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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

True, Truly, Truth

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A — 1: ἀληθής
(Strong's #227 — Adjective — alethes — al-ay-thace' )

primarily, "unconcealed, manifest" (a, negative, letho, "to forget," = lanthano, "to escape notice"), hence, actual, "true to fact," is used (a) of persons, "truthful," Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 12:14 ; John 3:33 ; 7:18 ; 8:26 ; Romans 3:4 ; 2 Corinthians 6:8 ; (b) of things, "true," conforming to reality, John 4:18 , "truly," lit., "true;" John 5:31,32 ; in the best texts, John 6:55 (twice), "indeed;" John 8:13,14 (ver. 16 in some texts: see No. 2),17; 10:41; 19:35; 21:24; Acts 12:9 ; Philippians 4:8 ; Titus 1:13 ; 1 Peter 5:12 ; 2 Peter 2:22 ; 1 John 2:8,27 ; 3 John 1:12 .

A — 2: ἀληθινός
(Strong's #228 — Adjective — alethinos — al-ay-thee-nos' )

akin to No. 1, denotes "true" in the sense of "real, ideal, genuine;" it is used (a) of God, John 7:28 (cp. No. 1 in 7:18, above); 17:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ; Revelation 6:10 ; these declare that God fulfills the meaning of His Name; He is "very God," in distinction from all other gods, false gods (alethes, see John 3:33 in No. 1, signifies that He is veracious, "true" to His utterances, He cannot lie); (b) of Christ, John 1:9 ; 6:32 ; 15:1 ; 1 John 2:8 ; 5:20 (thrice); Revelation 3:7,14 ; 19:11 ; His judgment, John 8:16 (in the best texts, instead of No. 1); (c) God's words, John 4:37 ; Revelation 19:9 ; 21:5 ; 22:6 ; the last three are equivalent to No. 1; (d) His ways, Revelation 15:3 ; (e) His judgments, Revelation 16:7 ; 19:2 ; (f) His riches, Luke 16:11 ; (g) His worshipers, John 4:23 ; (h) their hearts, Hebrews 10:22 ; (i) the witness of the Apostle John, John 19:35 ; (j) the spiritual, antitypical tabernacle, Hebrews 8:2 ; 9:24 , not that the wilderness tabernacle was false, but that it was a weak and earthly copy of the heavenly.

Note: "Alethinos is related to alethes as form to contents or substances; alethes denotes the reality of the thing, alethinos defines the relation of the conception to the thing to which it corresponds = genuine" (Cremer).

A — 3: γνήσιος
(Strong's #1103 — Adjective — gnesios — gnay'-see-os )

primarily "lawfully begotten" (akin to ginomai, "to become"), hence, "true, genuine, sincere," is used in the Apostle's exhortation to his "true yoke-fellow" in Philippians 4:3 . See OWN , SINCERITY.

Note: In the AV of 2 Corinthians 1:18 ; 1 Timothy 3:1 , pistos, "faithful" (RV), is translated "true."

B — 1: ἀληθεύω
(Strong's #226 — Verb — aletheuo — al-ayth-yoo'-o )

signifies "to deal faithfully or truly with anyone" (cp. Genesis 42:16 , Sept., "whether ye deal truly or no"), Ephesians 4:15 , "speaking the truth;" Galatians 3:16 , "I tell (you) the truth," where probably the Apostle is referring to the contents of his epistle.

C — 1: ἀλήθεια
(Strong's #225 — Noun Feminine — aletheia — al-ay'-thi-a )

"truth," is used (a) objectively, signifying "the reality lying at the basis of an appearance; the manifested, veritable essence of a matter" (Cremer), e.g., Romans 9:1 ; 2 Corinthians 11:10 ; especially of Christian doctrine, e.g., Galatians 2:5 , where "the truth of the Gospel" denotes the "true" teaching of the Gospel, in contrast to perversions of it; Romans 1:25 , where "the truth of God" may be "the truth concerning God" or "God whose existence is a verity;" but in Romans 15:8 "the truth of God" is indicative of His faithfulness in the fulfillment of His promises as exhibited in Christ; the word has an absolute force in John 14:6 ; 17:17 ; 18:37,38 ; in Ephesians 4:21 , where the RV, "even as truth is in Jesus," gives the correct rendering, the meaning is not merely ethical "truth," but "truth" in all its fullness and scope, as embodied in Him; He was the perfect expression of the truth; this is virtually equivalent to His statement in John 14:6 ; (b) subjectively, "truthfulness," "truth," not merely verbal, but sincerity and integrity of character, John 8:44 ; 3 John 1:3 , RV; (c) in phrases, e.g., "in truth" (epi, "on the basis of"), Mark 12:14 ; Luke 20:21 ; with en, "in," 2 Corinthians 6:7 ; Colossians 1:6 ; 1 Timothy 2:7 , RV (AV, "in ... verity"); 1 John 3:18 ; 2 John 1:1,3,4 .

Note: In Matthew 15:27 , AV, nai, "yea" (RV), is translated "truth."

D — 1: ἀληθῶς
(Strong's #230 — Adverb — alethos — al-ay-thoce' )

"truly, surely," is rendered "of a truth" in Matthew 14:33 ; 26:73 ; Mark 14:70 , R.V, (AV, "surely"); Luke 9:27 ; 12:44 ; 21:3 ; John 6:14 ; 7:40 ; 17:8 , RV, "of a truth" (AV, "surely"); Acts 12:11 , RV (AV, "of a surety"); "in truth," 1 Thessalonians 2:13 ; "truly," Matthew 27:54 ; Mark 15:39 . See INDEED , No. 3.

D — 2: γνησίως
(Strong's #1104 — Adverb — gnesios — gnay-see'-oce )

"sincerely, honorably" (akin to A, No. 3), is rendered "truly" (marg., "genuinely") in Phil, 2:20 (AV, "naturally").

Notes: (1) The particles ara, men, and de are sometimes rendered "truly" in the AV, but are differently rendered in the RV. (2) In 1 Corinthians 14:25 , AV, ontos (RV, "indeed") is rendered "of a truth." See CERTAIN , C, No. 1, INDEED, No. 4. (3) In John 20:30 , AV, the particle oun, therefore (RV), is rendered "truly."


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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'True, Truly, Truth'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/t/true-truly-truth.html. 1940.

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Wednesday, November 20th, 2019
the Week of Proper 28 / Ordinary 33
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