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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature


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is in the A.V. usually the rendering of one or the other of the two Hebrew words detailed below; but besides these it occasionally stands as the representative of the following: יוֹבֵל , Exodus 19:13, the jubilee (q.v.) trumpet; תָּקוֹעִ takea, Ezekiel 7:14, prop. the blowing of the trumpet. (See TRUMPETS, FEAST OF).


1. חֲצוֹצְרָה , chatsotserah (Sept. σάλπιγξ, Vtmlg. tuba), prob. an onomatopoetic word, like the Lat. taratantara, from the quivering reverberation of its sound, was the straight trumpet (Josephus, Ant. 3, 12, 6; Jerome, ad Hosea 5, 8; Buxtorf, Lex. s.v.), and is the term used in Numbers 10:2; Numbers 10:8-10; Numbers 31:6; 2 Kings 11:14 ("trumpeter," in first occurrence); 12:13; 1 Chronicles 13:8; 1 Chronicles 15:24; 1 Chronicles 15:28; 1 Chronicles 16:6; 1 Chronicles 16:42; 2 Chronicles 5:12-13; 2 Chronicles 13:12; 2 Chronicles 13:14; 2 Chronicles 15:14; 2 Chronicles 20:28; 2 Chronicles 23:13; 2 Chronicles 29:26-28; Ezra 3, 10; Nehemiah 12:35; Nehemiah 12:41; Psalms 98:6; Hosea 5:8. There were originally two such, which the priests used on festive occasions (Numbers 10:2 sq.; comp. 31:6; 2 Kings 12:13). Later (in David's time) the instruments were of a richer character (1 Chronicles 15:24; 1 Chronicles 16:42; 2 Chronicles 5:12 sq.; 2 Chronicles 29:20; for a conjecture as to their form, see Sommner, Bibl Abhandl. 1, 39 sq.). Similar ones were employed in the year of jubilee (2 Kings 11:14), and for popular proclamations (Hosea 5:8); comp. Rosellini, Monum. II, 3, 32; Wilkinson, 2, 262. The form of this trumpet is indicated in the sculpture on the Arch of Titus at Rome (see Reland, Spolia Templi Hieros. p. 184 sq.) and on coins (Frohlich, Anal. Syr. proleg. p. 80, pl. 18, fig. 17 and 18), and it appears to have emitted a clear, shrill tone (comp. Foskel, 1, 86), adapted to an alarum (תָּקִע ). (See MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS).

2. שׁוֹפָר, shophar (Sept. usually σάλπιγξ, Vulg. buccina), was the curved trumpet or horn (Lat. lituus) for signals; and is the word elsewhere rendered "trumpet" in the A. V. ("cornet," 1 Chronicles 15:28; 2 Chronicles 15:14; Psalms 98:6; Hosea 5:8). It was sounded in the year of jubilee (Leviticus 25:9; the Talmudic New-year's day, Mishna, Rosh hash-Shanah, 3, 3), in battle (Job 29:25 [28]; Jeremiah 4:5; Jeremiah 6:1), and by sentinels (Ezekiel 33:6); and had a loud (Isaiah 58:1) tone like a thunder-peal (Exodus 19:16; Exodus 19:19). Some writers fail to distinguish this from the preceding kind of trumpet (Credner, Joel, p.164 sq.; Hoffmann, in Warnekros, Hebr. Alterth. p. 598 sq.); both instruments are named in the same connection in 1 Chronicles 15:28; 2 Chronicles 15:14; Psalms 98:6; Hosea 5, 8 (see Zoega, De Buccwiaa [Lips. 1712]). Jerome (on the passage last cited) clearly distinguishes the shophar: "Buccina pastoralis est et cornu recurvo efficitur, unde et proprie Hebraice shophar, Graece κερατίνη appellatur." According to the Mishna (ut sup.), however, the shophar was sometimes straight and at others crooked (see Doughtei Analect. 1, 99 sq.). Curved horns (as of oxen or sheep) are still common in the synagogue under the same name (שׁוֹפָרוֹת ); according to the Gemara (Shabb. 36:1), שׁוֹפָר originally denoted only the curved horn and not until the downfall of the Jewish polity was it confounded with the חֲצוֹצְרָה . The second Temple contained thirteen boxes (in the court of the women), shaped like (straight) trumpets (shopharoth), for the deposition of alms (Mishna, Shekal. 6:5). The horn with which the year of jubilee was ushered in is technically called (as above observed) יוֹבֵל, קֶרֶן הִיּוֹבֵלֹ or שׁיֹפִר היּוֹבֵל (Joshua 6:4 sq.); and the force of breath required to sound it is denoted by the term מָשִׁךְ, to draw out (see Winer's Simonis Lex. p. 394,584; comp. Graser, Kathol. Messe, 1, 107 sq.). (See CORNET).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Trumpet'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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