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Bible Dictionaries

Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Sennacherib

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On the monuments Τzin-akki-irib , "Sin (the "moon goddess") increases brothers," implying Sennacherib was not the firstborn; or else "thanking the god for the gift." Sargon's son and successor. Ascended the throne 704 B.C., crushed the revolt of Babylon, and drove away Merodach Baladan, made Belibus his officer viceroy, ravaged the Aramaean lands on the Tigris and Euphrates, and carried off 200,000 captives. In 701 B.C. warred with the tribes on Mount Zagros, and reduced the part of Media previously independent. In 700 B.C. punished Sidon, made Tyre, Arad, and other Phoenician cities, as also Edom and Ashdod, tributary. Took Ashkelon, warred with Egypt, took Libnah and Lachish on the frontier; and having made treaty with Sabacus or So (the clay seal of So found in Sennacherib's palace at Koyunjik was probably attached to this treaty), he marched against Hezekaih of Judah who had thrown off tribute and intermeddled in the politics of Philistine cities against Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:13). (See HEZEKIAH: ASSYRIA; NINEVEH.)

Hezekiah's sickness was in his 14th year, but Sennacherib's expedition in his 27th, which ought to be substituted for the copyist's error "fourteenth." On his way, according to inscriptions (G. Smith, in Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October 1872, p. 198), Sennacherib attacked Lulia of Sidon, then took Sidon, Zarephath, etc. The kings of Palestine mentioned as submitting to Sennacherib are Menahem of Samaria, Tubal of Sidon, Kemosh Natbi of Moab, etc. He took Ekron, which had submitted to Hezekiah and had delivered its king Padi up to him; Sennacherib reseated Padi on his throne. Sennacherib defeated the kings of Egypt and Ethiopia at Eltekeh. Sennacherib took 46 of Judah's fenced cities including Lachish, the storming of which, is depicted on his palace walls. He shut up Hezekiah, (building towers round Jerusalem), who then submitted and paid 30 talents of gold and 800 of silver.

Sennacherib gave part of Judah's territory to Ashdod, Ekron, Gaza, and Ashkelon. It was at his second expedition that the overthrow of his host by Jehovah's Angel took place (2 Kings 18:17-37; 2 Kings 18:2 Kings 19). This was probably two years after the first, but late in his reign Sennacherib speaks of an expedition to Palestine apparently. "After this," in 2 Chronicles 32:9; 2 Chronicles 32:17 years after his disaster, in 681 B.C., his two sons Adrammelech and Sharezer assassinated him after a reign of 22 years, and Esarhaddon ascended the throne 680 B.C. Esarhaddon's inscription, stating that he was at war with his half brothers, after his accession, agrees with the Bible account of Sennacherib's assassination. Moses of Chorene confirms the escape of the brothers to Armenia, and says that part was peopled by their descendants.

Sennacherib's second invasion of Babylon was apparently in 699 B.C.; he defeated a Chaldaean chief who headed an army in support of Merodach Baladan. Sennacherib put one of his own sons on the throne instead of Belibus. Sennacherib was the first who made Nineveh the seat of government. The grand palace at Koyunjik was his, covering more than eight acres. He embanked with brick the Tigris, restored the aqueducts of Nineveh, and repaired a second palace at Nineveh on the mound of Nebi Yunns. Its halls were ranged about three courts, one 154 ft. by 125 ft., another 124 ft. by 90 ft. One hall was 180 ft. long by 40 ft. broad; 60 ft. small rooms have been opened. He erected memorial tablet at the mouth of the nahr el Kelb on the Syrian coast, beside an inscription recording Rameses the Great's conquests six hundred years before; this answers to his boast that "he had come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon."


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Bibliography Information
Fausset, Andrew R. Entry for 'Sennacherib'. Fausset's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/fbd/s/sennacherib.html. 1949.

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Monday, December 16th, 2019
the Third Week of Advent
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