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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies
Luke

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16
Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20
Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24

Book Overview - Luke

by Marvin Vincent

The Gospel According to Luke

Introduction to the Writings of Luke

Legend has been busy with the name of Luke. The Greek Church, in which painting is regarded as a religious art, readily accepted the tradition which represented him as a painter, and the Greek painters carried it into Western Europe. A rude drawing of the Virgin, discovered in the Catacombs, with an inscription to the effect that it was one of seven painted by Luca, confirmed the popular belief that Luke the Evangelist was meant. According to the legend, he carried with him two portraits painted by himself - the one of the Saviour and the other of the Virgin - and by means of these he converted many of the heathen.

When we apply to historical sources, however, we find very little about this evangelist. He never mentions himself by name in the Gospel or in the Acts, and his name occurs in only three passages of the New Testament: Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:11, Philemon 1:24.

That he was an Asiatic-Greek convert of Antioch, though resting upon no conclusive evidence, is supported by the fact that he gives much information about the church there (Acts 11:19, Acts 11:30; Acts 13:1-3; Acts 15:1-3, Acts 15:22, Acts 15:35); that he traces the origin of the name “Christian” to that city, and that, in enumerating the seven deacons of Jerusalem, he informs us of the Antiochian origin of Nicholas (Acts 6:5) without reference to the nationality of any of the others. That he was a physician and the companion of Paul are facts attested by Scripture, though his connection with Paul does not definitely appear before Acts 16:10, where he uses the first person plural. He accompanied Paul from Caesarea, through the shipwreck at Malta, to Rome, and remained there until his liberation. Tradition makes him to have died in Greece, and it was believed that his remains were transferred to Constantinople.

It has been assumed that he was a freedman, from the large number of physicians who belonged to that class, the Greeks and Romans being accustomed to educate some of their domestics in the science of medicine, and to grant them freedom in requital of services. Physicians often held no higher rank than slaves, and it has been noticed that contractions in as, like Lucas for Lucanus, were peculiarly common in the names of slaves.

His connection with Paul gave rise in the church, at a very early period, to the opinion that he wrote his Gospel under the superintendence of that apostle. While his preface says nothing about the Pauline sanction of his Gospel, the work, nevertheless, presents remarkable coincidences with Paul's epistles, both in language, ideas, and spirit. The Gospel itself sets forth that conception of Christ's life and work which was the basis of Paul's teaching. He represents the views of Paul, as Mark does of Peter. “There is a striking resemblance between the style of Luke and of Paul, which corresponds to their spiritual sympathy and long intimacy.” Some two hundred expressions or phrases may be found which are common to Luke and Paul, and more or less foreign to other New Testament writers. Such, for instance, are:

d LukePaul

d

d ἀθετεῖν , reject, Luke 7:30; Luke 10:16. Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:15; 1 Thessalonians 4:8

d

d αἰχμαλωτίζειν ,lead captive, Luke 21:24. Romans 7:23; 2 Corinthians 10:5

d

d ἀνάγκη , Luke 14:18; in the phrase ἔχω ἀνάγκην ,I must needs. 1 Corinthians 7:37

d

d In the sense of distress, Luke 21:23. 1 Corinthians 7:26; 2 Corinthians 6:4:; 2 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Thessalonians 3:7, and not elsewhere.

d

d ἀνακρίνειν ,to examine judicially, Luke 23:14; Acts 12:19; Acts 28:18. 1 Corinthians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 4:3; 1 Corinthians 9:3; ten times in all in that epistle.

d

d ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ,from henceforth, Luke 1:48; Luke 5:10; Luke 12:52; Luke 22:69. 2 Corinthians 5:16.

d

d ἀπ ' αἰῶνος ,since the world began, Luke 1:70; Acts 3:21; Acts 15:18. Colossians 1:26; Ephesians 3:9.

d

d ἐγκακεῖν ,to faint, Luke 18:1. 2 Corinthians 4:1, 2 Corinthians 4:16; Galatians 6:9; Ephesians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 3:13.

d

d διερμηνεύειν ,expound or interpret, Luke 24:27; Acts 9:36. 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 14:5, 1 Corinthians 14:13, 1 Corinthians 14:27.

d

d ἐνδύσασθαι ,endue, clothe, Luke 24:49, in the moral sense. Romans 13:12, Romans 13:14:; 1 Corinthians 15:53; 2 Corinthians 5:3, etc.

d

d εἰ μήτι ,except, Luke 9:13. 1 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 13:5.

d

d ἐπιφαίνειν ,to give light, shine, Luke 1:79; Acts 27:20. Titus 2:11; Titus 3:4.

d

d καταργεῖν ,cumber, Luke 13:7. Romans 3:3, make without effect; make void; destroy; do away; bring to naught; twenty-six times in Paul.

d

d μεγαλύνειν ,exalt, magnify, Luke 1:46, Luke 1:58; Acts 5:13; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:17. 2 Corinthians 10:15; Philemon 1:20.

d

d Both are fond of words characterizing the freedom and universality of gospel salvation. For example, χάρις ,grace, favor, occurs eight times in the Gospel, sixteen in the Acts, and ninety-five in Paul. Ἔλεος mercy, six times in the Gospel and ten in Paul. Πίστις faith, twenty-seven times in the Gospel and Acts, and everywhere in Paul. Compare, also, δικαιοσύνἠ ,righteousness; δίκαιος ,righteous; πνεῦμα ἅγιον ,Holy Spirit; γνῶσις ,knowledge.

They agree in their report of the institution of the Lord's Supper, both giving “This cup is the new covenant in my blood,” for “This is my blood of the new covenant,” and both adding, “in remembrance of me.”

A few of the numerous instances of parallelism of thought and expression may also be cited:

d LukePaul

d

d Luke 4:22 Colossians 4:6; Ephesians 4:29

d

d Luke 4:32 1 Corinthians 2:4

d

d Luke 6:36 2 Corinthians 1:3; Romans 12:1

d

d Luke 6:39 Romans 2:19

d

d Luke 6:48 1 Corinthians 3:10

d

d Luke 8:15 Colossians 1:10, Colossians 1:11

d

d Luke 9:56 2 Corinthians 10:8

d

d Luke 10:8 1 Corinthians 10:27

d

d Luke 10:20 Philemon 4:3

d

d Luke 10:21 1 Corinthians 1:19, 1 Corinthians 1:27

d

d Luke 11:41 Titus 1:15

d

d Luke 12:35 Ephesians 6:14

d

d Luke 20:17, Luke 20:18 Romans 9:33

d

d Luke's long residence in Greece makes it probable that he had Greek readers especially in mind. The same humanitarian and Gentile character of his writings, as distinguished from Jewish writings, appears in the Acts as in the Gospel. Of the Acts, although attempts have been made to assign its composition to Timothy and to Silas, and to identify Silas with Luke, the universal testimony of the ancient church, no less than the identity of style, declare Luke to be the author. About fifty words not found elsewhere in the New Testament are common to both books.

From a purely literary point of view Luke's Gospel has been pronounced, even by Renan, to be the most beautiful book ever written. He says: “The Gospel of Luke is the most literary of the gospels. Everywhere there is revealed a spirit large and sweet; wise, temperate, sober, and reasonable in the irrational. Its exaggerations, its inconsistencies, its improbabilities, are true to the very nature of parable, and constitute its charm. Matthew rounds a little the rough outlines of Mark. Luke does better: he writes. He displays a genuine skill in composition. His book is a beautiful narrative, well contrived, at once Hebraic and Hellenic, uniting the emotion of the drama with the serenity of the idyl … .A spirit of holy infancy, of joy, of fervor, the gospel feeling in its primitive freshness, diffuse all over the legend an incomparably sweet coloring.”

Luke is the best writer of Greek among the evangelists. His construction is rhythmical, his vocabulary rich and well selected, considerably exceeding that of the other evangelists. He uses over seven hundred words which occur nowhere else in the New Testament. He substitutes classical words for many which are used by Matthew and Mark, as λίμνη , lake, for θάλασσα , sea, when describing the lake of Galilee. He uses three distinct words for bed in the description of the healing of the paralytic (Luke 5:18), avoiding the vulgar κράββατος of Mark. The latter word, it is true, occurs in two passages in the Acts (Acts 5:15; Acts 9:33), but both these passages are Petrine. So, too, we find ἐπιστάτης master, instead of Rabbi; νομικοί ,lawyers, for γραμματεῖς ,scribes; ναὶ ἀληθῶς, ἐπ ' ἀληθείας yea, truly, of a truth, for ἀμήν , verily; φόρος ,tribute, for the Latin form, κῆνσος census. He uses several Latin words, as δηνάριον ,denarius λεγεών ,legion; σουδάριον ,napkin; ἀσσάριον ,farthing, though he avoids κοδράντης ,farthing, in Luke 21:2 (compare Mark 12:42); μόδιος, bushel. He is less Hebraic than the other evangelists, except in the first two chapters - the history of the infancy - which he derived probably from Aramaic traditions or documents, and where his language has a stronger Hebrew coloring than any other portion of the New Testament. “The songs of Zacharias, Elizabeth, Mary, and Simeon, and the anthem of the angelic host, are the last of Hebrew psalms, as well as the first of Christian hymns. They can be literally translated back into the Hebrew without losing their beauty” (Schaff).

His style is clear, animated, picturesque, and unpretentious. Where he describes events on the authority of others, his manner is purely historical; events which have come under his own observation he treats in the minute and circumstantial style of an eye-witness. Compare, for instance, the detailed narrative of the events at Philippi with that of the occurrences at Thessalonica. The change of style at Acts 16:10, from the historical to the personal narrative, coincides with the time of his joining Paul at the first visit to Macedonia, and a similar change may be noted at Acts 20:4-6.

But the style of Luke also acquires a peculiar flavor from his profession. His language, both in the Gospel and in the Acts, indicates a familiarity with the terms used by the Greek medical schools, and furnishes an incidental confirmation of the common authorship of the two books. As we have seen, Luke was probably a Greek of Asia Minor; and, with the exception of Hippocrates, all the extant Greek medical writers were Asiatic Greeks. Hippocrates, indeed, can hardly be called an exception, as he was born and lived in the island of Cos, off the coast of Caria. Galen was of Pergamus in Mysia; Dioscorides, of Anazarba in Cilicia; and Aretaeus, of Cappadocia.

The medical peculiarities of Luke's style appear, first, in words and phrases used in descriptions of diseases or of miracles of healing. His terms are of the technical character peculiar to a medical man. Thus, in the account of the healing of Simon's wife's mother (Luke 4:38, Luke 4:39), we read that she was taken ( συνεχομένη ) with a great fever ( πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ ). The word taken is used nine times by Luke, and only three times in the rest of the New Testament. It occurs frequently in this sense in the medical writers, as does also the simple verb ἔχω , to have or hold. Moreover, according to Galen, the ancient physicians were accustomed to distinguish between great and little fevers. In the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-26), we find εἱλκωμένος ,full of sores, the regular medical term for to be ulcerated: ὀδυνῶμαι ,to be in pain, occurs four times in Luke's writings, and nowhere else in the New Testament, but frequently in Galen, Aretaeus, and Hippocrates. Ἐξέψυξε , gave up the ghost (Acts 5:5, Acts 5:10), is a rare word, used by Luke only, and occurring only three times in the New Testament. It seems to be almost confined to medical writers, and to be used rarely even by them. In the proverb of “the camel and the needle's eye,” Matthew and Mark use for needle the vulgar word ῥαφίς , while Luke alone uses βελόνη ,the surgical needle.

These terms will be pointed out in the notes as they occur. Second, the ordinary diction of the evangelist, when dealing with unprofessional subjects, has often a medical flavor, which asserts itself in words peculiar to him, or more common in his writings than elsewhere in the New Testament, and all of which were in common use among the Greek physicians. Thus Matthew (Matthew 23:4) says that the scribes and Pharisees will not move ( κινῆσαι ) the burdens they impose, with one of their fingers. Luke, recording a similar saying (Luke 11:46), says, “ye yourselves touch ( προσψαύετε ) not the burdens,” using a technical term for gently feeling the pulse, or a sore or tender part of the body. The word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. “No mean city” ( ἄσημος , Acts 21:39). The word mean, peculiar to this passage, is the professional term for a disease without distinctive symptoms, and is applied by Hippocrates to a city. “Delivered the letter” ( ἀναδόντες , Acts 23:33). The verb occurs only here in the New Testament, and is a medical term for the distribution of blood through the veins, or of nourishment through the body. Hippocrates uses it of a messenger delivering a letter. In the parable of the sower, Matthew and Mark have ῥίζαν , “they have no root. Luke (Luke 8:6) has ίκμάδα ,moisture, the medical term for thejuices of the body, of plants, and of the earth. In the same parable, for sprung up Matthew and Mark have ἐξανέτειλε , while Luke has φυὲν - συμφυεῖσαι (Luke 8:6, Luke 8:7), it grew - grew with it (Rev.). These latter words are used by medical writers to describe the growth of parts of the body, of diseases, of vegetation, etc. Hippocrates uses together ἱκμάς , moisture, and φύεσθαι ,to grow, comparing the juices of the body with those of the earth. Συμφύεσθαι ,to grow together, was the professional word for the closing of wounds and ulcers, the uniting of nerves and of bones, and is used by Dioscorides precisely as here, of plants growing together in the same place.

Such peculiarities, so far from being strange or anomalous, are only what might naturally be expected. It is an every-day fact that the talk of specialists, whether in the professions or in mechanics, when it turns upon ordinary topics, unconsciously takes form and color from their familiar calling.

The attempt has been made to show that Paul's style was influenced by Luke in this same direction; so that his intercourse with his companion and physician showed itself in his use of certain words having a medical flavor. Dean Plumptre cites as illustrations of this, ὑγιαίνειν ,to be healthy, in its figurative application to doctrine as wholesome or sound (1 Timothy 1:10; 1 Timothy 6:3; 2 Timothy 1:13): γάγγραινα ,canker (2 Timothy 2:17): τυφωθεὶς , lifted up with pride; Rev., puffed up (1 Timothy 3:6; 1 Timothy 6:4): κεκαυτηριασμένων ,seared; Rev., branded (1 Timothy 4:2): κνηθόμενοι , itching (2 Timothy 4:3): ἀποκόψονται ,cut themselves off (Galatians 5:12).

Luke is also circumstantial, as well as technical, in his descriptions of diseases; noting their duration and symptoms, and the stages of the patient's recovery, etc. See Acts 3:1-8; Acts 9:40, Acts 9:41. The successive stages of Elymas' blindness are noted at Acts 13:11; and the process of Saul's restoration to sight at Acts 9:18. He also exhibits traces of professional sensitiveness, as in his omission of Mark's implied reflection upon the physicians who had treated the woman with the issue of blood (Luke 8:43; Mark 5:26).

Luke's accurate observation and memory appear especially in the Acts, in his allusions, and in his descriptions of nautical and political matters. With nautical details, he exhibits the acquaintance often displayed by a landsman who has been much at sea and in frequent intercourse with seamen. It has been conjectured that at some period of his professional life he may have served as a surgeon on shipboard. In his political allusions he is precise in the use of terms. Thus, in Acts 13:7, his accuracy in naming the civil magistrates is noteworthy. He speaks of Sergius Paulus as the proconsul of Cyprus. Consuls were called by the Greeks ὕπατοι ; and hence a proconsul was ἀνθύπατος , one who acts instead of ( ἀντὶ ) a consul. Roman provinces were of two classes, senatorial and imperial; and the proper title of the governor of a senatorial province was ἀνθύπατος . The governor of an imperial province was called ἀντιστράτηγος ,propraetor. Evidently, therefore, Luke regarded Cyprus as a senatorial province, governed by a proconsul; and we find that Augustus, though at first he reserved Cyprus for himself, and consequently governed it by a propraetor, afterward restored it to the senate and governed it by a proconsul - a fact confirmed by coins of the very time of Paul's visit to Cyprus, bearing the name of the emperor Claudius, and of the provincial governor, with the title ἀνθύπατος . So Luke speaks of Gallio (Acts 18:12)as proconsul (A. V., deputy ) of Achaia, which was a senatorial province. When he comes to Felix or Festus, who were only deputy-governors of the propraetor of Syria, he calls them by the general term ἡγεμών , governor (Acts 23:24; Acts 26:30). Similarly accurate is his designation of Philippi as a colonia (Acts 16:12), and his calling its magistrates στρατηγοί or praetors, a title which they were fond of giving themselves. So the city authorities of Thessalonica are styled πολιτάρχαι ,rulers of the city (Acts 17:8); for Thessalonica was a free city, having the right of self-government, and where the local magistrates had the power of life and death over the citizens. Luke's accuracy on this point is borne out by an inscription on an archway in Thessalonica, which gives this title to the magistrates of the place, together with their number - seven - and the very names of some who held the office not long before Paul's time. This short inscription contains six names which are mentioned in the New Testament. We may also note the Asiarchs, chiefs of, Asia, at Ephesus (Acts 19:31), who, like the aediles at Rome, defrayed the charge of public amusements, and were, as presidents of the games, invested with the character of priests.

A similar accuracy appears in the Gospel in the dates of more important events, and in local descriptions, as of the Lord's coming to Jerusalem across the Mount of Olives (Luke 19:37-41). Here he brings out the two distinct views of Jerusalem on this route, an irregularity in the ground hiding it for a time after one has just caught sight of it. Verse Luke 19:37 marks the first sight, and Luke 19:41 the second.

In the narrative of the voyage and shipwreck, the precision of detail is remarkable. Thus there are fourteen verbs denoting the progression of a ship, with a distinction indicating the peculiar circumstances of the ship at the time. Seven of these are compounds of πλέω , to sail. Thus we have ἀπέπλευσαν , sailed away (Acts 13:4); βραδυπλοοῦντες , sailing slowly (Acts 27:7); ὑπεπλεύσαμεν , sailed under (the lee). So, also, παραλεγόμενοι , hardly passing (Acts 27:8); εὐθυδρομήσαμεν ,ran with a straight course (Acts 16:11), etc. Note also the technical terms for lightening the ship by throwing overboard the cargo: ἐκβολὴν ἐποιοῦντὄ ; literally, made a casting out (Acts 27:19); ἐκούφιζον , lightened (Acts 27:38); and the names of various parts of the vessel.

Luke's Gospel is the gospel of contrasts. Thus Satan is constantly emphasized over against Jesus, as binding a daughter of Abraham; as cast down from heaven in Jesus' vision; as entering into Judas; as sifting Peter. The evangelist portrays the doubting Zacharias and the trusting Mary; the churlish Simon and the loving sinner; the bustling Martha and the quiet, adoring Mary; the thankful and the thankless lepers; the woes added to the blessings in the Sermon on the Mount; the rich man and Lazarus; the Pharisee and the Publican; the good Samaritan and the priest and Levite; the prodigal and his elder brother; the penitent and impenitent thieves.

Luke's is the universal gospel. His frequent use of words expressing the freedom and universality of the Gospel has already been noted. His Gospel is for the Gentiles. The genealogy of Christ is traced back to the common father of the race, Adam, instead of to Abraham, the father of the Jewish nation, as by Matthew. He records the enrolment of Christ as a citizen of the Roman empire. Simeon greets him as a light for revelation to the Gentiles. The Baptist cites concerning him Isaiah's prophecy that all flesh shall see the salvation of God. Luke alone records the mission of the seventy, who represent the seventy Gentile nations, as the twelve represent the twelve tribes of Israel. He alone mentions the mission of Elijah to the heathen widow, and Naaman's cleansing by Elisha. He contrasts the gratitude of the one Samaritan leper with the thanklessness of the nine Jewish lepers. He alone records the refusal to call down fire on the inhospitable Samaritans, and the parable of the Good Samaritan is peculiar to him. He notes the commendation of the humble Publican in contrast with the self- righteous Pharisee, and relates how Jesus abode with Zacchaeus. He omits all reference to the law in the Sermon on the Mount. Luke's is the gospel of the poor and outcast. As a phase of its universality, the humblest and most sinful are shown as not excluded from Jesus. The highest heavenly honor is conferred on the humble Mary of Nazareth. Only in Luke's story do we hear the angels' song of “Peace and good-will,” and see the simple shepherds repairing to the manger at Bethlehem. It is Luke who gives the keynote of Keble's lovely strain:

“The pastoral spirits first

Approach thee, Babe divine,

For they in lowly thoughts are nurs'd,

Meet for thy lowly shrine:

Sooner than they should miss where thou dost dwell,

Angels from heaven will stoop to guide them to thy cell.”

He pictures poor Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, and the calling of the poor and maimed and halt and blind to the great supper. It is the gospel of the publican, the harlot, the prodigal, the penitent thief.

Luke's is the gospel of womanhood. Woman comes prominently into view as discerning God's promises. The songs of Mary and Elizabeth, and the testimony of Anna, are full of a clear spiritual perception, no less than of a living and simple faith. She appears as ministering to the Lord and as the subject of his ministries. Mary of Magdala, Joanna, Susanna, Mary and Martha, with others, lavish upon him their tender care; while the daughter of Abraham whom Satan had bound, the sorrowful mother at Nain, she who touched the heat of his garment, and the weeping daughters of Jerusalem on the road to Calvary knew the comfort of his words and the healing and life-giving virtue of his touch. The word γυνὴ ,woman, occurs in Matthew and Mark together forty-nine times, and in Luke alone forty-three. “He alone,” says Canon Farrar, “preserves the narratives, treasured with delicate reserve and holy reticence in the hearts of the blessed Virgin and of the saintly Elizabeth - narratives which show in every line the pure and tender coloring of a woman's thoughts.”

Luke's is the prayer-gospel. To him we are indebted for the record of our Lord's prayers at his baptism; after the cleansing of the leper; before the call of the twelve; at his transfiguration; and on the cross for his enemies. To him alone belong the prayer-parables of the Friend at Midnight, and the Unjust Judge.

Luke's is the gospel of song. He has been justly styled “the first Christian hymnologist.” To him we owe the Benedictus, the song of Zacharias; the Magnificat, the song of Mary; the Nunc Dimittis, the song of Simeon; the Ave Maria, or the angel's salutation; and the Gloria in Excelsis, the song of the angels.

And, finally, Luke's is the gospel of infancy. He alone tells the story of the birth of John the Baptist; he gives the minuter details of the birth of Christ, and the accounts of his circumcision and presentation in the temple, his subjection to his parents and the questioning with the doctors. His Gospel “sheds a sacred halo and celestial charm over infancy, as perpetuating the paradise of innocence in a sinful world. The first two chapters will always be the favorite chapters for children, and all who delight to gather around the manger of Bethlehem, and to rejoice with shepherds in the field and angels in heaven” (Schaff).

List of Greek Words Used by Luke Only

d ἀγκάλη arm Luke 2:28

d

d ἁγνισμός purification Acts 21:26

d

d ἄγνωστος unknown Acts 17:23

d

d ἀγοραῖος pertaining to the market-place, base Acts 17:5

d

d ἀγοραῖοι court-days Acts 19:38

d

d ἄγρα draught Luke 5:4, Luke 5:9

d

d ἀγράμματος unlearned Acts 4:13

d

d ἀγραυλέω abide in the field Luke 2:8

d

d ἀγωνία agony Luke 22:44

d

d αἰσθάνομαι perceive Luke 9:45

d

d αἰτίαμα complaint Acts 25:7

d

d αἴτιον fault Luke 23:4, Luke 23:14, Luke 23:22; Acts 19:40

d

d αἰχμάλωτος captive Luke 4:18, Luke 4:19

d

d ἀκατάκριτος uncondemned Acts 16:37; Acts 22:25

d

d ἀκρίβεια exactness, perfect manner Acts 22:3

d

d ἀκριβέστατος most strict Acts 26:5

d

d ἀκριβέστερον more perfect Acts 18:26; Acts 23:15, Acts 23:20; Acts 24:22

d

d ἀκροατήριον place of hearing Acts 25:23

d

d ἀκωλύτως without hindrance Acts 28:31

d

d ἀλίσγημα pollution Acts 15:20

d

d ἀλλογενής stranger Luke 17:18

d

d ἀλλόφυλος of another nation Acts 10:28

d

d ἀμάρτυρος without witness Acts 14:17

d

d ἀμπελουργός dresser of the vineyard Luke 13:7

d

d ἀμύνομαι defend Acts 7:24

d

d ἀναβαθμός stair Acts 21:35, Acts 21:40

d

d ἀναβάλλομαι put off, defer Acts 24:22

d

d ἀνάβλεψις recovering of sight Luke 4:18

d

d ἀναβολή delay Acts 25:17

d

d ἀναγνωρίζομαι to be made known Acts 7:13

d

d ἀναδεικνυμι appoint, shew Luke 10:1; Acts 1:24

d

d ἀνάδειξις shewing Luke 1:80

d

d ἀναδίδωμι deliver Acts 23:33

d

d ἀναζητέω seek Luke 2:44; Acts 11:25

d

d ἀνάθημα gift, offering Luke 21:5

d

d ἀναίδεια importunity Luke 11:8

d

d ἀναίρεσις death Acts 8:1; Acts 22:20

d

d ἀνακαθίζω set up Luke 7:15; Acts 9:40

d

d ἀνάκρισις examination Acts 25:26

d

d ἀνάληψις taking up Luke 9:51

d

d ἀναντίῤῥήτος not to be spoken against Acts 19:36

d

d ἀναντιῤῥήτως without gainsaying Acts 10:29

d

d ἀναπείζω persuade Acts 18:13

d

d ἀναπτύσσω open, unroll Luke 4:17

d

d ἀνασκευάζω subvert Acts 15:24

d

d ἀνασπάω pull or draw up Luke 14:5; Acts 11:10

d

d ἀνατάσσομαι set forth in order Luke 1:1

d

d ἀνατρέφω nourish up Acts 7:20, Acts 7:21 Acts 22:3

d

d ἀναφαίνω bring to light, appear, to sight Luke 19:11; Acts 21:3

d

d ἀναφωνέω speak out Luke 1:42

d

d ἀνάψυξις refreshing Acts 3:19

d

d ἀνἔκλειπτος that faileth not Luke 12:33

d

d ἀνένδεκτον impossible Luke 17:1

d

d ἀνετάζω examine Acts 22:24, Acts 22:29

d

d ἀνεύζετος not commodious Acts 27:12

d

d ἀνευρίσκω find Luke 2:16; Acts 21:4

d

d ἀνθομολογέομαι give thanks Luke 2:38

d

d ἀνθυπατεύω to be deputy or proconsul Acts 18:12

d

d ἀνθύπατος deputy, proconsul Acts 13:7, Acts 13:8, Acts 13:12; Acts 19:38

d

d ἀνοικοδομέω build again Acts 15:16

d

d ἀντεῖπον gainsay Luke 21:15; Acts 4:14

d

d ἀντιβάλλω exchange, have one to another Luke 24:17

d

d ἀντικαλέω bid again in return Luke 14:12

d

d ἀντικρύ over against Acts 20:15

d

d ἀντιπαρέρχομαι pass by on the other side Luke 10:31, Luke 10:32

d

d ἀντιπέραν over against Luke 8:26

d

d ἀντιπίπτω resist Acts 7:51

d

d ἀντοφθαλμέω bear up into (into the eye of) Acts 27:15

d

d ἀνωτερικός upper Acts 19:1

d

d ἀπαιτέω ask again, require Luke 6:30; Luke 12:20

d

d ἀπαρτισμός finishing Luke 14:28

d

d ἀπεῖμι go (away) Acts 17:10

d

d ἀπελαύνω drive away Acts 18:16

d

d ἀπελεγμός refutation, contempt Acts 19:27

d

d ἀπελπίζω hope for in return Luke 6:35

d

d ἀπερίτμητος uncircumcised Acts 7:51

d

d ἀπογραφή taxing (enrolment) Luke 2:2; Acts 5:37

d

d ἀποδέχομαι receive Luke 8:40; Acts 2:41; Acts 15:4; Acts 18:27; Acts 24:3; Acts 28:30

d

d ἀποθλίβω press Luke 8:45

d

d ἀποκατάστασις restitution Acts 3:21

d

d ἀποκλείω shut to Luke 13:25

d

d ἀπομάσσομαι wipe off Luke 10:11

d

d ἀποπίπτω fall from Acts 9:18

d

d ἀποπλέω sail away Acts 13:4; Acts 14:26; Acts 20:15; Acts 27:1

d

d ἀπορία perplexity Luke 21:25

d

d ἀποῤῥίπτω cast Acts 27:43

d

d ἀποστοματίζω provoke to speak Luke 11:53

d

d ἀποτινάσσω shake off Luke 9:5;. Acts 28:5

d

d ἀποφθέγγομαι speak forth Acts 2:4, Acts 2:14; Acts 26:25

d

d ἀποφορτίζομαι unlade Acts 21:3

d

d ἀποψύχω fail at heart Luke 21:26

d

d ἅπτω to light Luke 8:16; Luke 11:33; Luke 15:8; Luke 22:55

d

d ἀπωθέομαι put away from Acts 13:46

d

d ἀργυροκόπος silversmith Acts 19:24

d

d ἀρήν ( ἀρνός, ἀμνός )

d lamb Luke 10:3

d

d ἄροτρον plough Luke 9:62

d

d ἀρτέμων mainsail Acts 27:40

d

d ἀρχιερατικός of the high-priest Acts 4:6

d

d ἀρχιτελώνης chief among the publicans Luke 19:2

d

d ἄσημος mean, undistinguished Acts 21:39

d

d ἀσιτία abstinence Acts 27:21

d

d ἄσιτος fasting Acts 27:33

d

d ἀσκέω to exercise Acts 24:16

d

d ἀσμένως gladly Acts 2:41; Acts 21:17

d

d ἆσσον close by, nearer Acts 27:13

d

d ἀστράπτω to lighten (of lightning) Luke 17:24; Luke 24:1

d

d ἀσύμφωνος not agreeing Acts 28:25

d

d ἀσώτως wastefully, unsavingly Luke 15:13

d

d ἄτεκνος without children Luke 20:28, Luke 20:29, Luke 20:30

d

d ἄτερ in the absence of, without Luke 22:6, Luke 22:35

d

d αὐγή break of day Acts 20:11

d

d αὐστηρός austere Luke 19:21, Luke 19:22

d

d αὐτόπτης eye-witness Luke 1:2

d

d αὐτόχειρ with one's own hands Acts 27:19

d

d ἄφαντος vanished out of sight Luke 24:31

d

d ἀφελότης singleness Acts 2:46

d

d ἄφιξις departure Acts 20:29

d

d ἄφνω suddenly Acts 2:2; Acts 16:26; Acts 28:6

d

d ἀφρός foaming Luke 9:39

d

d ἀφυπνόω fall asleep Luke 8:23

d

d ἀχλύς mist Acts 13:11

d

d βαθύνω deepen, make deep Luke 6:48

d

d βαλάντιον purse Luke 10:4; Luke 12:33; Luke 22:35, Luke 22:36

d

d βασίλεια royal mansion, king's court Luke 7:25

d

d βάσις foot Acts 3:7

d

d βάτος measure Luke 16:6

d

d βαλόνη needle Luke 18:25

d

d βία violence Acts 5:26; Acts 21:35; Acts 24:7; Acts 27:41

d

d βίαιος mighty Acts 2:2

d

d βίωσις manner of life Acts 26:4

d

d βολή a throw, cast Luke 22:41

d

d βολίζω to sound (with a lead) Acts 27:28

d

d βουνός hill Luke 3:5; Luke 23:30

d

d βραδυπλοέω sail slowly Acts 27:7

d

d βρύχω gnash Acts 7:54

d

d βρώσιμος meat Luke 24:41

d

d βυρσεύς tanner Acts 9:43; Acts 10:6, Acts 10:32

d

d βωμός altar Acts 17:23

d

d γάζ
Lectionary Calendar
Friday, October 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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