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Bible Encyclopedias

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia


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—Biblical Data:

A hard and durable but light wood at first yellowish, but gradually turning very dark, like ebony. Of this the Ark and its altars, with their staves, and the bars of the Tabernacle were made (Exodus 35:7 Deuteronomy 10:3 ). The Acacia-tree is called in Hebrew shiṭ ṭ ah (for shintah ), plural shiṭ ṭ im , Arabic, sanṭ an Egyptian loan-word. It is the Spina Æ gyptiaca of the ancients ( Mimosa Nilotica , Linn.). It is a large, spreading, thorny tree with many branches, found in Africa and Arabia. The name of this tree (shiṭ ṭ im) is found in various locality names mentioned in the Bible: Shittim (Numbers 35:1 ) Abel-Shiṭ ṭ im (ibid. 33:49) Beth-Shittah ( Judges 7:22 ). It appears to have been highly prized (Isaiah 41:19 ).

Bibliography : Jablonsky, Opuscula , ed. te Water , 1:260 Rosenmü ller, Handbuch der Bibl. Alterthumskunde , iv. part i. p. 272 Robinson, Bibl. Researches in Palestine , 2:249 Imanuel Lö w, Aramä ische Pflanzennamen , p. 59 p. 197 (for the meaning of shiṭ ṭ ah = sanṭ = Acacia, Acacia Nilotica ), p. 388 (for the meaning of toranita = cypress ).J. P. P.

—In Rabbinical Literature:
R. H. 23a , referring to Isaiah 41:19 , counts the shiṭ ṭ ah (explained as toranita = "cypress-tree" according to Lö w,"Pflanzennamen," p. 388 according to others = "pine") among the ten kinds of cedar-trees so also B. B. 80 b but Yer. Ket. 7:31 d Tan., Terumah, § 9 Ex. R. xxxv., mention twenty-four cedar-trees, seven of which are derived from Isaiah 41:19 (compare the fourteen trees in Enoch, iii. and Book of Jubilees, 21:12, where, instead of shaḳ ed (almond), shiṭ ṭ ah (Acacia) was most likely the original reading see Dillman, "Das Buch Henoch," p. 91, where reference is made to Isaiah 41:19 , 55:13 , 60:13 compare also "Geoponica," 11:1, where fourteen evergreen trees are enumerated). See Tan. l.c.: "Of all these the shiṭ ṭ im-wood alone was selected in order to atone for the sin that Israel was to commit in Shittim [ Numbers 25:1 et seq. ]. Indeed, while Phinehas assuaged the divine wrath [Numbers 25:7 ], the Holy One— blessed be He!— said: ' I shall in the future heal the plague of Shittim: A fountain shall come forth from the house of the Lord, and shall water the valley of Shittim' " see Joel 4:18 , Heb. (Tan. l.c. ).

"Acacia trees without any knots or fissures were cut by Jacob the patriarch in Migdal Ẓ ebo' aya, Palestine, and were taken down by him to Egypt to be preserved by his children for future use in the wilderness wherefore we read (Exodus 35:24 ): ' Every man with whom was found shiṭ ṭ im [R. V. acacia] wood.' R. Hananiah was asked regarding the Acacia-trees that were still growing there whether it was right that people should refrain from using them for common purposes in order that the wood might be consecrated solely for the Ark, to which he replied: ' By all means remain true to the custom of your fathers,' " which was not to use Acacia for such purposes (Gen. R. xciv. Cant. R. 1:12 Yer. Pes. 4:30 d see also Testament of the Patriarchs, Simeon, § 8).K.

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Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Acacia'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901.

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