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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Even, Even as, Even so

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1: καί
(Strong's #2532 — Conjunction — kai — kahee )

a conjunction, is usually a mere connective, meaning "and;" it frequently, however, has an ascensive or climactic use, signifying "even," the thing that is added being out of the ordinary, and producing a climax. The determination of this meaning depends on the context. Examples are Matthew 5:46,47 ; Mark 1:27 ; Luke 6:33 (RV); 10:17; John 12:42 ; Galatians 2:13,17 , where "also" should be "even;" Ephesians 5:12 . Examples where the RV corrects the AV "and" or "also," by substituting "even," are Luke 7:49 ; Acts 17:28 ; Hebrews 11:11 ; in 1 John 4:3 the RV rightly omits "even."

When followed by "if" or "though," kai often signifies "even," e.g., Matthew 26:35 ; John 8:14 . So sometimes when preceded by "if," e.g., 1 Corinthians 7:11 , where "but and if" should be "but even if."

The epexegetic or explanatory use of kai followed by a noun in apposition, and meaning "namely," or "even" is comparatively rare. Winer's cautionary word needs heeding, that "this meaning has been introduced into too many passages" (Gram. of the NT, p. 546.). Some think it has this sense in John 3:5 , "water, even the Spirit," and Galatians 6:16 , "even the Israel of God."

2: δέ
(Strong's #1161 — Conjunction — de — deh )

usually signifying "but," is sometimes used for emphasis, signifying "even," e.g., Romans 3:22 ; 9:30 , "even the righteousness;" Philippians 2:8 (RV, "yea"). This is to be distinguished from No. 1.

3: ἔτι
(Strong's #2089 — Adverb — eti — et'-ee )

an adverb, "as yet, still," is rendered "even" in Luke 1:15 .

4: ὡς
(Strong's #5613 — Adverb — hos — hoce )

"as," in comparative sentences, is sometimes translated "even as," Matthew 15:28 ; Mark 4:36 ; Ephesians 5:33 ; 1 Peter 3:6 (AV only); Jude 1:7 .

5: αὗται
(Strong's #3778 — pronoun — houtos — hoo'-tos, hoo'-toy, how'-tay, how'-tahee )

or houto, "so, thus," is frequently rendered "even so," e.g., Matthew 7:17 ; 12:45 ; 18:14 ; 23:28 ; "so" in 1 Corinthians 11:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:4 , RV.

6: καθώς
(Strong's #2531 — Adverb — kathos — kath-oce' )

"according as" (kata, "according to," and No. 4), is frequently translated "even as," e.g., Mark 11:6 ; Luke 1:2 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:11 .

7: ὥσπερ
(Strong's #5618 — Adverb — hosper — hoce'-per )

No. 4, strengthened by per, is translated "even as" in Matthew 20:28 .

8: καθάπερ
(Strong's #2509 — adverb/conjunction — kathaper — kath-ap'-er )

"just as, even as," is rendered "even as" in Romans 4:6 ; 9:13 ; 10:15 ; 12:4 (RV); 2 Corinthians 3:18 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:6,12 ; 4:5 ; Hebrews 4:2 ; "according as," Romans 11:8 ; elsewhere simply "as."

9: ναί
(Strong's #3483 — particle — nai — nahee )

a particle of strong affirmation, "yea, verily, even so," is rendered "even so" in the AV, "yea" in the RV, in Matthew 11:26 ; Luke 10:21 ; Revelation 16:7 ; both AV and RV have it in Revelation 1:7 ; the most authentic mss. omit it in 22:20. See SURELY , TRUTH , VERILY , YEA , YES.

10: ὅμως
(Strong's #3676 — Adverb — homos — hom'-oce )

"yet, nevertheless," is translated "even" in 1 Corinthians 14:7 (AV, "and even"); elsewhere John 12:42 , "nevertheless;" Galatians 3:15 , "yet" (i.e., "nevertheless," an example of hyperbaton, by which a word is placed out of its true position).

Notes: (1) In Romans 1:26 , there is no word representing "even" in the original. The AV seems to have put it for the particle te, which simply annexes the statement to the preceding and does not require translation. (2) In 1 Thessalonians 2:18 the AV renders the particle men by "even;" if translated, it signifies "indeed." (3) In 1 Corinthians 12:2 , hos (see No. 4, above), followed by the particle an, means "howsoever" (RV, for AV, "even as"). (4) In Matthew 23:37 , "even as" translates the phrase hon tropon, lit., "(in) what manner." (5) In 1 Timothy 3:11 , hosautos, a strengthened form of No. 4, "likewise, in like manner," is rendered "even so," AV (RV, "in like manner"). (6) K'ago, for kai ego, means either "even I" or "even so I" or "I also." In John 10:15 , the RV has "and I" for the AV, "even so ... I;" in John 17:18 ; 20:21 , AV and RV, "even so I;" in the following, kago is preceded by hos, or kathos, "even as I," 1 Corinthians 7:8 ; 10:33 ; "even as I also," 1 Corinthians 11:1 ; "as I also," Revelation 2:27 . (7) In Luke 12:7 the RV renders kai by "very" (for AV, "even the very"). (8) In John 6:57 kakeinos (for kai ekeinos, "also he"), is translated "he also," RV, for AV, "even he." (9) In Ephesians 1:10 there is no word in the original for "even." The RV expresses the stress on the pronoun by "in Him, I say."


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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Even, Even as, Even so'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/e/even-even-as-even-so.html. 1940.

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