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Bible Lexicons

Bullinger's Figures of Speech Used in the Bible

Epicrisis; or Judgment

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Addition of Conclusion by way of Deduction

Ep´-i-cri´-sis, from the Greek ἐπὶ (epi), upon, and κρίσις (krisis), a judgment sentence. Hence Epicrisis is used as an adjudication.

It is a short sentence added at the end by way of an additional conclusion, other and more than has been already stated: not necessary to the sense of it, but as showing that there is something more and something deeper than what lies on the surface.

It notes a cause or a consequence arising from the place, occasion, end, or effect, of things, actions, or speeches.

A few examples will explain better the use of this figure.

John 1:24.-The sentence, "And they which were sent were of the Pharisees," is added to remind us of the fact that the Pharisees made a great point of Baptism; which compelled them therefore to acknowledge the baptism of John to be a matter of great importance.

John 1:28.-"These things were done in Bethabara beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing."

This is to explain that the people had come a long way.

John 3:24.-"For John was not yet cast into prison."

This is why John had not ceased to baptize.

John 5:39-40.-Here we have in two verses a double Epicrisis, the first approving, and the second condemning, but both adding a solemn truth, independent of the statement that goes before.

A "Search the Scriptures;

B For in them ye think ye have eternal life.

A And they are they which testify of me:

B And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life."

The structure agrees also with this. It is thus exhibited in four members.

In the first and third members (A and A), we have the Scriptures; while in the second and fourth (B and B, the Epicrisis), we have the action and the conduct of those who possessed them.

Note that the verb "search" is imperative, and not indicative, as we never find the verb in the indicative commencing a sentence without the pronoun or some other word; while the imperative is frequently so used. See John 14:11; John 15:20. The Jews read, but they did not "search."

The verb "think" also means to hold as an opinion, believe (see Acts 15:28. 1 Corinthians 4:9; 1 Corinthians 7:40, etc.).

John 6:4.-"And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh." This is added to explain how it was that so many were going out of the country up to Jerusalem before the Passover in order to purify themselves.

John 7:5.-"For neither did his brethren believe in him."

This solemn addition explains a great deal: especially Mark 3:1-35; from which it is clear, by comparing verses 21 and 31, that His mother and brethren set out to lay hands on Him, bringing on themselves the rebuke of verses 32-35. See under Correspondence (page 384).

John 8:20.-"These words spake Jesus in the treasury, as he taught in the Temple: and no man laid hands on him; for his hour was not yet come."

This Epicrisis is used to show how easily (humanly speaking) He might have been taken where there were so many people assembled.

John 8:27.-"They understood not that he spake unto them of the Father."

By means of this additional explanatory conclusion, we are made astonished at the unbelief and blindness of the Jews. See 12:37.

John 9:14.-"And it was the sabbath day when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes."

The Epicrisis here explains much concerning the events recorded in this chapter.

John 9:22.-"These words spake his parents, because they feared the Jews:" etc.

This is added to explain the action of the parents of the man born blind.

John 10:22-23.-"And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter, and Jesus walked in the temple, in Solomons Porch."

This is added to show that Christ happened to be at that feast, and that he had not gone up to it as to the other feasts. After He had accomplished His journey to the feast of Tabernacles (7:8), He made a delay there, so as to remain over the feast of Dedication. (For this feast, see 1 Maccabees 4:59). See page 455.

John 11:13.-"Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep."

This Epicrisis is used to explain the meaning of what the Lord Jesus had said.

John 11:30.-"Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him."

This explanation is needed to enable us to understand the course of events.

John 12:33.-"This he said, signifying what death he should die."

John 12:37.-"But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him."

Acts 19:20.-"So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed."

1 John 3:1.-After the words "sons of God," the best Texts with R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] add καὶ ἐσμεν (kai esmen), and we are; or, and such we are. This is a short parenthetical reflective comment. Compare 1:2.

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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, E. W., D.D. Entry for 'Epicrisis; or Judgment'. Bullinger's Figures of Speech Used in the Bible.

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Sunday, October 13th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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