corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.10.15
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Dictionaries

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament

Quotations

Resource Toolbox
Additional Links

A wide variety has been found to exist in the literary allusions of the four Gospels. The same freedom pervades the rest of the NT. Characteristic differences are, no doubt, to be met with in different groups of apostolic writings; but the field of quotation, direct and indirect, extends throughout from exact reproduction of the original texts to the merest suggestion or reminiscence, often hardly to be traced. The present article seeks to cover the more obvious reminiscences, as well as explicit citations, in the NT books under review.

1. Acts of the Apostles.-The direct quotations in Acts are confined to speeches of the apostles and the story of the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:26 ff.). They are invariably drawn from the LXX_, even when that Version departs considerably from the Hebrew (as in Acts 7:42 f., Acts 15:16 f.), and normally introduced by formulae like ‘It is written (in the book of Psalms),’ ‘This is that which hath been spoken by the prophets,’ ‘For David saith concerning him,’ etc. A number of the citations are exact, viz. Acts 2:25-28 = Psalms 16:8-11, omitting the last clause (identity being secured by reading ἡ καρδία μου with àAD, etc.); Acts 2:34 f. = Psalms 110:1; Ps 4:25f. = Psalms 2:1 f.; Acts 8:32 f. = Isaiah 53:7 f. (with addition of αὐτόν, as in àA, etc.); Acts 23:5 = Exodus 22:28 (in Lucian’s recension); Acts 28:26 f. = Isaiah 6:9 f. (apart from a slight difference in the opening formula). Under the same category is virtually to be placed the long citation from Joel 2:28-32 woven into Peter’s speech at Pentecost (Acts 2:17-21), the only changes from the LXX_ (àA) being a substitution of the eschatological phrase ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις (from Isaiah 2:2, Micah 4:1) for the simple μετὰ ταῦτα of the original, the insertion of the solemn formula of Divine utterance λέγει ὁ θεός, and the transposition of the clauses relating to the young men and the old. In close dependence on the historical narratives from Genesis to Kings stands Stephen’s long survey of the Divine leading and mission of Israel (Acts 7:1 ff.), many of the verses being abbreviated, but sufficiently exact, citations of biblical texts (cf. esp. vv. Acts 7:3; Acts 7:6 f., Acts 7:26-28; Acts 7:30-34; Acts 7:40 with Genesis 12:1; Genesis 15:13 f., Exodus 2:13 f., Exodus 3:2 ff., Exodus 32:1). More deliberate alterations are evident in Exodus 1:20, where the general denunciation of wicked men in Psalms 69:25 (amplified by a further reference to Psalms 109:8) is directly pointed against Judas; Acts 2:30, an indirect citation of Ps 132:11; 3:22f. (abbreviated in Acts 7:37), a conflate of Deuteronomy 18:15-19 and Leviticus 23:29; Lv 3:25, a free blending of the promises addressed to the fathers in Genesis 12:3; Genesis 18:18, etc.; Genesis 4:11, a loose citation of the verses (Psalms 118:22 f.) which are fully reproduced and applied to Christ in Matthew 21:42 and parallel texts; Acts 7:42 f., where the famous words of Amos 5:25-27 are quoted with considerable changes, the most remarkable being the substitution of ‘Babylon’ for ‘Damascus’ (due either to accident, or, more probably, to a desire to bring the prophecy into line with later events); Acts 7:49 f., where the prophet’s great contrast between the heavens of the Most High God and even the noblest temple built by man (Isaiah 66:1 f.) is reproduced with considerable freedom; Isaiah 13:22, a noteworthy conflate of Psalms 89:20; Psalms 89 :2 Samuel 23:1 (or Psalms 72:20), 1 Samuel 13:14, and Isaiah 44:28; other verses from St. Paul’s speech at Antioch, esp. Acts 13:33-35; Acts 13:41; Acts 13:47, which are abbreviated citations of Psalms 2:7, Isaiah 55:3, Psalms 16:10, Habakkuk 1:5, and Isaiah 49:6 respectively; Acts 15:16 f., a free rendering of Amos 9:11, introduced by a phrase from Jeremiah 12:15; Jeremiah 26:17 f., an application to St. Paul himself of the prophetic passage Isaiah 42:7-16.

In addition to direct citations, however, there are many reminiscences of Scriptural phraseology scattered through Acts. The following may be presented as most suggestive of the original texts: Acts 2:24 (cf. Psalms 18:4 f., Psalms 116:3, Job 39:2 f.); Acts 2:39 (cf. Isaiah 57:19, Joel 2:32, etc.); Acts 2:40 (cf. Deuteronomy 32:5); Acts 4:24, Acts 14:15, Acts 17:24 (cf. Genesis 1:1, Exodus 20:11, etc.); Acts 4:34 (cf. Deuteronomy 15:4); Acts 5:4 (cf. Joshua 24:27, etc.); Acts 8:2 (cf. Genesis 50:10); Acts 8:21 (cf. Deuteronomy 12:12, Psalms 78:37); Acts 10:36 (cf. Psalms 107:20, Isaiah 52:7, etc.); Acts 17:27 (cf. Isaiah 55:6, etc.); Acts 17:29 (cf. Isaiah 40:18 f., Isaiah 46:5); Acts 17:31 (cf. Psalms 9:8, etc.).

Outside of the OT, no texts are ever cited as Scripture. Other sources are, however, clearly before the mind of the writer. Thus Acts 7:21 suggests Wis 11:14; 18:5; 17:29, Wis 13:10; and 17:30, Wisdom of Solomon 11:23; Wisdom of Solomon 12:2. The phraseology of Acts 3:14 (cf. Acts 7:52, Acts 22:14) Acts 4:12, Acts 10:4, Acts 17:31 recalls Enoch, xxxviii. 2, xlviii. 7, xcix. 3, and xli. 9 respectively. In St. Stephen’s speech (Acts 7:36; Acts 7:38 f.) R. H. Charles finds distinct evidence of dependence on the Assumption of Moses (iii. 11-13). There is here also (Acts 7:16) betrayed an acquaintance with extra-canonical Jewish tradition regarding the burial of Joseph’s brethren, as it was afterwards committed to writing in the Book of Jubilees (xlvi. 9 f.). Finally, St. Paul’s great speech at Athens brings classical poetry into the service of Christ. The final clause of Acts 17:28, Τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμέν (‘for we are also his offspring’) has long been recognized as an exact quotation from Aratus’ Phaenomena, line 5 (cf. the similar phrase, ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ γένος ἐσμέν, from Cleanthes’ Hymn to Jove, line 4). But Rendel Harris has recently traced the immediately preceding words (‘for in him we live and move and have our being’) to the Minos of the Cretan pcet, Epimenides, from which also Titus 1:12 is drawn, the text being restored as follows:

τύμβον ἐτεκτῄναντο σέθεν, κύδιστε, μέγιστε,

Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί.

Ἀλλὰ σύ γʼ οὐ θνήσκεις, ἕστηκας γὰρ ζοὸς αἰεί,

ἐν γὰρ σοὶ ζῶμεν καὶ κινύμεθʼ ἠδὲ καὶ ἐσμέν

(cf. Exp_, 8th ser., iv. [1912] 348 ff.).

2. The Pauline Epistles.-These are peculiarly rich in allusions. Every important doctrinal argument is buttressed by an appeal to Scripture; and even moral counsels are, as a rule, referred to some basal principle of the OT. The Apostle’s ordinary language is likewise steeped in OT phraseology. Here too the LXX_ is the great storehouse of literary reference. ‘More than half of the direct quotations of the OT in the Epistles of St. Paul are taken from the LXX_ without material change’ (H. B. Swete, Introduction to the OT in Greek, Cambridge, 1900, p. 400). In the remaining cases he allows himself considerable freedom, sometimes quoting from memory, or otherwise altering the text for the purpose immediately in view, though occasionally there is evidence of direct translation from the Hebrew.

(a) The Epistle to the Romans is a veritable mine of quotations. Exact reproductions of the LXX_ are found as follows: Romans 3:4 b = Psalms 51:4 b; Psalms 4:3 (cf. Psalms 4:5 ff.) = Genesis 15:6; Genesis 4:7 f. = Psalms 32:1 f.; psa 4:17 (πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε) is excerpted from Genesis 17:5; Genesis 4:18 (οὕτως ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου) from Genesis 15:5; Genesis 7:7 (οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις) from the Decalogue (Exodus 20:17); Romans 8:36 = Psalms 44:22; Psalms 9:7 (ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα) comes from Genesis 21:12; Genesis 9:12 (ὁ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι) from Genesis 25:23; Genesis 9:15 = Exodus 33:19; Exodus 9:29 = Isaiah 1:9; Isaiah 10:13 = Jl 2:32; 10:16 = Isaiah 53:1 a; Isaiah 10:18 = Ps 19:4; 12:20 = Proverbs 25:21 f. (omitting the last words); Romans 13:9 (ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν) comes from Leviticus 19:18; Leviticus 15:3 = Ps 69:9; 15:9 = Ps 18:49; 15:10 (εὐφράνθητε, ἔθνη, μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ) from Deuteronomy 32:43; Deuteronomy 15:11 (acc. to certain MSS_) = Psalms 117:1. The quotation from Habakkuk 2:4 introduced in Romans 1:17 is identical with the LXX_ save for the omission of μού (ct._ Heb. áÌÆàÁîé֣ðÈúåÉ, ‘through his faith’); Romans 2:6 likewise differs from Proverbs 24:12 only in the pronouns. The long citation, Romans 3:10-18, opens with a phrase from Ecclesiastes 7:20; the rest is almost an exact reproduction of the LXX_ text of Psalms 14:1-3, though this is really a conflate of various OT passages (Psalms 5:9; Psalms 140:3; Psalms 10:7, Isaiah 59:7 f., and Psalms 36:1) interwoven with the original. Romans 3:20 is clearly introduced as a quotation (from Psalms 143:2), but differs considerably from both the Hebrew and the LXX_; Romans 9:9 is a free, abbreviated reference to Genesis 18:10; Genesis 18:14; Genesis 9:13 a citation from Malachi 1:2 f., with a trifling transposition of the opening words. Romans 9:17 (from Exodus 9:16) shows a distinct approach to the original Hebrew. On the other hand, Romans 9:25 f., Romans 9:27 f., Romans 9:32 f. are free reproductions of the thought of Hosea 1:10; Hosea 2:23, Isaiah 10:22 f., Isaiah 28:16 (blended with Romans 8:14) respectively, in the last instance so free as to yield a sense quite contrary to the original. The final clause of Romans 9:33 is repeated in Romans 10:11 with the addition of πᾶς; while Romans 10:5 is a direct application of Leviticus 18:5 to ‘the righteousness that is of the law.’ The long passage on the nearness and saving power of the Word of God (Romans 10:6-9) is another free compound of Deuteronomy 9:4; Deuteronomy 30:11-14, etc. Romans 10:15 (from Isaiah 52:7) gives further evidence of direct use of the Hebrew; Romans 10:19 differs from the LXX_ text of Deuteronomy 32:21 only in the substitution of the personal pronoun ‘you’ for ‘them,’ and Romans 10:20 f. from Isaiah 65:1 f. in a slight transposition of words. Romans 11:3 f. (from 1 Kings 19:10 ff.), has been altered and transposed under Hebrew influence. Romans 11:8 is a free blend of ideas from Isaiah 29:10, Deuteronomy 29:4, etc. (with traces of Hebrew influence); Romans 11:26 f. is also a complex from Isaiah 59:20 f. (in the main) and Psalms 14:7, Isaiah 27:9, etc. Romans 11:9 f., again, is a close, though abbreviated, citation of Psalms 69:22 f., and Romans 11:34 f. is but slightly altered from Isaiah 40:13 f. (in the fuller reading of àA, etc.). Romans 12:19 (from Deuteronomy 32:35) shows the same approach to the original Hebrew as the Targum of Onkelos. Romans 14:11 is a somewhat free rendering of Isaiah 45:23, with introductory phrase from Isaiah 49:18, or a similar context; Romans 15:12 is an abbreviated reference to Isaiah 11:10 (cf. Isaiah 42:4); and Romans 15:21 is the exact equivalent of Isaiah 52:15, except for the transposition of ὄψονται.

(b) A number of these citations are repeated in other Epistles of St. Paul. Thus the fundamental assertion of justification by faith (Romans 1:17 = Habakkuk 2:4) reappears in Galatians 3:11, and the texts Romans 3:20 (from Psalms 143:2) in Galatians 2:16; Romans 4:3 (=Genesis 15:6) in Galatians 3:6; Romans 10:5 (from Leviticus 18:5) in Galatians 3:12; Romans 13:9 b (from Leviticus 19:18) in Galatians 5:14; and Romans 11:34 (from Isaiah 40:13) in 1 Corinthians 2:16 (a different close being here adopted).

Fresh quotations from the OT are found as follows: Galatians 4:27 = Isa 54:1; 4:30 = Genesis 21:10 (with the significant change of τῆς ἐλευθέρας instead of Ἰσαάκ); Galatians 3:8, a blend of the promises in Genesis 12:3; Genesis 18:18, etc.; Galatians 3:10, from Deuteronomy 27:26, with phrase in woven from Deuteronomy 9:11; Deuteronomy 3:13, an abbreviated, and slightly altered, citation from Deuteronomy 21:23; Deuteronomy 3:16, a direct application to Christ of the promise to Abraham and his ‘seed’ (Genesis 12:7; Genesis 13:15; Genesis 17:8, etc.).

The closing phrase of 1 Corinthians 6:16 comes directly from Genesis 2:24 (the whole verse being reproduced in Ephesians 5:31); 1 Corinthians 9:9 (in reading of àAD, etc.) = Deuteronomy 25:4 (repeated in 1 Timothy 5:18 with transposition of words); 1 Corinthians 10:7 = Exodus 32:6; Exodus 10:26, a phrase from Ps 24:1; 15:32 = Isaiah 22:13; Isaiah 1:19 f. comes from Isaiah 29:14 with alteration of verb; 1 Corinthians 1:31 (repeated in 2 Corinthians 10:17) is a free reproduction of Jeremiah 9:23; Jeremiah 2:9 a very free rendering, perhaps through independent Jewish channels (cf. below), of the ideas in Isaiah 64:4, with suggestions from Isaiah 65:16 or Jeremiah 3:16; Jeremiah 3:19 is from Job 5:13, under direct influence of the Hebrew; 1 Corinthians 3:20, from Psalms 94:11, with ‘of the wise’ substituted for ‘of men’ (to make the application more apt); 1 Corinthians 10:20 (δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν) from Deuteronomy 32:17, with a change in the order of words; 1 Corinthians 14:21, a very free citation, supported by λέγει Κύριος, of Isaiah 28:11 f.; 1 Corinthians 14:34, 1 Corinthians 15:3-4; 1 Corinthians 15:15; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 15:47, free allusions to Genesis 3:18, Isaiah 53:12, Hosea 6:2, and Genesis 2:7, all adduced as ‘written’ or Scriptural authorities; 1 Corinthians 15:27 (cf. Ephesians 1:22, Philippians 3:21), from Psalms 8:6 with direct reference to the Hebrew; 1 Corinthians 15:54 f., a free conflate of Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14.

2 Corinthians 4:13 (ἐπίστευσα διὸ ἐλάλησα) exactly = Psalms 116:10; Psalms 6:2 = Isaiah 49:8; Isaiah 9:9 = Psalms 112:9; Psalms 13:1 (cf. 1 Timothy 5:19) = Deuteronomy 19:15 (Luc.); 2 Corinthians 4:6, a free blend of Genesis 1:2 f., Isaiah 9:1 f., etc.; 2 Corinthians 6:18, a loose conflate of Ezekiel 37:27 and Leviticus 26:11 f.; 2 Corinthians 6:17, abbreviated from Isaiah 52:11 and Ezekiel 20:34; 2 Corinthians 6:18, a compound of Jeremiah 31:9, Isaiah 43:6; Isaiah 43 :2 Samuel 7:8, etc.; 2 Corinthians 8:15, from Exodus 16:18, with direct approach to the Hebrew; 2 Corinthians 9:7, a free reproduction of Proverbs 22:9 (cf. Exodus 25:2).

Ephesians 4:8 is from Psalms 68:18, with the ἔλαβες boldly altered to ἔδωκεν, to make it more applicable to the Giver of good; Ephesians 4:25, from Zechariah 8:16 with the àÆú more accurately rendered by μετὰ τοῦ; Ephesians 4:26, an excerpt from Ps 4:4; 5:14, a very free reproduction of Isaiah 60:1; Isaiah 60:19 f. (cf. below); Ephesians 5:16, from Proverbs 23:31 (with οἴνῳ for ἐν οἴνοις); Ephesians 6:2 f., from the Decalogue (Exodus 20:12), the motive being somewhat altered, and a new clause added to emphasize the element of ‘promise.’

Philippians 1:19 is a literal extract from Job 13:16; and the two ‘seals’ of 2 Timothy 2:19 are free citations of Numbers 16:5 and Isaiah 26:13 respectively. Direct quotations from the OT are not found in Colossians , 1 and 2 Thessalonians, Titus, or Philemon.

Among the more striking reminiscences may be noted Romans 1:23 (cf. Deuteronomy 4:15-18, Psalms 106:20); Romans 2:5 (cf. Psalms 110:5, Zephaniah 1:18); Romans 3:4 a (cf. Psalms 116:11); Romans 3:29 f. (cf. Malachi 2:10); Romans 4:11 (cf. Genesis 17:11); Romans 4:13; Romans 4:16 (cf. Genesis 12:7; Genesis 13:15, etc.); Romans 4:19 (cf. Genesis 17:17, etc.); Romans 4:25, Romans 5:19; Romans 5:21 (cf. Isaiah 53:12); Romans 5:5 (cf. Psalms 22:4 f., Psalms 25:20); Romans 7:8; Romans 7:11 (cf. Genesis 2:16 f., Romans 3:1 ff.); Romans 8:27 (cf. Heb. text of Psalms 7:9); Romans 8:33 f. (cf. Isaiah 50:3 f.); Romans 9:20 f. (cf. Isaiah 29:16; Isaiah 45:9); Romans 11:1 f. (cf. Psalms 94:14); Romans 11:16 ff. (cf. Jeremiah 11:16); Romans 11:25, Romans 12:16 (cf. Isaiah 5:21, Proverbs 3:7); Romans 12:14 (cf. Psalms 109:28); Romans 12:17 (cf. Proverbs 3:4).

1 Corinthians 1:2 (cf. Joel 2:32); 1 Corinthians 1:20 (cf. Isaiah 19:11 f., Isaiah 33:18); 1 Corinthians 3:11 (cf. Isaiah 28:16); 1 Corinthians 5:7 (cf. Exodus 12:15); 1 Corinthians 6:2 (cf. Daniel 7:18 ff.); 1 Corinthians 6:17 (cf. 2 Kings 18:6); 1 Corinthians 8:6 (cf. Deuteronomy 4:35; Deuteronomy 4:39, Malachi 2:10, etc.); 1 Corinthians 9:7 (cf. Deuteronomy 20:6, Proverbs 27:18, etc.); 1 Corinthians 9:13 (cf. Deuteronomy 18:1 ff., Numbers 18:8 ff.); 1 Corinthians 10:1 ff., from Exodus 13:2 ff. (combined with tradition); 1 Corinthians 10:22 (cf. Deuteronomy 32:21); 1 Corinthians 11:7 (cf. Genesis 1:26 f.); 1 Corinthians 14:25 (cf. Isaiah 45:14, Zechariah 8:23; 1 Corinthians 15:31 (cf. Psalms 44:22).

2 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 3:7 (cf. Exodus 31:18, Jeremiah 31:33, Ezekiel 11:19, etc.); 2 Corinthians 3:7 ff. (cf. Exodus 34:29 ff.); 2 Corinthians 4:11 (cf. Psalms 44:22); 2 Corinthians 5:10 (cf. Ecclesiastes 12:14); 2 Corinthians 5:17 (cf. Isaiah 43:18 f.); 2 Corinthians 6:9 (cf. Psalms 118:17 f.); 2 Corinthians 6:11 (cf. Psalms 119:32); 2 Corinthians 7:6 (cf. Isaiah 49:13); 2 Corinthians 8:21 (cf. Proverbs 3:4); 2 Corinthians 9:10 (cf. Isaiah 55:10, Hosea 10:12); 2 Corinthians 11:3 (cf. Genesis 3:4).

Galatians 1:4 (cf. Isaiah 53:12); Galatians 1:15 f. (cf. Jeremiah 1:5); Galatians 3:17 (cf. Exodus 12:40 f.); Galatians 3:20 (cf. Malachi 2:10); Galatians 6:16 (cf. Psalms 125:5, etc.).

Ephesians 1:20 (cf. Psalms 110:1); Ephesians 1:22 (cf. Psalms 8:6); Ephesians 2:13 ff. (cf. Isaiah 57:19); Ephesians 2:19 (cf. Leviticus 25:23); Ephesians 2:20 (cf. Isaiah 28:16); Ephesians 4:6 (cf. Deuteronomy 6:4); Ephesians 4:9 f. (cf. Deuteronomy 30:12 ff.); Ephesians 5:2 (cf. Genesis 8:21, Exodus 29:18, etc.); Ephesians 5:22 ff. (cf. Genesis 3:16); Ephesians 6:14 (cf. Isaiah 11:5; Isaiah 59:17, etc.); Ephesians 6:15 (cf. Isaiah 52:7); Ephesians 6:17 (cf. Isaiah 49:2; Isaiah 51:16; Isaiah 59:17).

Philippians 2:10 f. (cf. Isaiah 45:23); Philippians 2:15 (cf. Deuteronomy 32:5); Philippians 2:16 (cf. Isaiah 49:4; Isaiah 65:23); Philippians 3:3 (cf. Jeremiah 9:23 f.); Philippians 3:21 (cf. Psalms 8:6); Philippians 4:3 (cf. Psalms 69:28, etc.).

Colossians 2:3 (cf. Isaiah 45:3); Colossians 2:22 (cf. Isaiah 29:13); Colossians 3:1 (cf. Psalms 110:1); Colossians 3:10 (cf. Genesis 1:27); Colossians 3:18 (cf. Genesis 3:16).

1 Thessalonians 2:4 (cf. Jeremiah 11:20); 1 Thessalonians 2:16 (cf. Genesis 15:18, Deuteronomy 8:20); 1 Thessalonians 4:8 (cf. Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26 f., Psalms 51:11); 1 Thessalonians 5:8 (cf. Isaiah 59:17); 1 Thessalonians 5:22 (Job 1:1; Job 1:8).

2 Thessalonians 1:8 (cf. Exodus 3:2, Isaiah 66:15); 2 Thessalonians 1:9 f. (cf. Isaiah 2:10 ff., Psalms 89:8); 2 Thessalonians 1:12 (cf. Isaiah 24:15; Isaiah 49:3; Isaiah 66:5); 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (cf. Daniel 11:36, etc.); 2 Thessalonians 2:8 (cf. Isaiah 11:4); 2 Thessalonians 2:13 (cf. Deuteronomy 33:12).

1 Timothy 1:17 (cf. Deuteronomy 4:35, etc.); 1 Timothy 2:6 (cf. Isaiah 53:4 ff.); 1 Timothy 2:11 f. (cf. Genesis 3:16); 1 Timothy 2:14 (cf. Genesis 3:6 ff.); 1 Timothy 6:1 (cf. Isaiah 52:5); 1 Timothy 6:15 (cf. Deuteronomy 10:17, Psalms 136:3, Daniel 2:47, etc.).

2 Timothy 4:14 (cf. Psalms 28:4; Psalms 62:12); 2 Timothy 4:17 (cf. Daniel 6:20).

Titus 2:5 (cf. Genesis 3:16); Titus 2:14 (cf. Exodus 19:5, Isaiah 53:4 ff., Ezekiel 37:23, etc.).

The Pauline Epistles also show the influence of apocryphal books. A clear instance is found in Romans 12:15, compared with Sirach 7:34 (μὴ ὑστέρει ἀπὸ κλαιόντων, καὶ μετὰ πενθούντων πένθησον); cf., further, Romans 2:11 (Sirach 32:15 f.) Romans 16:27 (Sirach 1:8), 1 Corinthians 6:12 (Sirach 37:28), 1 Corinthians 6:13 (Sirach 36:23) 1 Corinthians 7:13; 1Co_7:36 (Sirach 42:9 f.), Colossians 2:3 (Sirach 1:25), 1 Thessalonians 4:6 (Sirach 5:3). Between Romans and the Wisdom of Solomon there are several close parallels betraying St. Paul’s intimate acquaintance with the latter; cf., especially, Romans 1:18 ff. (Wisdom of Solomon 13:1 ff; Wisdom of Solomon 14:8 f.), Romans 8:18 (Wisdom of Solomon 3:4 ff.), Romans 9:19 f. (Wisdom of Solomon 12:12), Romans 9:21 (Wisdom of Solomon 15:7), Romans 9:31 (Wisdom of Solomon 2:11), Romans 11:32 (Wisdom of Solomon 11:23), Romans 13:10 (Wisdom of Solomon 6:18). Of the other Epistles, cf. 1 Corinthians 11:7 (Wisdom of Solomon 2:23) 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 15:47 (Wisdom of Solomon 15:11), 2 Corinthians 5:1 ff. (Wisdom of Solomon 9:15), Ephesians 1:16, Colossians 1:12 (Wisdom of Solomon 5:5), Ephesians 2:12 (Wisdom of Solomon 3:18), Ephesians 6:11 ff. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:17 ff.), 1 Thessalonians 1:10 (Wisdom of Solomon 16:8). To a common use of Wisdom are no doubt to be traced the frequent resemblances between the Epistles and Philo. A considerable list of parallels with the Book of Enoch has been drawn up by Charles, the most obvious being Romans 8:38, Ephesians 1:21, Colossians 1:16 (En. lxi. 10), Romans 9:5, 2 Corinthians 11:31 (En. lxxvii. 1), Philippians 2:10 (En. xlviii. 5), Colossians 2:3 (En. xlvi. 3), 2 Thessalonians 1:7 (En. lxi. 10), 1 Timothy 1:15 (En. xciv. 1). The very free citation, 1 Corinthians 2:9, is referred by Origen and other Church Fathers to the Apocalypse of Elijah, and is actually found in the Latin version (ii. 34); this may well have been the direct source, its ultimate dependence on the OT explaining the formula κάθως γέγραπται (cf. 1 Clem. xxxiv. 8, where the text recurs in almost the same form, though


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Hastings, James. Entry for 'Quotations'. Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/hdn/q/quotations.html. 1906-1918.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, October 15th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
ADVERTISEMENT
Search for…
Enter query in the box:
 or 
Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M 
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z 

 
Prev Entry
Quirinius
Next Entry
Quotations (2)
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology