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tū´bal ( תּוּבל , tūbhal , תּבל , tubhal ; Septuagint Θόβελ , Thóbel , Codex Alexandrinus in Ezekiel 39:1 , Θόβερ , Thóber ): As the text stands, Tubal and Meshech are always coupled, except in Isaiah 66:19 (Massoretic Text) and Psalm 120:5 . In the former passage Tubal is yoked with Javan; in the latter Meshech occurs in Psalm 120:5 and Kedar in Psalm 120:6 . In Genesis 10:2 parallel, they are sons of Japheth. In Ezekiel ( Ezekiel 27:13 ) the two are mentioned as exporters of slaves and copper, as a warlike people of antiquity (Ezekiel 32:26 ), in the army of Gog (Ezekiel 38:2 ff; Ezekiel 39:1 ). Josephus identifies them with the Iberians and Cappadocians respectively; but they are most probably the Τιβαρηνοί , Tibarēnoı́ , and Μόσχοι , Móschoi , first mentioned in Herodotus iii. 94 as belonging to the 19th satrapy of Darius, and again (vii. 78) as furnishing a contingent to the host of Xerxes. Equally obvious is their identity with the Tabali and Muski of the Assyrian monuments, where the latter is mentioned as early as Tiglath-pileser I, and the former under Shalmaneser II; both are described as powerful military states. They appear together in Sargon's inscriptions; and during this entire period their territory must have extended much farther South and West than in Greek-Roman times. They are held (Winckler and Jeremias) to have been remnants of the old Hittite population which were gradually driven (probably by the Cimmerian invasion) to the mountainous district Southeast of the Black Sea.

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Tubal'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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