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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Judges 1

 

 

Introduction
1The acts of Judah and Simeon.
4Adonibezek justly requited.
8Jerusalem taken.
10Hebron taken.
11Othniel has Achsah to wife for taking of Debir.
16The Kenites dwell in Judah.
17Hormah, Gaza, Askelon, and Ekron taken.
21The acts of Benjamin.
22Of the house of Joseph, who take Beth-el.
30Of Zebulun.
31Of Asher.
33Of Naphtali.
34Of Dan.

Verse 1
Now after the death of Joshua it came to pass, that the children of Israel asked the LORD, saying, Who shall go up for us against the Canaanites first, to fight against them?
Now
Joshua 24:29,30
asked
20:18,28; Exodus 28:30; Numbers 27:21; 1 Samuel 22:9,10; 23:9,10

Verse 2
And the LORD said, Judah shall go up: behold, I have delivered the land into his hand.
Genesis 49:8-10; Numbers 2:3; 7:12; Psalms 78:68-70; Hebrews 7:14; Revelation 5:5; 19:11-16

Verse 3
And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot, that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go with thee into thy lot. So Simeon went with him.
Simeon
Genesis 29:33; Joshua 19:1
I likewise
17; 2 Samuel 10:11

Verse 4
And Judah went up; and the LORD delivered the Canaanites and the Perizzites into their hand: and they slew of them in Bezek ten thousand men.
Lord
Exodus 23:28,29; Deuteronomy 7:2; 9:3; Joshua 10:8-10; 11:6-8; 1 Samuel 14:6,10; 1 Samuel 17:46,47; 1 Kings 22:6,15
Bezek
Eusebius and Jerome mention two villages of this name, near each other, about seventeen miles from Shechem, towards Scythopolis.
1 Samuel 11:8

Verse 7
And Adonibezek said, Threescore and ten kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, gathered their meat under my table: as I have done, so God hath requited me. And they brought him to Jerusalem, and there he died.
their thumbs
Heb. the thumbs of their hands and of their feet. This was not an unusual act of cruelty in ancient times towards enemies.--Ælian informs us, that in after ages "the Athenians, at the instigation of Cleon, son of Cleoenetus, made a decree that all the inhabitants of the island of Ægina should have the thumb cut off from the right hand, so that they might ever after be disabled from holding a spear, yet might handle an oar." It was a custom among those Romans who did not like a military life, to cut off their thumbs, that they might be incapable of serving in the army; and for the same reason, parents sometimes cut off the thumbs of their children.
gathered
or, gleaned. as I have.
Exodus 21:23-25; Leviticus 24:19-21; 1 Samuel 15:33; Isaiah 33:1; Matthew 7:1,2; Luke 6:37,38; Romans 2:15; James 2:13; Revelation 13:10; 16:6

Verse 8
Now the children of Judah had fought against Jerusalem, and had taken it, and smitten it with the edge of the sword, and set the city on fire.
21; Joshua 15:63

Verse 9
And afterward the children of Judah went down to fight against the Canaanites, that dwelt in the mountain, and in the south, and in the valley.
afterward
Joshua 10:36; 11:21; 15:13-20
valley
or, low country.

Verse 10
And Judah went against the Canaanites that dwelt in Hebron: (now the name of Hebron before was Kirjatharba:) and they slew Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai.
Kirjath-arba
Joshua 14:15
Sheshai
20; Numbers 13:22,33; Joshua 15:13,14; Psalms 33:16,17; Ecclesiastes 9:11; Jeremiah 9:23

Verse 11
And from thence he went against the inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir before was Kirjathsepher:
Debir
Joshua 10:38,39; 15:15

Verse 12
And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjathsepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.
And Caleb
The whole of this account is found in Jos 15:13-19, and seems to be inserted here by way of recapitulation.
Joshua 15:16,17; 1 Samuel 17:25; 18:23
to him
In ancient times fathers assumed an absolute right over their children, especially in disposing of them in marriage; and it was customary for a king or great man to promise his daughter in marriage to him who should take a city, etc.

Verse 13
And Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother, took it: and he gave him Achsah his daughter to wife.
3:9

Verse 14
And it came to pass, when she came to him, that she moved him to ask of her father a field: and she lighted from off her ass; and Caleb said unto her, What wilt thou?
And it came
Joshua 15:18,19
and she lighted
Watitznach, "she hastily or suddenly alighted," as if she had forgotten something, or was about to return.

Verse 15
And she said unto him, Give me a blessing: for thou hast given me a south land; give me also springs of water. And Caleb gave her the upper springs and the nether springs.
a blessing
Genesis 33:11; 1 Samuel 25:18,27; 2 Corinthians 9:5; *marg:; Hebrews 6:7; 1 Peter 3:9
a south land
Which was probably dry, or very ill watered.
give me also springs of water
Let me have some fields with brooks, or wells already digged.

Verse 16
And the children of the Kenite, Moses' father in law, went up out of the city of palm trees with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah, which lieth in the south of Arad; and they went and dwelt among the people.
the Kenite
4:11,17; Numbers 10:29-32; 24:21,22; 1 Samuel 15:6; 1 Chronicles 2:15; Jeremiah 35:2
Moses
Exodus 3:1; 4:18; 18:1,7,12,14-17,27; Numbers 10:29
city of palm
3:13; Deuteronomy 34:3; 2 Chronicles 28:16
which
Numbers 21:1; Joshua 12:14
they went
Numbers 10:29-32; 1 Samuel 15:6

Verse 17
And Judah went with Simeon his brother, and they slew the Canaanites that inhabited Zephath, and utterly destroyed it. And the name of the city was called Hormah.
And Judah
Zephath
2 Chronicles 14:10
Zephathah
Hormah.
Numbers 14:45; 21:3; Joshua 19:4

Verse 18
Also Judah took Gaza with the coast thereof, and Askelon with the coast thereof, and Ekron with the coast thereof.
Also Judah
There is the following remarkable variation here in the Septuagint: [Kai ouk ekléronomésen Ioudas tén Gazan, oude ta horia autés; oude tén Askalóna, oude ta horia autés; kai tén Akkarón, oude ta horia autés; tén Azóton, oude ta perisporia autés.] "But Judah did not possess Gaza, nor the coasts thereof; nor Askelon, nor the coasts thereof; nor Ekron, nor the coasts thereof; nor Ashdod, nor the coasts thereof." Procopius and Augustine read the same; and Josephus (Ant. 1. v. c. 2) says that the Israelites only took Askelon and Ashdod, but not Gaza or Ekron; and from ch. 3:3, and the whole succeeding history, it appears that these cities were not in the possession of the Israelites, but of the Philistines.
Gaza
3:3; 16:1,2,21; Exodus 23:31; Joshua 11:22; 13:3; 15:45-47; 1 Samuel 6:17

Verse 19
And the LORD was with Judah; and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chariots of iron.
the Lord
2; 6:12,13; Genesis 39:2,21; Joshua 1:5,9; 14:12; 2 Samuel 5:10; 2 Kings 18:7; Psalms 46:7,11; 60:12; Ecclesiastes 9:11; Isaiah 7:14; 8:10; 41:10,14,15; Matthew 1:23; Romans 8:31
he drave, etc
or he possessed the mountain. but could. Not because the iron chariots were too strong for Omnipotence, or because he refused to help them; but because their courage and faith failed when they saw them.
27-32; Joshua 7:12; Matthew 14:30,31; 17:19,20; Philippians 4:13
chariots
Exodus 14:7-31; Joshua 11:1-9; 17:16-18; Psalms 46:9

Verse 20
And they gave Hebron unto Caleb, as Moses said: and he expelled thence the three sons of Anak.
they gave
Numbers 14:24; Deuteronomy 1:36; Joshua 14:9-14; 15:13,14; 21:11,12
the three sons
10; Numbers 13:22

Verse 21
And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this day.
19:10-12; Joshua 15:63; 18:11-28; 2 Samuel 5:6-9

Verse 22
And the house of Joseph, they also went up against Bethel: and the LORD was with them.
the house
Numbers 1:10,32; Joshua 14:4; 16:1-4; 1 Chronicles 7:29; Revelation 7:8
the Lord
19; Genesis 49:24; 2 Kings 18:7

Verse 23
And the house of Joseph sent to descry Bethel. (Now the name of the city before was Luz.)
sent
18:2; Joshua 2:1; 7:2
Luz
Genesis 28:19; 35:6; 48:3

Verse 24
And the spies saw a man come forth out of the city, and they said unto him, Shew us, we pray thee, the entrance into the city, and we will shew thee mercy.
we will
Joshua 2:12-14; 1 Samuel 30:15

Verse 25
And when he shewed them the entrance into the city, they smote the city with the edge of the sword; but they let go the man and all his family.
they smote
Joshua 6:22-25

Verse 26
And the man went into the land of the Hittites, and built a city, and called the name thereof Luz: which is the name thereof unto this day.
the land
2 Kings 7:6; 2 Chronicles 1:17

Verse 27
Neither did Manasseh drive out the inhabitants of Bethshean and her towns, nor Taanach and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Dor and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Ibleam and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Megiddo and her towns: but the Canaanites would dwell in that land.
Manasseh
Joshua 17:11-13
Taanach
5:19; Joshua 21:25
the Canaanites
Exodus 23:32; Deuteronomy 7:2; 1 Samuel 15:9; Psalms 106:34,35; Jeremiah 48:10

Verse 29
Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them.
Joshua 16:10; 1 Kings 9:16

Verse 30
Neither did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of Nahalol; but the Canaanites dwelt among them, and became tributaries.
Kitron
The Talmudists say Kitron is "tzippor," that is, Sepphoris, or Diocæsarea, a celebrated city of Galilee, now the village Safoury, situated in the plain of Esdraelon, twenty miles (north-west) from Tiberias, according to Benjamin of Tudela.
Nahalol
Joshua 19:15

Verse 31
Neither did Asher drive out the inhabitants of Accho, nor the inhabitants of Zidon, nor of Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob:
Asher
Joshua 19:24-30
Accho
Accho, the Ptolemais of the Greeks and Romans, and called Saint John of Acre by the Crusaders, is situated on the Mediterranean, in a fine plain, at the north angle of a bay to which it gives name, and which extends in a semicircle of three leagues as far as Carmel, and nine leagues from Tyre.
Zidon
Another celebrated city of Phoenicia, now Saidè, situated in a fine country on the Mediterranean, 400 stadia from Berytus, and 200 (north) from Tyre, according to Strabo, one day's journey from Paneas, according to Josephus, and sixty-six miles from Damascus, according to Abulfeda.
Achzib
Or, Ecdippa, now Zib, nine miles north, from Accho.

Verse 32
But the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land: for they did not drive them out.
Psalms 106:34,35

Verse 33
Neither did Naphtali drive out the inhabitants of Bethshemesh, nor the inhabitants of Bethanath; but he dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land: nevertheless the inhabitants of Bethshemesh and of Bethanath became tributaries unto them.
Naphtali
Joshua 19:32-38
he dwelt
became
30,35; Psalms 18:24

Verse 34
And the Amorites forced the children of Dan into the mountain: for they would not suffer them to come down to the valley:
18:1; Joshua 19:47

Verse 35
But the Amorites would dwell in mount Heres in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim: yet the hand of the house of Joseph prevailed, so that they became tributaries.
Aijalon
12:12; Joshua 10:12
Shaalbim
Joshua 19:42; 1 Kings 4:9
prevailed
Heb. was heavy.

Verse 36
And the coast of the Amorites was from the going up to Akrabbim, from the rock, and upward.
from the going
or, Maaleh-akrabbim.
Numbers 34:4; Joshua 15:2

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Judges 1:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/judges-1.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, December 11th, 2019
the Second Week of Advent
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