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Bible Encyclopedias

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature


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Pan´nag occurs only once in Scripture, but so much uncertainty exists respecting the meaning of the word, that in many translations, as, for instance, in the Authorized English Version, the original is retained. Thus in the account of the commerce of Tyre, it is stated in , 'Judah and the land of Israel, they were thy merchants; they traded in thy markets wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and oil, and honey, and balm' (tzeri, translated also rosin in the margin of the English Bible). From the context it is evident that wheat, oil, and honey, were conveyed by Judah and Israel, that is, the products of their country as an agricultural people, as articles of traffic to the merchants and manufacturers of Tyre, who, it is certain, must, from their insular position, have obtained their chief articles of diet from the neighboring land of Syria. It is probable, therefore, that pannag and tzeri, whatever they may have been, were the produce of Palestine, or at least of Syria. Some have considered pannag to indicate balsam, others cassia, and some again sweetmeats. The Syrian version renders it by a word which signifies millet. The variety and conflicting character of these interpretations are a sufficient proof that pannag must still be considered undetermined.





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Kitto, John, ed. Entry for 'Pannag'. "Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature".

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Thursday, November 26th, 2020
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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