth agreeable to the ear, they may take the wildest fancies, the most childish beliefs. There were anticipations of these myths of the future with which Timothy had to do.

III. CHARGE RESUMED.

1. Sobriety. "But be thou sober in all things." Those who had to do with myths had not clearness and caution of mind, but were intoxicated with their own wisdom. Timothy was to avoid their fault. There is a sobriety which is germane to the truth. It does not flatter a man, but keeps him to the humility of fact. It may deeply move him, but does not take away his clearness and caution. It does not, like many myths of the false teachers, morbidly excite the imagination, or leave room for morbid gratification, but acts as a principle of self-restraint. Timothy, in seeking to influence others, was to exercise all self-restraint in manner and matter of preaching and in personal dealing.

2. Hardihood. "Suffer hardship." This is not the first time that he has been thus exhorted. In 2 Timothy 2:3 there was the added idea of association with Paul. The exhortation is reintroduced in this comprehensive charge, again and more impressively to remind him of hardships that he might expect in his future ministry.

3. His evangelistic office. "Do the work of an evangelist." There was need to remind Timothy of this, inasmuch as for the time he was settled in Ephesus. Paul had been very much of an evangelist, i.e. an itinerant preacher, himself. However important the establishing of congregations, he was not to overlook the importance of circulating the gospel, with a view to new congregations being formed.

4. All the parts of his ministry to be attended to. "Fulfil thy ministry." tie has mentioned one part; in the concluding direction he includes all. His ministry was partly determined by his talents and circumstances. He was rightly to proportion between the various parts of his ministry, giving each the attention to which it was entitled, though one might be attended with greater hardship than another. He was to fill up the Divine measure in all, and to the end of his life.

IV. CONSIDERATION DRAWN FROM THE APOSTLE'S END.

1. His end approaching. First mode of conceiving of his end. "For I am already being offered." The force of the connection is that Timothy was to be faithful, because Paul was no longer to remain to carry on Christ's work. Upon him the mantle of his master was to fall. The language in which Paul describes his end is Jewish, and sacrificial, in its colouring. The conclusion of the sacrifice was the libation, or pouring out of the drink offering of wine around the altar. His service of Christ had been all of the nature of sacrifice. He "counted not his life dear unto himself." He was among those who, for Christ's sake, were killed all the day long, who were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. There was now only the concluding libation, viz. the pouring out of his blood as a martyr around Christ's altar. The concluding ceremony was already commenced, in what he was suffering in his dungeon. It had a painful significance, and a rich significance too; for it was as the pouring out of strong wine (Numbers 28:7). Second mode of conceiving of his end. "And the time of my departure is come." The word translated "departure" has a common nautical application, viz. to the loosening of the cable that binds the vessel to land, that it may speed on to its destination. By his martyrdom the connection between Paul and earth was to be let loose, that he might speed, as with the quickness of lightning, to the haven where he was forever to rest. The time of the loosening was all but come; there on the pier was the man appointed to let slip the fastenings.

2. Feelings with which he regarded his approaching end.

(a) Present laying up. "Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness." There is the idea of laying up, as for future use or enjoyment. What was laid up was the crown of righteousness, i.e. the reward of him who conquers, and of him who rightfully conquers. In the Christian view this is he who does the work which is appointed for him by Christ. From that time forth the crown of righteousness was laid up for him. To such a height the assurance of the apostle rose. There was no self-exalting element in his assurance, as though he had been working in his own strength, or as though he had the deciding of what, comparatively, his reward was to be. But that, from his experience of assisting grace m the doing of his work, he was among those who were to be crowned, he had no more doubt than he had of his own existence.

(b) Future bestowal. "Which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give to me at that day." The Rewarder is the Lord—whose prerogative is indisputable. He is to reward at that day—the day of the future by pre-eminence. He is then to act as the righteous Judge—whose judgments are all to be founded on righteousness. From his reserved treasures he is to bring forth the crown due to faithful service, and place it on his head.

(c) General occasion. "And not only to me, but also to all them that have loved his appearing." He expressly excludes the thought of his being exceptionally crowned. His being crowned would not prevent others, such as Timothy, from being crowned. All would be crowned who continued to love Christ's appearing. This event is to be affectionately regarded, because it is the time when his loveliness is to be fully displayed, when also his love for his people is to be fully displayed. It is an event which is fitted to purify and elevate our spiritual life. Let it be the test by which we try our being included in the number of the faithful. Does it occupy our thoughts? does it inflame our affections?—R.F.

2 Timothy 4:9-22

Personal.

I. TIMOTHY.

1. Requested to come to Rome. "Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me." His formerly expressed longing to see him (2 Timothy 1:4) is now turned into a formal request to come, and to come shortly, unto him. In the diligence he was to show in this there is not the idea of pure haste, but of the utmost haste that was compatible with the interests of Christ at Ephesus. Certain arrangements would require to be made, not merely for his journey, but for the carrying on of the work after his departure. But as soon as these arrangements could be made he was to hasten to him at Rome.

2. Special reason in Paul's isolation. "For Demas forsook me, having loved this present world, and went to Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me." The fundamental reason for the request was the apostle's approaching martyrdom; but there was an additional and special reason in his isolation at Rome. This should not have been the case; for Demas, who had been his trusted assistant, had been there, and if he had done his duty would still have been with him. But he forsook him in his hour of distress, which may probably be associated with his first defence (verse 16). The reason for desertion was that he loved the present world. We are not to understand world in the ethical sense in which it is sometimes used; the world as it has become by the entrance of sin, in opposition to the world as it was intended to be. He loved the good things of the world—absence from the scene of peril, ease in his own home—in preference to what would have advantaged him in the future world—bravely standing by Paul and lovingly ministering to his sufferings. The conduct of Demas was dastardly and cruel, calculated to destroy his influence as a Christian teacher. We are not warranted in saying that it excluded after penitence and wrecked his destiny. It has been his earthly destiny to be associated with a black act done to one of the noblest of men at a time when his nobility shone forth most clearly. In explanation of his isolation, Paul mentions without comment the departure of Crescens to Galatia, and of Titus to Dalmatia. In their case we may understand that there was not desertion of Paul, but pressure of Christian work and a mission from Paul. The only one of Paul's assistants who was with him was Luke, so often mentioned in connection with Paul. In connection with the mention of his name here, it is remarkable that he who was with Paul during his second imprisonment in Rome only brings down the apostolic history to the period of the first imprisonment there. With the exception of Luke there were no Christian workers with Paul who could enter intelligently and sympathetically into his plans and render assistance on the spot.

3. Requested to take Mark, and bring him with him. "Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he is useful to me for ministering. But Tychicus I sent to Ephesus." After what had happened, the honourable mention of Mark in Colossians 4:10 and again here is honourable to Paul. His opinion of him had undergone great change. He had made a firm stand against him as an unsuitable companion in labour; now he bases his request for the presence of the evangelist at Rome on his being useful for ministering. Tychicus, who is warmly commended in Ephesians 6:21, had been thus useful; but he had been under the necessity of sending him on a mission to Ephesus. The ministering to be thought of was not so much to Paul the prisoner as to Paul in his imprisonment planning for the future of Christianity. These, then, we are to think of as the three workers who surrounded the apostle in Rome as he neared his martyrdom—Timothy, Mark, Luke. They were men of like spirit, to whom he could freely communicate his plans and also the enthusiasm necessary for carrying them out. All three had the evangelistic faculty. If Timothy had more of the administrative faculty, marking him out as, more than the other two, the successor of Paul, they had more of the literary faculty, marking them out for service to future generations.

4. Requested to bring belongings of the apostle with him from Troas. "The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, bring when thou comest, and the books, especially the parchments." The apostle had not lived to accumulate property; and none would be much the richer by what he left behind. He possessed a cloke, which some friend may have gifted to him—a large warm cloke for winter, when lately at Troas—since the previous winter, we may suppose—he had not been able to bring it with him, but had left it with Carpus. As Timothy would pass Troas on his way to Rome, he is requested to bring it with him. Paul did not, in the spirit of modern monasticism, court suffering; he provides against the coming winter, even when that winter was to bring his martyrdom. He also possessed books, which are a necessity for the preacher. He who has influenced so many by his books was himself influenced by the books of others. He also possessed parchments, on which he laid greater stress as his own compositions, containing records and statements of truth in which he was deeply, interested, as fitted to keep the current of Christianity clear and pure. Timothy, who in the First Epistle is charged to attend to reading, would find in these books and parchments good pabulum and companionship on his journey from Troas to Rome.

II. ALEXANDER.

1. His injurious conduct. "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil." The fact of his being styled the coppersmith seems to point to his being distinguished from others of the same name. We would not, therefore, identify him with the Alexander of the First Epistle, or the Alexander of the Acts of the Apostles. We may conclude, from the language, that he bore personal animosity to Paul.

2. The Righter in heaven. "The Lord will render to him according to his works." This is very different from invoking a curse on Alexander. He found it in his heart to make matters much worse for Paul. The Lord would judge between them. This would issue in evil to Alexander, unless his present spiteful works were followed by repentance.

3. No confidence to be placed in him. "Of whom be thou ware also; for he greatly withstood our words." Paul had good reason to be on his guard against him. We can understand his having a certain connection with Christianity, which would give him all the more power to injure Paul. But he had not the spirit of Christianity, when on the occasion, we may suppose, of the first defence, he made injurious statements against the great champion of Christianity. If he still professed to be a friend of Christianity at a distance from Rome, he was to be regarded with suspicion.

III. PAUL.

1. First defence. "At my first defence." This first defence was in connection with a second imprisonment, of which there can be no doubt. The account of Eusebius is that "after defending himself successfully, it is currently reported that the apostle again went forth to proclaim the gospel, and afterwards came to Rome a second time, and was martyred under Nero." Some would place an interval of five years between the first and second imprisonments. We have not the means of knowing the precise charge against which he had to defend himself on this second occasion. There is apparently this fact to go upon, that, after the conflagration of Rome which was attributed by Nero to the Christians, Paul as their leader was liable at any moment to be arrested. The supposition is adopted by some that on this ground he was arrested at Nicopolis, where Titus was to join him (Titus 3:12), and taken across the Adriatic to Rome. His trial, which does not seem this time to have been long delayed, was yet recent; for Timothy had not been informed of it. The trial would probably take place, not before Nero, as on the previous occasion, but before the city prefect, who, as more the emperor's creation, was supplanting the regular judges. The scene of the trial would probably be in one of the basilicas in the Roman forum, where a large audience could be accommodated. "A dense ring," says Pliny, "many circles deep, surrounded the scene of trial. They crowded close to the judgment seat itself, and even in the upper part of the basilica both men and women pressed close in the eager desire to see (which was easy) and to hear (which was difficult)." We may conclude, from the language here (first defence), and also from his being still in bonds as a malefactor (2 Timothy 2:9), that the trial resulted neither in his condemnation nor in his full acquittal. Some imagine that he was acquitted on a first charge; but that there was a second charge on which he was yet to be tried. The more probable supposition is that there was a postponement in consequence of the case not being clear, and that the apostle was looking forward to a second trial when, on the whole case, be would have to make a second defence.

2. Assistance at his trial. "No one took my part, but all forsook me: may it not he laid to their account. But the Lord stood by me, and strengthened me; that through me the message might be fully proclaimed, and that all the Gentiles might hear." He had not the assistance which was usually enjoyed by the accused on his trial. No stress need be laid on the absence of a professional advocate; for Paul was well able to defend himself. But there was no one beside him to give him countenance. There was no one—which would have rendered great assistance—to come forward and testify that his relation to the Roman law, in his conduct and teaching, had been all that Romans could have desired. It was his fortune to be put in the position in which his Master had been put before him. "All," he says, "forsook me." The resemblance extended not merely to his position, but to his gentleness of spirit. The Master had said on the cross, "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do." The servant echoes this sentiment when he says, "May it not be laid to their account." The absence of earthly friends was, however, more than made up by the presence of a heavenly Friend. This was the Lord Jesus Christ, who stood by him, not merely as his Friend, but as his Advocate, and strengthened him as such. That is to say, he supplied him, in matter and spirit, with all that was necessary for his defence. This was according to the Master's own promise, "And when they bring you before the synagogues, and the rulers, and the authorities, be not anxious how or what ye shall say: for the Holy Spirit shall teach you in that very hour what ye ought to say." We learn that the defence of himself was adroitly turned into a defence of the gospel. If there was a charge of arson, it would be open to him to show that the gospel did not encourage crime or resistance to the powers that be. It would also fall naturally to him to give a statement of the points on which he laid greatest stress in his teaching. The assistance he received was of the highest avail; for it brought his life work to its culmination. He had been proclaiming the gospel in many places, and in many places the Gentiles had heard. Now, when his opportunity had come before Roman officials and before a Roman multitude, as apparently it had not come before, he could say that, as far as his instrumentality was concerned, his proclamation had reached its climax, and the last of the Gentiles had heard.

3. His description of the restart of the trial. "And I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion." The ancient opinion, that the lion here was Nero, may be taken as substantially correct. We are not to understand that Paul had become personally obnoxious to Nero since his acquittal by him. Away from Rome, he may not have attracted the attention of the tyrant. But it suited Nero, according to the testimony of Tacitus, to avert the rage of the populace from himself to the Christians. As the result of that rage, Paul, as the ringleader of the Christians, was apprehended, and put on his trial. In the state of feeling which prevailed, it would be very difficult for Paul to get a calm hearing. He was more likely to meet with fierceness than with justice. The Roman power, of which Nero was the fit embodiment, was like a lion opening its mouth to devour him. That he was not instantly devoured was nothing less than a miracle. The Lord standing by him, he was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. We must not put more meaning into this than it will bear. It simply means that he got a respite. Roman fierceness was not then gratified; the lion did not. get him then between its teeth. But Roman fierceness, consequent on the conflagration, had not died out; the lion might again open its mouth on him.

4. Confident hope of future and everlasting deliverance. "The Lord will deliver me from every evil work, and will save me unto his heavenly kingdom." His respite gave him this confidence. It did not make him self-confident; but, mindful of the source whence his respite had come, his confidence was in the Lord, that he would deliver him still. It was not a deliverance from death that he expected, as appears from the second clause. But it was deliverance from all that would intimidate him or unfit him for bearing a worthy testimony on the occasion of his second trial. A wicked attempt might be made to damage Christianity in him, as may have been made by Alexander on the occasion of the first trial. The Lord would not allow that attempt to succeed. Christianity would come forth out of the trial untarnished. The issue, so far as he was concerned, would be his being placed safely in Christ's heavenly kingdom. This would be his receptacle after and through death. For Christ's kingdom is already commenced in heaven. The safe placing of Paul in it meant, on the one side, removal from the sphere of all evil, and, on the other side, the coming under the highest conditions of happiness in the enjoyment of Christ—barring what is associated with the completing of the number of the elect and the reunion of soul and body.

5. Doxology. "To whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen." Doxology is an accompaniment of the highest spiritual mood. It is offered here to the Son, as elsewhere to the Father. For it was the Lord's assistance that he had enjoyed, and still expected, and into whose kingdom in heaven he was, by the same assistance, to be safely brought, it would take the ages of ages to declare all that Christ had been and was still to be to him.

IV. SALUTATIONS.

1. The distant to whom salutations are sent. "Salute Prison and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus." Prisca and Aquila were workers with Paul, who for his life had laid down their own necks. Prisca being mentioned before her husband would seem to point to her characteristics being more remarkable. The house of Onesiphorus is saluted, apparently for the reason that Onesiphorus himself was dead. Appended notices. "Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus I left at Miletus sick. Do thy diligence to come before winter." Erastus and Trophimus, who were associated with Ephesus, he did not salute, because they were not at the time there, as far as he knew. His feeling with regard to Timothy himself was to have his immediate fellowship. Let not winter come on and prevent his coming; for his martyrdom was imminent.

2. The near who send their salutations. "Eubulus saluteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren." The brethren in Rome all sent their salutations. They were numerous enough to be known as Christian,s by Nero. The members of the Roman Church whose names are given would be specially interested in Timothy.

V. BENEDICTION. "The Lord be with thy spirit. Grace be with you." The peculiarity of the benediction is that it is twofold—first to Timothy separately, and then to Timothy and those with him. What Timothy is to have separately is the presence of the Lord with his nobler part; what he is to have along with others is undeserved favour.—R.F.

 


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Bibliography Information
Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 4:4". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tpc/2-timothy-4.html. 1897.

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Saturday, December 7th, 2019
the First Week of Advent
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