corner graphic   Hi,    
Facebook image
ver. 2.0.18.01.20
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Encyclopedias

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Wild-ox

Resource Toolbox

( ראם , re'ēm ): The word "unicorn" occurs in the King James Version in Numbers 23:22 ; Numbers 24:8 ; Deuteronomy 33:17 ; Job 39:9 , Job 39:10 ; Psalm 22:21 ; Psalm 29:6 ; Psalm 92:10 ; Isaiah 34:7 (the King James Version margin "rhinoceros"). the Revised Version (British and American) has everywhere "wild-ox" (margin "ox-antelope," Numbers 23:22 ). The Septuagint has μονόκερως , monókerōs , "one-horned," except in Isaiah 34:7 , where we find οἱ ἁδροι , hoi hadroı́ , "the large ones," "the bulky ones." In this passage also the Septuagint has οἱ κριοί , hoi krioı́ , "the rams," instead of English Versions of the Bible "bullocks." Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) has rhinoceros in Numbers 23:22 ; Numbers 24:8 ; Deuteronomy 33:17 ; Job 39:9 , Job 39:10 ; and unicornis in Psalm 22:21 (21:22); Psalm 29:6 ( Psalm 28:6 ); Psalm 92:10 ( Psalm 91:11 ); Isaiah 34:7 .

As stated in the articles on ANTELOPE and CATTLE , re'ēm and te'ō ( Deuteronomy 14:5 ; Isaiah 51:20 ) may both be the Arabian oryx (Oryx beatrix ), of which the common vernacular name means "wild-ox." It may be presumed that "ox-antelope" of Numbers 23:22 the Revised Version margin is meant to indicate this animal, which is swift and fierce, and has a pair of very long, sharp and nearly straight horns. The writer feels, however, that more consideration should be given to the view of Tristram ( Natural History of the Bible ) that re'ēm is the urus or aurochs , the primitive Bos taurus , which seems to be depicted in Assyrian monuments and referred to as rêmu (BDB ). The etymology of re'ēm is uncertain, but the word may be from a root signifying "to rise" or "to be high." At any rate, there is no etymological warrant for the assumption that it was a one-horned creature. The Arabic raim , is used of a light-colored gazelle. The great strength and fierceness implied in most of the references suit the wild-ox better than the oryx. On the other hand, Edom (Isaiah 34:7 ) was adjacent to the present home of the oryx, while there is no reason to suppose that the wild-ox came nearer than Northern Assyria. There is possibly a reference to the long horns of the oryx in "But my horn hast thou exalted like the horn of the wild-ox" (Psalm 92:10 ). For te'ō , The Septuagint has ὄρυχ , órux , in Deuteronomy 14:5 (but σευτλίον ἡμίεφθον , seutlı́on hēmı́ephthon , "half-boiled beet" (!) in Isaiah 51:20 ). Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) has oryx in both passages. While we admit that both re'ēm and te'ō may be the oryx, it is perhaps best to follow the Revised Version margin, rendering re'ēm "wild-ox." The rendering of "antelope" (Revised Version) for te'ō is defensible, but "oryx" would be better, because the oryx is the only antelope that could possibly be meant, it and the gazelle (cebhı̄ ), already mentioned in Deuteronomy 14:5 , being the only antelopes known to occur in Palestine and Arabia. In Isaiah 34:7 it seems to be implied that the re'ēm might be used in sacrifice.

Figurative : The wild-ox is used as a symbol of the strength of Israel: "He hath as it were the strength of the wild-ox". ( Numbers 23:22 ; Numbers 24:8 ). In the blessing of the children of Israel by Moses it is said of Joseph:

"And his horns are the horns of the wild-ox:

With them he shall push the peoples all of them, even the ends of the earth" (Deuteronomy 33:17 ).

The Psalmist (Psalm 29:5 , Psalm 29:6 ) in describing the power of Yahweh says:

"Yea, Yahweh breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.

He maketh them also to skip like a calf;

Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild-ox."

Again, in praise for Yahweh's goodness (Psalm 92:10 ): "But my horn hast thou exalted like the horn of the wildox."

In Job 39:9-12 the subduing and training of the wild-ox are cited among the things beyond man's power and understanding. See ANTELOPE ; CATTLE .


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and were generously provided by the folks at WordSearch Software.

Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Wild-ox'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/isb/w/wild-ox.html. 1915.


Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, January 20th, 2018
the Second Week after Epiphany
Search for…
Enter query in the box:
 or 
Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M 
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z 

 
Prev Entry
Wild Beast
Next Entry
Wilderness
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology