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Bible Encyclopedias

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Make; Maker

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māk , māk´er ( עשׂה , ‛āsāh , נתן , nāthan , שׂום , sūm ; ποιέω , poiéō , τίθημι , tı́thēmi , καθίστημι , kathı́stēmi ):

1. As Used in the Old Testament:

"Make" is a frequently used word, meaning "to create," "construct," "cause," "constitute," etc., and represents different Hebrew words. It is very often in the King James Version (1) the translation of ‛āsāh , "to do," "make," etc., usually' in the sense of constructing, effecting. In Genesis 1:7 , Genesis 1:16 , Genesis 1:25 , Genesis 1:31 , etc., it is used of the creation; of the creation of man in the likeness of God (Genesis 5:1 ); of the ark (Genesis 6:14 ); of a feast (Genesis 21:8 ); of the tabernacle and all the things belonging to it (Exodus 25:8 , etc.); of idols (Isaiah 2:8 ; Jeremiah 2:28 , etc.); (2) of nāthan (literally, "to give"), chiefly in the sense of constituting, appointing, causing; of a covenant (Genesis 9:12 ; Genesis 17:2 ); of Abraham as the father of many nations, etc. (Genesis 17:5 , Genesis 17:6 ); of Ishmael as a great nation (Genesis 17:20 ); of Moses as a god to Pharaoh (Exodus 7:1 ); of judges and officers (Deuteronomy 16:18 ); of laws (Leviticus 26:46 , etc.); it has the meaning of "to cause" (Exodus 18:16 ; Exodus 23:27 ; Numbers 5:21 ; 1 Samuel 9:22 ; Psalm 106:46 ); (3) sūm , "to set," "put," "lay," has a similar significance: of Abraham's seed (Genesis 13:16 ; Genesis 32:12 ); Joseph lord of all Egypt (Genesis 45:9 ; compare Exodus 2:14 ; Deuteronomy 1:13 ; Deuteronomy 10:22 ); (4) shı̄th , with same meaning, occurs (2 Samuel 22:12 , "He made darkness pavilions round about him"; 1 Kings 11:34 ; Psalm 18:11 ; Psalm 21:6 ). Other words are ‛ăbhadh (Aramaic); "to make," "do," (Jeremiah 10:11 ; Daniel 3:1 ); ‛āmadh , "to set up" (2 Chronicles 11:22 ; 2 Chronicles 25:5 ; Nehemiah 10:32 ); ‛ācabh , "to labor," etc. (Job 10:8 , the King James Version margin "took pains about me"); bānāh , "to build up" (Genesis 2:22 ; 1 Kings 22:39 ); bārā' , "to prepare," "create" (Numbers 16:30 ; Psalm 89:47 ); yācagh , "to set up" (Job 17:6 ; Jeremiah 51:34 ); yācar , "to form," "constitute" (Psalm 74:17 ; Psalm 104:26 ); pā‛al , "to work," "make" (Exodus 15:17 ; Psalm 7:15 ); words with special meanings are: pāḳadh , "to give a charge" (1 Kings 11:28 ; 2 Kings 25:23 ); kārath , "to cut," or "prepare", "to make a convent or league" (Genesis 15:18 ; Exodus 24:8 ; Joshua 9:16 ); ḳāshar , "to bind together," "to make a conspiracy" (2 Kings 12:20 ; 2 Kings 14:19 ); pārac , "to break forth," "to make a breach" (2 Samuel 6:8 ; 1 Chronicles 13:11 ; 1 Chronicles 15:13 ); lābhēn , "to make brick" (Genesis 11:3 ); lābhabh (denominative of lebhı̄bhāh ), "to make cakes" (2 Samuel 13:6 , 2 Samuel 13:8 ); mālakh , "to make a king" (1 Samuel 8:22 ; 1 Samuel 12:1 ); among obsolete and archaic words and phrases may be mentioned, "What makest thou in this place?" (Judges 18:3 ), the Revised Version (British and American) "doest"; "made" for "pretend" (2 Samuel 13:5 , 2 Samuel 13:6 ), the Revised Version (British and American) "feign," "feigned"; "made as if" (Joshua 8:15 ; Joshua 9:4 ), so the Revised Version (British and American); "make for him" (Ezekiel 17:17 ), the Revised Version (British and American) "help him"; "make mention" (Jeremiah 4:16 ); "make mention of" (Genesis 40:14 ; Psalm 87:4 ); "make account" (Psalm 144:3 ); "make an end" (Judges 3:18 ; Judges 15:17 ); "make an end" is also "to bring to nought," "to destroy" (Isaiah 38:12 ); "make riddance" (Leviticus 23:22 ), the Revised Version (British and American) "wholly reap." In 1 Macc 16:22, we have "to make him away" as translation of apolésai autón , the Revised Version (British and American) "destroy."

Maker is the translation of ‛āsāh ( Job 4:17 ; Psalm 95:6 ), of yācar (Isaiah 45:9 , Isaiah 45:11 ; Habakkuk 2:18 twice), of ḥārāsh , "graver" (Isaiah 45:16 ), of pā‛al (Job 36:3 ; Isaiah 1:31 , or pō‛al ).

2. As Used in the New Testament:

In the New Testament the chief word for "make" is poieō , "to do," "make," etc. ( Matthew 3:3 ; John 2:16 ; John 5:15 ); of kathistēmi , "to set down," "to appoint" (Matthew 24:45 , Matthew 24:47 ; Romans 5:19 ); of tithēmi , "to set," "lay" (Matthew 22:44 ; Mark 12:36 ); of diatı́thēmi , "to set or lay throughout" (Acts 3:25 ; Hebrews 8:10 ; Hebrews 10:16 ); of dı́dōmi , "to give" (2 Thessalonians 3:9 ; Revelation 3:9 ); of eimı́ , "to be" (Mark 12:42 ); of epiteléō "to complete" (Hebrews 8:5 ; Galatians 3:3 , "make perfect," the Revised Version margin "make an end"); of kataskeuázō , "to prepare thoroughly" (Hebrews 9:2 , the Revised Version (British and American) "prepared"); of ktı́zō , "to make" "found" (Ephesians 2:15 ); of plērophoréō , "to bear "on fully" (2 Timothy 4:5 , "make full proof of thy ministry," the Revised Version (British and American) "fulfil"); doxázō "to make honorable or glorious" (2 Corinthians 3:10 ); of peritrépō (eis manı́an )], "to turn round to raving" (Acts 26:24 , "doth make thee mad," the Revised Version (British and American) "is turning thee mad," margin "Greek: turneth thee to madness"); of emporeúomai , "to traffic," "cheat" (2 Peter 2:3 "make merchandise of you"); of eirēnopoiéō , "to make peace" (Colossians 1:20 ); of sumbállō , "to throw together" (Luke 14:31 ; "to make war," the Revised Version (British and American) "goeth to encounter"); "made" is frequently the translation of gı́nomai , "to become," "begin to be" (Matthew 4:3 ; Matthew 9:16 ; Mark 2:21 , Mark 2:27 ; John 1:3 (thrice), 10, "The world was made through him," John 1:14 , "The word was made flesh," the Revised Version (British and American) "became flesh"; John 2:9 , water "made wine," the Revised Version (British and American) "now become wine," margin "that it had become"; John 8:33 , "made free"' Romans 1:3 , Revised Vesion "born" Galatians 3:13 , the Revised Version (British and American) "having become a curse for us"; Galatians 4:4 , the Revised Version (British and American) "born of a woman," etc.; Philippians 2:7 , "was made in the likeness of men," the Revised Version margin "Greek: becoming in"; 1 Peter 2:7 , etc.).

In addition to the changes in the Revised Version (British and American) already noted may be mentioned, for "maketh collops" (Job 15:27 ) "gathered fat"; for "set us in the way of his steps" (Psalm 85:13 ), "make his footsteps a way to walk in"; for "did more grievously afflict her" (Isaiah 9:1 ), "hath made it glorious"; for "shall make him of quick understanding" (Isaiah 11:3 ), 'his delight shall be in"; for "make sluices and ponds for fish" (Isaiah 19:10 ), "they that work for hire," margin "or make dams "; for "ye that make mention of the Lord" (Isaiah 62:6 ), "ye that are Yahweh's remembrancers"; for "he shall confirm the covenant" (Daniel 9:27 ), "he shall make a firm covenant"; for "maketh my way perfect" (2 Samuel 22:33 ), "guideth the perfect in his way" (see margin); for "the desire of a man is his kindness" (Proverbs 19:22 ), "that which maketh a man to be desired"; for, "maketh intercession" (Romans 11:2 ), "pleadeth"; for hath made us accepted" (Ephesians 1:6 ), "freely bestowed on us," margin "wherewith he endued us";. for "made himself of no reputation" (Philippians 2:7 ), "emptied himself"; for "spoil you" (Colossians 2:8 ), "maketh spoil of you"; for "is the enemy of God" (James 4:4 ), "maketh himself"; for "worketh abomination or (maketh) a lie" (Revelation 21:27 ), "maketh (m" doeth") an abomination and a lie"; we have "become" for "made" (Matthew 4:3 ; Luke 3:5 ; Luke 4:3 ), "became" (Romans 10:20 ; 1 Corinthians 15:45 , bis ); "becoming in" for "being made" (Philippians 2:7 margin).


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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Make; Maker'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/isb/m/make-maker.html. 1915.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, September 21st, 2019
the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
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